Marcia P. Miceli

Marcia P. Miceli
Georgetown University | GU · McDonough School of Business

D.B.A., Indiana University

About

64
Publications
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9,022
Citations

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Most of us are likely at some point to observe wrongdoing in our organizations, and some of us will blow the whistle to someone with the authority to put a stop to the wrongdoing. Or we may be managers, inspectors, or auditors who serve as the official 'complaint recipient' when one of our colleagues wants to report wrongdoing in the organization....
Article
We compare results of several large‐scale survey studies of whistle‐blowing by public sector employees, from samples in Australia, Norway, and the United States. Specifically, we review incidence rates of wrongdoing, whistle‐blowing and retaliation, as perceived by thousands of respondents employed by many government agencies in these countries. De...
Chapter
Research on whistle-blowing has been hampered by a lack of a sound theoretical base. In this paper, we draw upon existing theories of motivation and power relationships to propose a model of the whistle-blowing process. This model focuses on decisions made by organization members who believe they have evidence of organizational wrongdoing, and the...
Article
Full-text available
News reports of organizational wrongdoing often pique interest in the question of how to encourage employees to report it. We used data from a survey of more than 3000 organizational members in the US to test a model of whistle-blowing. As predicted, observation of wrongdoing generally was associated with lower perceived organizational support and...
Article
DefinitionsPropositions Based on a Model of Whistle-BlowingPropositions Based on a Model of Normalisation of WrongdoingAdditional Proposed Interrelationships between Normalisation Processes and Some Variables Found Previously to Predict Whistle-blowingConclusions AcknowledgementsReferences
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In 2010, Business Ethics Quarterly published ten articles that considered the potential contributions to business ethics research arising from recent scholarship in a variety of philosophical and social scientific fields (strategic management, political philosophy, restorative justice, international business, legal studies, ethical theory, ethical...
Article
Traditional managerial attempts to maintain control over subordinates may cause the subordinates to behave in ways to enhance or regain their control. In the present research, organization members were hypothesized to have characteristic ways of enhancing their control that, in turn, were expected to influence the likelihood that they would engage...
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Full-text available
When successful and ethical managers are alerted to possible organizational wrongdoing, they take corrective action before the problems become crises. However, recent research [e.g., Rynes etal. (2007, Academy of Management Journal 50(5), 987–1008)] indicates that many organizations fail to implement evidence-based practices (i.e., practices that a...
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Full-text available
Much of the unethical behavior occurring in modern organizations that comes to light is first identified and reported by insiders: organization members who are willing to blow the whistle. Data from surveys of federal employees conducted since 1980 by the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) have been analyzed by researchers. These studies ha...
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Full-text available
Whistle-blowing represents an influence attempt in which organization member(s) try to persuade other members to cease wrongdoing; sometimes they fail; sometimes they succeed; sometimes they suffer reprisal. We investigated whether women experienced more retaliation than men, testing propositions derived from theories about gender differences and p...
Article
This is a research-based book on whistle-blowing in organizations. The three noted authors describe studies on this important topic and the implications of the research and theory for organizational behavior, managerial practice, and public policy. in the past few years there have been critical developments, including corporate scandals, which have...
Article
The potential explanations of why some observers report organizational wrongdoing, whereas others do not, are considered in this study. Nearly 8,600 randomly selected employees of 15 organizations completed questionnaires concerning whistle-blowing. Archival data and aggregate measures of organizational climate were also used. Discriminant analysis...
Article
This experiment examined determinants of “whistle blowing,” the disclosure of organizational wrongdoing. Previous research, limited largely to analyses of cross-sectional, self-reported data, has not established cause-effect relations, and dispositional variables generally have not been examined. In this study, 295 students witnessed apparent wrong...
Article
Research on whistle-blowing has focused on the questions of who blows the whistle, who experiences retaliation, and who is effective in stopping wrongdoing. In this article, we review research pertinent to the first of these questions. Since the last known review (Near & Miceli, 1996), there have been important theoretical and, to a lesser extent,...
Article
This article discusses a study undertaken to change the model of power relations, which is commonly used in research on whistle-blowing retaliation, by testing it with more fully developed measures than those used in earlier studies. The article also discusses the superior-subordinate relationship as a indicator of retaliation for whistle-blowing....
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed data from a survey of employees of a large military base in order to assess possible differences in the whistle-blowing process due to type of wrongdoing observed. Employees who observed perceived wrongdoing involving mismanagement, sexual harassment, or unspecified legal violations were significantly more likely to report it than were...
