Marcella J. Kelly

Marcella J. Kelly
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | VT · Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation

PhD - UC Davis

About

209
Publications
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5,841
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
January 2008 - December 2012
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
August 2001 - October 2016
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (209)
Chapter
The exclusion or local extirpation of native species by exotic or introduced carnivores is a burgeoning issue for conservation. Exotic carnivores may indeed present a serious threat as they have the potential to negatively influence and/or interact with native wildlife via exploitative or interference competition, intraguild predation and/or transm...
Article
Madagascar is a threatened global biodiversity hotspot and conservation priority, yet we lack broadscale surveys to assess biodiversity across space and time. To fill this gap, we collated camera trap surveys, capturing species occurrences within Madagascar into a single standardized database. This dataset includes nine distinct protected areas of...
Article
The Chilean Mediterranean ecosystem is threatened by anthropogenic pressures, such as habitat loss by intensive agriculture and urban sprawl. Abandoned dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis silvestris catus) pose conservation challenges for Chilean wildlife including the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo) and the güiña (Leopardus guigna). We u...
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Better conservation planning requires updated information about leopard distribution to prioritize and allocate limited resources available. The long-term persistence of leopards and sympatric tigers can be compromised by linear infrastructure development such as roads that fragment habitat. We used detection and non-detection data collected along...
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Coexistence between species with similar ecological niches implies species must segregate along one or more niche axes to survive. Space, time, and trophic resources are regarded as the principal axes upon which species segregate. We examined segregation along these niche axes to determine mechanisms underlying coexistence between the two main pred...
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Across taxa, sex-specific demands vary temporally in accordance with reproductive investments. In solitary carnivores, females must provision and protect young independently while meeting increased energetic demands. Males seek to monopolize access to females by maintaining large territories and defending them from other males. For many species, it...
Article
Human disturbance from tourism and other non-consumptive activities in protected areas may be stressful to wildlife. Animals may move away in space or time to avoid human interaction. For species of particular conservation concern, such as Baird's tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) and jaguars (Panthera onca), a better understanding of how they respond to di...
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During a workshop organized by the German Technical Cooperation (GIZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH) through their project, Support for Monitoring of Biodiversity and Climate Change in the Maya Forest in May 2018, researchers working in Belize and Guatemala realized that the same jaguar Panthera onca had been photo-ca...
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Studies of elusive carnivores often rely on passive sampling when investigating either spatial or temporal interactions. However, inference on behavioral mechanisms are usually lacking. We present an analysis that combines previously published spatial co-occurrence estimates and temporal kernel density estimates to explore spatiotemporal interspeci...
Article
We assessed the effects of cub age, litter size, and sex, on body mass (BM), absolute and relative growth rates (AGR, RGR), opening of ears and eyes, and deciduous teeth eruption from 129 cubs of American black bears (Ursus americanus) born at Virginia Tech’s Black Bear Research Center. Specific ages, related to maternal food consumption, and litte...
Article
Camera‐trapping is widespread in wildlife studies, especially for species with individually unique markings to which capture–recapture analytical techniques can be applied. The large volume of data such studies produce have encouraged researchers to increasingly look to computer‐assisted pattern‐recognition software to expedite individual identific...
Article
Carnivore diet‐selection studies based on scat analyses are frequently used to elucidate predator ecology, predict potential effects on prey populations, and inform management decisions. However, accuracy of results and the following inference are contingent on multiple sources of sampling error including missed detections and pseudoreplication in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bobcats are an apex predator and a species of socio-cultural importance in the central Appalachian Mountains. Despite their importance, knowledge of bobcat spatial ecology in the region is sparse. We examined space use and resource selection of bobcats in the Appalachian Mountains of western Virginia during 3 biological seasons: breeding (January-M...
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Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the foodborne illness listeriosis, which can result in severe symptoms and death in susceptible humans and other animals. L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment and isolates from food and food processing, and clinical sources have been extensively characterized. However, limited informatio...
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Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) serve a pivotal role as an apex predator in forest ecosystems. To increase our knowledge on factors impacting the viability and health of this endangered species, we studied the gut microbiota in 32 individual Bengal tigers from three geographically separated areas (Chitwan National Park (CNP), Bardia National...
Article
Faecal isotopic analysis may complement other non-invasive wildlife survey tools for monitoring landscape use by carnivores, such as motion-detecting cameras and non-invasive genetic sampling. We analysed carbon, nitrogen, and strontium isotopes in faecal matter produced by jaguars (Panthera onca) as well as bones from consumed prey at the Mountain...
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Our study objective was to compare the relative effectiveness and efficiency of quadrat and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) sampling designs for monitoring mussels. We collected data on a recently reintroduced population of federally endangered Epioblasma capsaeformis and two nonlisted, naturally occurring species—Actinonaias pectorosa and Medionidus...
