Marcel Schweiker

Marcel Schweiker
University Hospital RWTH Aachen · Institute for Occupational Social and Environmental Medicine

Professor

About

135
Publications
46,250
Reads
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2,605
Citations
Citations since 2016
99 Research Items
2385 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
July 2010 - March 2020
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Position
  • Head of Department
October 2006 - March 2010
Tokyo City University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (135)
Article
Full-text available
Buildings are expected to provide healthy and comfortable indoor environmental conditions for their users. Such conditions have diverse dimensions, including thermal, visual, air quality, auditory, and olfactory aspects. Indoor environmental quality standards, guidelines, and codes typically inform professionals in the building design and operation...
Article
Occupants play a key role in determining final building energy consumption. Empirical evidence must support occupants' modelling. Experiments on human responses to Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) are usually performed in test rooms or as in-field monitoring. Between these two approaches, living laboratories, often abbreviated as living labs, rep...
Article
The perception, physiology, behavior, and performance of building occupants are influenced by multi-domain exposures: the simultaneous presence of multiple environmental stimuli, i.e., visual, thermal, acoustic, and air quality. Despite being extensive, the literature on multi-domain exposures presents heterogeneous methodological approaches and in...
Article
The way buildings are operated highly influences energy consumption, and occupants play a significant role in it. However, challenges related to the prediction of occupants’ behavior decrease the potential to accurately predict a building’s energy consumption. Such inaccuracy presents one reason for the gap between measured and simulated energy dat...
Article
Full-text available
Heating and cooling indoor environments is responsible for the largest share of energy consumption in buildings [...]
Article
The number of occupancy and occupant behaviour models developed for building performance simulation (BPS) has steadily increased for the past four decades. However, their use is still limited in practice. This is partly due to the difficulty in understanding their utility and to the challenges related to their implementation into BPS. Both problems...
Article
Full-text available
Indian residences are vulnerable to heat-driven discomfort amid the mounting prevalence of weather extremes, residential design and construction practices, and densifying urbanscapes. Therefore, it is vital to understand the thermal comfort characteristics of nationwide residences. This study proposes an adaptive thermal comfort model based on year...
Article
Thermal comfort is fundamental to indoor environmental design and operation as well as indoor thermal environment evaluation. This paper has reviewed the historic evolution of thermal comfort research during the last century using a systematic approach and a particular focus on adaptive thermal comfort studies. A large number of published articles...
Article
Low-income households face long-standing challenges of energy insecurity and inequality (EII). During extreme events (e.g., disasters and pandemics) these challenges are especially severe for vulnerable populations reliant on energy for health, education, and well-being. However, many EII studies rarely incorporate the micro- and macro-perspectives...
Article
The adaptive thermal heat balance (ATHB) framework introduced a method to account for the three adaptive principals, namely physiological, behavioral, and psychological adaptation, individually within existing heat balance models. This work presents a more detailed theoretical framework together with a theory‐driven empirical determination toward a...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing comfort and predicting occupant behavior in the workplace has been a major topic within built environmental research. Despite the vast knowledge, several studies have reported a performance gap between the predicted and the actual behaviors in buildings, together with a discrepancy between predicted and reported comfort levels of occupant...
Article
To design and operate energy efficient and comfortable buildings it is important to know what the occupants’ preferences for indoor environmental quality would be. These preferences are related to a range of personal characteristics that occupants may or may not be willing to share. Preparing materials for a forthcoming stated preference discrete c...
Article
Occupants’ comfort perception affects building energy consumptions. To improve the understanding of human comfort, which is crucial to reduce energy demand, laboratory experiments with humans in controlled environments (test rooms) are fundamental, but their potential also depends on the characteristic of each research facility. Nowadays, there is...
Article
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is a promising technology increasingly applied to various research fields, including building science and occupant comfort research. Using immersive virtual environments (IVEs), researchers explore important research questions related to how occupants perceive and interact with their indoor environment in response to...