Article
Full-text available
Organization members face difficult choices when they encounter situations which they consider illegitimate, immoral, or unlawful, but lack corrective power. They can ‘blow the whistle’ to authorities, but often, their organizations do not change the objectionable practice. Circumstances under which whistle-blowers succeed in terminating perceived...
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Previous research has identified many situational factors that predict reactions to organizational wrongdoing (such as whistle-blowing to correct it), but relatively little research has focused on the role of individual difference factors. A recent model of whistle-blowing refined previous models and further developed theory about how individual di...
Article
Research on pay satisfaction has been criticized for inattention to determining whether its multiple dimensions have different consequences and for overreliance on cross-sectional designs. Structural equation analyses of data from two field studies showed that satisfaction with pay systems, but not pay levels, led to greater perceived organizationa...
Article
Increasingly, organizations are using variable pay plans to reward employees for the results that they achieve. Current discussion of variable pay focuses on variable pay plan design mechanics, with insufficient attention given to contextual variables that may affect variable pay plan design. We offer a preliminary framework for examining the conte...
Article
Research on pay satisfaction has been criticized for inattention to determining whether its multiple dimensions have different consequences and for overreliance on cross-sectional designs. Structural equation analyses of data from two field studies showed that satisfaction with pay systems, but not pay levels, led to greater perceived organizationa...
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Full-text available
Part I. The Quest for Responsibility: 1. Complex organisations and the quest for responsibility 2. Complex organisations as corporate actors 3. Two concepts of responsibility Part II. Passive Responsibility: 4. Accountability: the problem of many hands 5. Corporate accountability: the organisation as a person 6. Hierarchical accountability: one for...
Article
Data collected over three time periods, from 1980 to 1992, show massive changes in the ways in which federal employees reported wrongdoing and the effects on them for having done so. Laws intended to encourage whistle-blowing seem to have two desired effects: to reduce the incidence of perceived wrongdoing and to increase the likelihood of whistle-...
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Full-text available
Although much has been written about “workaholism,” rigorous research and theoretical development on the topic is in its infancy. We integrate literature from multiple disciplines and offer a definition of workaholic behavior. We identify three types of workaholic behavior patterns: compulsive-dependent, perfectionist, and achievement-oriented work...
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Full-text available
Although much has been written about "workaholism," rigorous research and theoretical development on the topic is in its infancy. We integrate literature from. multiple disciplines and offer a definition of workaholic behavior. We identify three types of workaholic behavior patterns: compulsive-dependent, perfectionist, and achievement-oriented wor...
Article
In this article, we attempt to separate myth from reality by reviewing research results pertinent to two questions: are whistle-blowers really crackpots and do most of them suffer retaliation following their actions? Because scholars interested in these questions have come from several different fields, and because integration is lacking among thei...
Article
Data collected from federal employees over a 13 year period showed substantial changes in the ways in which they reported wrongdoing, and the effects on them for having done so. A law intended to encourage whistle-blowing and discourage retaliation against whistle-blowers produced several unintended effects.
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Whistle-blowing is often assumed to benefit society at large-whether from the view of 60 Minutes or from that of the members of the nearly 40 state legislatures that have passed statutes to protect whistle-blowers. Yet empirical research on conditions that lead whistle-blowers to be effective in getting organizational wrongdoing stopped is woefully...
Article
Previous research on organizational members who report perceived wrongdoing has been conducted primarily in public sector organizations. The present study examined survey data from directors of internal auditing in a variety of North American organizations. Because retaliation occurred infrequently, data were analyzed with the case-control method,...
Article
The incidence of whistle blowing appears to have exploded in the last decade. Hardly a week goes by without seeing—on “60 Minutes” or a similar show—a televised report on the terrible experience of some hapless whistleblower who attempted to right a wrongdoing. While some firms have instituted innovative programs to encourage valid internal whistle...
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Full-text available
Previous research on whistle-blowers has tended to focus on the individual as the unit of analysis rather than on the organization or its subunits. Subunit level analysis of survey data from 15 subunits of the U.S. government was used to examine the relationship between members' values concerning wrongdoing and whistle-blowing and the organization'...
Article
Review of research concerning whistle-blowing suggests that legal sanctions have been singularly unsuccessful in encouraging whistle-blowing but that legalistic responses by organizations seem to have been somewhat more successful. Below, we review three sets of studies that illustrate this point. The first set includes federal employees, both befo...
Article