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We used open population, spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models to estimate sex‐specific density, survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rate of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) at five sites in Belize with up to 12 yr of data per site. Open population SCR models enabled us to separate survival and recruitment from migration using an e...
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Worldwide, roads are a main driver of deforestation and degradation as they increase forest access along the forest edge. In many tropical areas, unofficial roads go unreported and unrecorded, resulting in inaccurate estimates of intact forested areas. This is the case in central Sumatra, which boasts populations of critically endangered Sumatran e...
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Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also a...
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Understanding spatial distribution, habitat use, and temporal activity patterns is important for species conservation planning. This information especially is crucial for mega herbivores like elephants as their ranging patterns encompass a myriad of habitats types. Churia habitat is geological fragile yet important for wildlife in Nepal and India....
Article
Full-text available
Recently introduced unmarked spatial capture–recapture (SCR), spatial mark–resight (SMR), and 2‐flank spatial partial identity models (SPIMs) extend the domain of SCR to populations or observation systems that do not always allow for individual identity to be determined with certainty. For example, some species do not have natural marks that can re...
Article
Riau Province in central Sumatra, with its peatland, lowland, and montane forest habitats, was once a stronghold for Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) populations. Today, Riau may have one of the highest deforestation rates in the world and wildlife populations are dwindling, with natural forest now comprising approximately only 18% of the...
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The composition of local mammalian carnivore communities has far-reaching effects on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. To better understand how carnivore communities are structured, we analysed camera trap data for 108 087 trap days across 12 countries spanning five continents. We estimate local probabilities of co-occurrence among 768 species pair...
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• Accurate analyses of the diets of predators are key to understand trophic interactions and defining conservation strategies. Diets are commonly assessed through analysis of non‐invasively collected scats, and the use of faecal DNA (fDNA) analysis can reduce the species misidentifications that could lead to biased ecological inference. • We review...
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The presence of exotic predators in ecosystems across the world is a leading driver of native species’ declines. Exotic predators largely influence native species through predation and harassment, which may cause native species to avoid them spatially. We used a camera trap dataset from seven sites in Madagascar's largest protected area complex to...
Article
Maintaining connectivity among remaining natural areas has become increasingly important to ameliorate the negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on wildlife populations. Early corridor networks were based on structural connectivity (i.e. habitat structure) and designed to connect protected areas. In recent decades, many methods have be...
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Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are listed as least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red list of Threatened Species, yet we lack knowledge on basic demographic parameters across much of the ocelot's geographic range, including population density. We used camera-trapping methodology and spatially explicit capture-rec...
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Tiger (Panthera tigris) populations are in danger across their entire range due to habitat loss, poaching and the demand for tiger parts. The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an endangered apex predator with a population size estimated to be less than 200 in Nepal. In spite of strict wildlife protection laws, illegal trade of tiger parts is...
Article
Full-text available
Tiger (Panthera tigris) populations are in danger across their entire range due to habitat loss, poaching and the demand for tiger parts. The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an endangered apex predator with a population size estimated to be less than 200 in Nepal. In spite of strict wildlife protection laws, illegal trade of tiger parts is...
Data
A1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis image of tiger species identification PCR targeting cytochrome-b region of the mitochondrial DNA. (DOCX)
Data
Delta K plot of STRUCTUREHARVESTER result demonstrating the optimal value (K = 3) under LOCPRIOR model. (DOCX)
Data
Values of mean log-likelihood and Delta K for each assumed K (K = 1 to 6) of both supervised (with LOCPRIOR) and unsupervised (without LOCPRIOR) models. (DOCX)
Data
Seized tiger skin sample (F-NP-0011) provided by Central Investigation Bureau(CIB) of Nepal. (DOCX)
Data
A 3% agarose gel electrophoresis image of sex identification PCR of tiger forensic samples targeting Amelogenin gene. Females have asingle band at 214 bp and males havetwo bands at 194 bp and 214 bp. (DOCX)
Data
Forensic samples provided by the Central Investigation Bureau(CIB) of Nepal. (DOCX)
Data
Summary of PCR amplification success, genotyping accuracy and genotyping error rates for 8 microsatellite loci for all processed tiger samples (n = 401) collected in three protected areas (Chitwan National Park, Bardia National Park, and Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve) to build baseline tiger genetic database. (DOCX)
Data
Phylogenetic tree (UPGMA) generated from Nei’s genetic distance using 8 nuclear DNA microsatellite loci for 120 reference tiger samples and 14 forensic samples. Samples are colored based on sampling locations. Green represents CNP, blue represents BNP, and red represents SWR samples. Forensic samples are in black. Clusters or clades are labeled acc...
