Marcel van Gerven

Marcel van Gerven
Radboud University | RU · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour

PhD

About

180
Publications
32,486
Reads
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4,818
Citations
Citations since 2016
88 Research Items
3783 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - April 2017
Radboud University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (180)
Preprint
Full-text available
Advances in reinforcement learning (RL) often rely on massive compute resources and remain notoriously sample inefficient. In contrast, the human brain is able to efficiently learn effective control strategies using limited resources. This raises the question whether insights from neuroscience can be used to improve current RL methods. Predictive p...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstructing complex and dynamic visual perception from brain activity remains a major challenge in machine learning applications to neuroscience. Here, we present a new method for reconstructing naturalistic images and videos from very large single-participant functional magnetic resonance imaging data that leverages the recent success of image-...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental aspect of human experience is that it is segmented into discrete events. This may be underpinned by transitions between distinct neural states. Using an innovative data-driven state segmentation method, we investigate how neural states are organized across the cortical hierarchy and where in the cortex neural state boundaries and perc...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is doubtful that animals have perfect inverse models of their limbs (e.g., what muscle contraction must be applied to every joint to reach a particular location in space). However, in robot control, moving an arm's end-effector to a target position or along a target trajectory requires accurate forward and inverse models. Here we show that by le...
Article
Visual neuroprostheses are a promising approach to restore basic sight in visually impaired people. A major challenge is to condense the sensory information contained in a complex environment into meaningful stimulation patterns at low spatial and temporal resolution. Previous approaches considered task-agnostic feature extractors such as edge dete...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a fast-growing field focused on modeling and machine implementation of various cognitive functions with an increasing number of applications in computer vision, text processing, robotics, neurotechnology, bio-inspired computing and others. In this chapter, we describe how AI methods can be applied in the context of i...
Article
Full-text available
De novo mutations (DNMs) are an important cause of genetic disorders. The accurate identification of DNMs from sequencing data is therefore fundamental to rare disease research and diagnostics. Unfortunately, identifying reliable DNMs remains a major challenge due to sequence errors, uneven coverage, and mapping artifacts. Here, we developed a deep...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have increasingly studied the brain responses to narratives. At the same time, we are witnessing exciting developments in natural language processing where large-scale neural network models can be used to instantiate cognitive hypotheses in narrative processing. Yet, they learn from text alone and we lack ways of...
Preprint
Learning in biological and artificial neural networks is often framed as a problem in which targeted error signals guide parameter updating for more optimal network behaviour. Backpropagation of error (BP) is an example of such an approach and has proven to be a highly successful application of stochastic gradient descent to deep neural networks. H...
Article
Full-text available
Neural prosthetics may provide a promising solution to restore visual perception in some forms of blindness. The restored prosthetic percept is rudimentary compared to normal vision and can be optimized with a variety of image preprocessing techniques to maximize relevant information transfer. Extracting the most useful features from a visual scene...
Preprint
Visual neuroprostheses are a promising approach to restore basic sight in visually impaired people. A major challenge is to condense the sensory information contained in a complex environment into meaningful stimulation patterns at low spatial and temporal resolution. Previous approaches considered task-agnostic feature extractors such as edge dete...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroprosthetic implants are a promising technology for restoring some form of vision in people with visual impairments via electrical neurostimulation in the visual pathway. Although an artificially generated prosthetic percept is relatively limited compared with normal vision, it may provide some elementary perception of the surroundings, re-enab...
Article
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are an indispensable machine learning tool despite the difficulty of diagnosing what aspects of a model’s input drive its decisions. In countless real-world domains, from legislation and law enforcement to healthcare, such diagnosis is essential to ensure that DNN decisions are driven by aspects appropriate in the contex...
Preprint
Full-text available
De novo mutations (DNMs) are an important cause of genetic disorders. The accurate identification of DNMs from sequencing data is therefore fundamental to rare disease research and diagnostics. Unfortunately, identifying reliable DNMs remains a major challenge due to sequence errors, uneven coverage, and mapping artifacts. Here, we developed a deep...
Preprint
Unlike robots, humans learn, adapt and perceive their bodies by interacting with the world. Discovering how the brain represents the body and generates actions is of major importance for robotics and artificial intelligence. Here we discuss how neuroscience findings open up opportunities to improve current estimation and control algorithms in robot...
Article
Segmenting perceptual experience into meaningful events is a key cognitive process that helps us make sense of what is happening around us in the moment, as well as helping us recall past events. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms of the event segmentation process. Recent work has suggested that event segmentation...
Preprint
Backpropagation of error (BP) is a widely used and highly successful learning algorithm. However, its reliance on non-local information in propagating error gradients makes it seem an unlikely candidate for learning in the brain. In the last decade, a number of investigations have been carried out focused upon determining whether alternative more b...