Using survey data from nearly 16,000 federal employees, we tested predictions concerning employee reactions to reward systems. Perceived reward system fairness was predicted by perceived reward instrumentality, political victimization, having a skillful supervisor, confidence in training adequacy, employee voice in performance appraisal standards,...
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Full-text available
In most previous research, pay satisfaction has been treated as satisfaction with pay level; little is known about how individuals respond to pay systems. LISREL analyses of survey responses of approximately 2,000 managers and executives in pay-for-performance plans supported the models devised in this study. Perceived pay relative to external othe...
Article
This study examines the effects of a number of perceptual variables on internal auditors' reporting of wrongdoing by employees and managers in their organizations. Survey responses of 653 Directors of Internal Auditing who observed what they perceived to be incidents of wrongdoing show that they were less likely to report these incidents when they...
Article
Questionnaire data from internal auditors were examined to determine those conditions that were associated with effective whistle-blowing, i.e. resulting in termination of organizational wrongdoing. Results indicated that characteristics of the individual and organization were not related to effectiveness; situational variables and power relationsh...
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Full-text available
The present study examined two general research questions pertaining to the passage of a law designed to encourage whistle-blowing: (a) Has the incidence of perceived wrongdoing, whistle-blowing, anonymous whistle-blowing, or retaliation changed following the passage of the law? (b) What variables predict the comprehensiveness of retaliation that i...
Article
Examined the trade-offs facing the potential whistle-blower who decides to remain unidentified, using survey data from 8,587 federal employees. Propositions derived from a model of bystander intervention (B. Latané and J. Darley, 1970) were investigated, with consideration of 3 decision points: whether the observer of organizational wrongdoing shou...
Article
Although popular interest in whistle-blowing continues to increase, little is known about why some employees who observe wrongdoing report it, while others do not. In the present study, we analyze archival survey data from individuals who observed wrongdoing in any of 22 organizations. Results are generally consistent with predictions based on a mo...
Article
Comparable worth is a controversial compensation strategy. In this paper, research issues that arise when employers perform point-based job evaluations, but deviate from them because of market factors, are discussed. Greater research attention to the actual operation of markets and to the consequences of conflicts in equity perceptions is encourage...
Article
Who blows the whistle — a loner or a well-liked team player? Which of them is more likely to lead a successful opposition to perceived organizational wrongdoing? The potential influence of co-worker pressures to conform on whistle-blowing activity or the likely effects of whistle-blowing on the group have not been addressed. This paper presents a p...
Article
Evidence suggests that the “reality shock” model does not explain the effects of realistic job previews (RJPs) on newcomer affect and behavior. In this article, an alternative model is presented. The new model proposes that previews providing unfavorable information provide social cues that-in the absence of conditions facilitative of applicant “ma...
Article
Proposes a model of the change process as it relates specifically to the issues of whistle-blowing. Integrated into the model is the consideration of the following issues: how whistle-blowers (WBs) decide to take action; the immediate consequences for individuals, groups, and organizations of such actions; and the long-term consequences for the org...
Article
Examined the power–dependency relationships between "whistle blowers" and their employers through the regression analyses of survey data from 636 employees of federal agencies who had reported evidence of official wrongdoing. Ss reported that they were more likely to suffer retaliation if they lacked the support of their supervisors and managers. R...
Article
Examined the power–dependency relationships between "whistle blowers" and their employers through the regression analyses of survey data from 636 employees of federal agencies who had reported evidence of official wrongdoing. Ss reported that they were more likely to suffer retaliation if they lacked the support of their supervisors and managers. R...
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Full-text available
Why do some observers of organizational wrongdoing choose to report it? This question has received little research attention despite its prominence in the popular media. This paper attempts to show that whistle-blowing is a form of prosocial behavior. Empirical studies in the social-psychological literature of prosocial behavior provide clues about...
Article
Previous studies have yielded mixed results concerning the effects of Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) on satisfaction, turnover, and other variables. Some variation may have resulted from inconsistencies in the control of the self-selection variable. A laboratory design separating the effects of self-selection from other preview effects was employed....
Article
Full-text available
Research on whistle-blowing has been hampered by a lack of a sound theoretical base. In this paper, we draw upon existing theories of motivation and power relationships to propose a model of the whistle-blowing process. This model focuses on decisions made by organization members who believe they have evidence of organizational wrongdoing, and the...
Article
RJP-related research is reviewed. A simple, universal RJP - turnover relationship seems unlikely to exist. Potentially mediating variables and some shortcomings in methodology are considered. The possibility that "real world" conditions limit the value of RJPs is also discussed. Suggestions for future research are offered.

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