Data
Genotype data on 8 microsatellite loci of the identified tiger forensic samples. (DOCX)
Data
Delta K plot of STRUCTUREHARVESTER result demonstrating the optimal value (K = 4) under the model without LOCPRIOR information. (DOCX)
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Proportions of scat sampled and tigers identified from those scats across each study sites from NTGP. (DOCX)
Data
Methodology and results of distance-based phylogenetic analysis. (DOC)
Preprint
Full-text available
The estimation of animal population density is a fundamental goal in wildlife ecology and management, commonly met using mark recapture or spatial mark recapture (SCR) study designs and statistical methods. Mark-recapture methods require the identification of individuals ; however, for many species and sampling methods, particularly noninvasive met...
Article
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While handling large kills, mesocarnivores are particularly vulnerable to kleptoparasitism and predation from larger predators. We used 35 years of observational data on cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hunts in Serengeti National Park to investigate whether cheetahs’ prey handling behavior varied in response to threats from lions (Panthera leo) and spot...
Article
Full-text available
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project,...
Data
Thermo-cycling conditions for tiger species and sex identification PCR. PCR: polymerase chain reaction; min: minute; sec: second; “x” indicates times; F: forward; R: reverse. (DOC)
Data
Summary results from analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) for tigers detected across three populations across the Terai Arc Landscape implemented in program ARLEQUIN 3.5 [53]. df = degree of freedom, P value (α = 0.05). (DOC)
Data
STRUCTURE bar plot at k = 2 (top) and k = 4 (bottom) visualizing individual-based genetic differentiation in tigers across the Terai landscape, Nepal. (TIF)
Data
Optimal number of genetic clusters (kmax) based on DIC (Deviance Information Criteria) for admixture models (CAR and BYM). Both models selected three genetic clusters across the landscape. Error bars represent standard deviations. (TIF)
Data
Primers information for tiger specific species and sex identification. bp: base pair; F: forward; R: reverse. (DOC)
Data
Summary of pair-wise migration rate (immigration and emigration) between three populations estimated in Program BayesAss+[70]. Net migration rates (immigration-emigration) were estimated as 0.02 for CNP, -0.08 for SWR, and +0.10 for BNP; “+” indicate migrant receiving from other population; “-” indicate contributing migrant to other population. (DO...
Data
Results from program Bottleneck showing the expected and actual numbers of loci with heterozygosity excess under the respective mutation models, and significance of heterozygosity excess. IAM: Infinite Allele Model; TPM: Two-Phase Mutation Model; SMM: Stepwise-Mutation Model. Assuming any mutation model, a Wilcoxon test results with P<0.05 signifie...
Data
Century-wide land-use change detected in the Terai Arc using Anthrome 2.0 datasets[36]. (TIF)
Data
Spatial autocorrelogram for Panthera tigris tigris in the Terai Arc Landscape, Nepal. The spatial correlogram for tigers (n = 78) shows the genetic correlation coefficient (r) as a function of geographic distance across defined spatial distance classes. Dashed red lines represent upper (U) and lower (L) bounds of the null hypothesis based on 9,999...
Data
Genetic variability of 17 candidate microsatellite loci screened and “*” indicates loci used in this study. NA, number of alleles; Ho, observed heterozygosity. (DOC)
Data
Magnitude of ∆k± SD (rate of change in the log probability of k; SD: standard deviation) and Ln P(k) ± SD (posterior probability of the data; SD: standard deviation) as a function of k(number of sub-populations) detected three and four genetic clusters in the sampled population following [60]. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Camera trapping surveys frequently capture individuals whose identity is only known from a single flank. The most widely used methods for incorporating these partial identity individuals into density analyses discard some of the partial identity capture histories, reducing precision, and while not previously recognized, introducing bias. Here, we p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently introduced unmarked spatial capture-recapture (SCR), spatial mark-resight (SMR), and 2-flank spatial partial identity models (SPIM) extend the domain of SCR to populations or observation systems that do not always allow for individual identity to be determined with certainty. For example, some species do not have natural marks that can rel...
Article
Full-text available
Population density estimates are necessary to inform management and conservation, yet are difficult to obtain for cryptic species such as carnivores, and often require intensive sampling. We implemented a single-survey, closed session, scat sampling protocol to estimate bobcat density using fecal DNA and spatial capture-recapture at two sites over...
Article
Although Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer, hereafter, Deer) are abundant on private lands throughout much of the western Virginia mountain region, populations are comparatively low on publicly owned lands in this area. Concerns voiced by sportsmen regarding declining numbers of Deer on public lands in western Virginia prompted research to...
Article
Herniation of viscera induced by medical intervention has been described in carnivores, yet occurrence of hernias causing wild carnivore mortality, including in bears, remains unknown. We describe an inguinal hernia, intestinal entrapment and rupture, and peritonitis causing mortality in a male American black bear (Ursus americanus). In the autumn...
Article
Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking collar technology has been widely employed in wildlife research and is valuable for understanding movement patterns of reintroduced populations, yet the associated fix-rate bias and positional errors are a serious concern. During 2013, we deployed GPS collars at fixed sites varying by habitat and terrain con...