Preprint
Full-text available
The automation of probabilistic reasoning is one of the primary aims of machine learning. Recently, the confluence of variational inference and deep learning has led to powerful and flexible automatic inference methods that can be trained by stochastic gradient descent. In particular, normalizing flows are highly parameterized deep models that can...
Preprint
Full-text available
A fundamental aspect of human experience is that it is segmented into discrete events. This may be underpinned by transitions between distinct neural states. Using an innovative data-driven state segmentation method, we investigate how neural states are organized across the cortical hierarchy and where in cortex neural state and perceived event bou...
Preprint
Reconstructing complex and dynamic visual perception from brain activity remains a major challenge in machine learning applications to neuroscience. Here we present a new method for reconstructing naturalistic images and videos from very large single-participant functional magnetic resonance data that leverages the recent success of image-to-image...
Article
Full-text available
After the presentation of a visual stimulus, neural processing cascades from low-level sensory areas to increasingly abstract representations in higher-level areas. It is often hypothesised that a reversal in neural processing underlies the generation of mental images as abstract representations are used to construct sensory representations in the...
Article
Full-text available
After the presentation of a visual stimulus, neural processing cascades from low-level sensory areas to increasingly abstract representations in higher-level areas. It is often hypothesised that a reversal in neural processing underlies the generation of mental images as abstract representations are used to construct sensory representations in the...
Article
Full-text available
After the presentation of a visual stimulus, neural processing cascades from low-level sensory areas to increasingly abstract representations in higher-level areas. It is often hypothesised that a reversal in neural processing underlies the generation of mental images as abstract representations are used to construct sensory representations in the...
Preprint
A bstract We introduce a new framework for hyperrealistic reconstruction of perceived naturalistic stimuli from brain recordings. To this end, we embrace the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) at the earliest step of our neural decoding pipeline by acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data as subjects perceived face images cre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Segmenting perceptual experience into meaningful events is a key cognitive process that helps us make sense of what is happening around us in the moment, as well as helping us recall past events. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms of the event segmentation process. Recent work has suggested that event segmentation...
Preprint
Deep neural network (DNN) is an indispensable machine learning tool for achieving human-level performance on many learning tasks. Yet, due to its black-box nature, it is inherently difficult to understand which aspects of the input data drive the decisions of the network. There are various real-world scenarios in which humans need to make actionabl...
Preprint
The aim of probabilistic programming is to automatize every aspect of probabilistic inference in arbitrary probabilistic models (programs) so that the user can focus her attention on modeling, without dealing with ad-hoc inference methods. Gradient based automatic differentiation stochastic variational inference offers an attractive option as the d...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces the Indian Chefs Process (ICP), a Bayesian nonparametric prior on the joint space of infinite directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and orders that generalizes Indian Buffet Processes. As our construction shows, the proposed distribution relies on a latent Beta Process controlling both the orders and outgoing connection probabilities...
Preprint
Full-text available
After the presentation of a visual stimulus, cortical visual processing cascades from low-level sensory features in primary visual areas to increasingly abstract representations in higher level areas. It is often hypothesized that the reverse process underpins the human ability to generate mental images. Under this hypothesis, visual information fe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Population receptive field (pRF) mapping is an important asset for cognitive neuroscience. The pRF model is used for estimating retinotopy, defining functional localizers and to study a vast amount of cognitive tasks. In a classic pRF, the cartesian location and receptive field size are modeled as a 2D Gaussian kernel in visual space and are estima...
Preprint
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are the state of the art in generative modeling. Unfortunately, most GAN methods are susceptible to mode collapse, meaning that they tend to capture only a subset of the modes of the true distribution. A possible way of dealing with this problem is to use an ensemble of GANs, where (ideally) each network model...
Preprint
Full-text available
How the brain makes correct inferences about its environment based on noisy and ambiguous observations, is one of the fundamental questions in Neuroscience. Prior knowledge about the probability with which certain events occur in the environment plays an important role in this process. Humans are able to incorporate such prior knowledge in an effic...
Preprint
Cortical information flow (CIF) is a new framework for system identification in neuroscience. CIF models represent neural systems as coupled brain regions that each embody neural computations. These brain regions are coupled to observed data specific to that region. Neural computations are estimated via stochastic gradient descent. We show using a...
Preprint
Particle-based variational inference offers a flexible way of approximating complex posterior distributions with a set of particles. In this paper we introduce a new particle-based variational inference method based on the theory of semi-discrete optimal transport. Instead of minimizing the KL divergence between the posterior and the variational ap...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in machine learning have enabled neural networks to solve tasks humans typically perform. These networks offer an exciting new tool for neuroscience that can give us insight in the emergence of neural and behavioral mechanisms. A big gap remains though between the very deep neural networks that have risen in popularity and outperfor...
Data
Trial length distributions for correct and incorrect trials. To compare trial lengths on correct versus incorrect trials we made distributions for both conditions. Since there are few incorrect trials, the data was averaged over bins of 6 time steps to obtain clearer figures. The bin count was normalized by the total number of trials per noise leve...
Data
Psychophysical kernel. To see how strongly the input at every time step contributed to the final decision between class 1 and class 2 we computed the psychophysical kernel (PK). This is defined as the amplitude of the classification image for every time step, where the classification image is the difference between the mean stimulus preceding choic...
Data
Accuracies for several trained agents. The solutions found by the reinforcement learning algorithm could vary quite a bit, due to the variable nature of the learning process, where exploration and exploitation have to be balanced. Exploitation of a certain policy might prevent the agent from learning the best possible solution. To get an idea of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visual object recognition is not a trivial task, especially when the objects are degraded or surrounded by clutter or presented briefly. External cues (such as verbal cues or visual context) can boost recognition performance in such conditions. In this work, we build an artificial neural network to model the interaction between the object processin...
Article
Full-text available
Decoding has become a standard analysis technique for contemporary cognitive neuroscience. Already more than a decade ago, it was shown that orientation information could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging voxel time series. However, the underlying neural mechanism driving the decodable information is still under debate. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Estimating causal connectivity between spiking neurons from measured spike sequences is one of the main challenges of systems neuroscience. In this paper we introduce two nonparametric Bayesian methods for spike-membrane and spike-spike causal connectivity based on Gaussian process regression. For spike-spike connectivity, we derive a new semi-anal...
Article
Full-text available
Issues regarding explainable AI involve four components: users, laws & regulations, explanations and algorithms. Together these components provide a context in which explanation methods can be evaluated regarding their adequacy. The goal of this chapter is to bridge the gap between expert users and lay users. Different kinds of users are identified...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of sensory stimuli has an important role in perception and cognition. However, its neural representation is not well understood. Here, we characterize the representations of naturalistic visual and auditory stimulus complexity in early and associative visual and auditory cortices. This is realized by means of encoding and decoding an...
Article
An important issue in neural network research is how to choose the number of nodes and layers such as to solve a classification problem. We provide new intuitions based on earlier results by An et al. (2015) by deriving an upper bound on the number of nodes in networks with two hidden layers such that linear separability can be achieved. Concretely...
Chapter
Full-text available
Issues regarding explainable AI involve four components: users, laws and regulations, explanations and algorithms. Together these components provide a context in which explanation methods can be evaluated regarding their adequacy. The goal of this chapter is to bridge the gap between expert users and lay users. Different kinds of users are identifi...
Thesis
Full-text available
The division of sleep into different stages using EEG signals is a commonplace practice in sleep laboratories and an indispensable tool for clinicians and researchers. Despite the advances in artificial intelligence, the sleep stage scoring process is in most cases still performed manually. As the scoring process is tedious and time-consuming, its...
Article
Here, we present a novel approach to solve the problem of reconstructing perceived stimuli from brain responses by combining probabilistic inference with deep learning. Our approach first inverts the linear transformation from latent features to brain responses with maximum a posteriori estimation and then inverts the nonlinear transformation from...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental goal in network neuroscience is to understand how activity in one region drives activity elsewhere, a process referred to as effective connectivity. Here we propose to model this causal interaction using integro-differential equations and causal kernels that allow for a rich analysis of effective connectivity. The approach combines th...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have seen a sharp increase in the number of related yet distinct advances in semantic segmentation. Here, we tackle this problem by leveraging the respective strengths of these advances. That is, we formulate a conditional random field over a four-connected graph as end-to-end trainable convolutional and recurrent networks, and estimat...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore modifications of functional connectivity in multiple resting-state networks (RSNs) after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and evaluate the relationship between functional connectivity patterns and cognitive abnormalities. Forty-three moderate/severe TBI patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) underw...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of the state of a dynamical system from a series of noise-corrupted observations is fundamental in many areas of science and engineering. The most well-known method, the Kalman smoother, relies on assumptions of linearity and Gaussianity that are rarely met in practice. In this paper, we introduced a new smoothing method that exploit...
Article
Our understanding of the wiring map of the brain, known as the connectome, has increased greatly in the last decade, mostly due to technological advancements in neuroimaging techniques and improvements in computational tools to interpret the vast amount of available data. Despite this, with the exception of the C. elegans roundworm, no definitive c...
Article
Significance statement: Visual imagery is the ability to visualise objects that are not in our direct line of sight; something that is important for memory, spatial reasoning and many other tasks. It is known that the better people are at visual imagery, the better they can perform these tasks. However, the neural correlates of moment-to-moment va...
Article
This workshop explores the interface between cognitive neuroscience and recent advances in AI fields that aim to reproduce human performance such as natural language processing and computer vision, and specifically deep learning approaches to such problems. When studying the cognitive capabilities of the brain, scientists follow a system identifica...