Article
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Earth is one of the oldest and till now intensively used natural building material. Around 30% of the world population still lives or works in buildings constructed out of earth. Most of them dwell in simple huts of rural communities or traditionally hand-crafted buildings. However, a growing number of people looking for healthy, environmentally fr...
Article
Full-text available
Occupants' satisfaction had been researched independently related to thermal and visual stimuli for many decades showing among others the influence of self-perceived control. Few studies revealed interactions between thermal and visual stimuli affecting occupant satisfaction. In addition, studies including interactions between thermal and visual st...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper provides a simplified calculation approach for determining a relative infection risk by aerosol-borne viruses in indoor environments, with which any room situation can be compared with a reference situation. The reference situation describes a classroom with mechanical ventilation, designed according to the current state of the art. This...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ultimate goal of pain research is to provide effective routes for pain relief. Nevertheless, the perception pain relief as a change in pain intensity and un‐/pleasantness has only been rarely investigated. It has been demonstrated that pain relief has rewarding and reinforcing properties, but it remains unknow whether the perception...
Article
Full-text available
Buildings’ expected (projected, simulated) energy use frequently does not match actual observations. This is commonly referred to as the energy performance gap. As such, many factors can contribute to the disagreement between expectations and observations. These include, for instance, uncertainty about buildings’ geometry, construction, systems, an...
Article
Detailed numerical analyses of temperature and air velocity distributions are relevant to assess thermal comfort in a wide range of applications. Until now mainly simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) are used, whereby fluctuations as well as anisotropy of the turbulence are represented with insufficient precision. T...
Article
Full-text available
Research related to personal comfort systems is growing due to their potential to improve an individual’s satisfaction with indoor environmental conditions while increasing energy efficiency. At moderately high indoor temperatures, the use of ceiling fans can be a low-energy cooling strategy to enhance comfort in a working environment. This paper s...
Article
In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse eines Berechnungsverfahrens zur Bewertung eines relativen Infektionsrisikos vorgestellt, mit dem eine (beliebige) Raumsituation mit einer Referenzsituation verglichen werden kann. Die Referenzsituation beschreibt einen Klassenraum mit maschineller Belüftung, ausgelegt nach dem heutigen Stand der Technik. Dabei wi...
Preprint
Detailed numerical analyses of temperature and air velocity distributions are relevant to assess thermal comfort in a wide range of applications. Until now mainly simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes equations (RANS) are used, whereby fluctuations as well as anisotropy of the turbulence are represented with insufficient precision....
Conference Paper
Traditional building design education in the disciplines of building services, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, etc. focusses on quantifiable factors, i.e. factors which can be subject of calculation, simulation and dimensioning. Since non-quantifiable factors are not part of calculation or simulation models, there is a tendency that they...
Article
Full-text available
A discussion of sustainability in architecture cannot be meaningfully carried out without the inclusion of most buildings’ central purpose, namely the provision of indoor environments that are accommodating of occupants’ needs and requirements. To this end, building designers and operators are expected to demonstrate compliance with codes and stand...
Article
In recent years, research has emerged to quantitatively and qualitatively understand occupants' interactions with buildings. However, there has been surprisingly little research on building interfaces and how their design, context (e.g., location), and underlying logic impact their usability and occupants’ perceived control, as well as the resultin...
Article
Despite the fact that buildings are designed for occupants in principle, evidence suggests buildings are often uncomfortable compared to the requirements of standards; difficult to control by occupants; and, operated inefficiently with regards to occupants’ preferences and presence. Meanwhile, practitioners –architects, engineers, technology compan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The usage of "resilient" increased over the last decade reflecting anticipated changes in our climate and resulting necessary changes in our energy system. While resilience is popular, its usage varies to such extent that opposing consequences for the building design are promoted: robustness or flexibility. This paper questions whether resilient bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Climate change has led to higher indoor temperatures and more discomfort hours. This fact has encouraged an extensive assessment of users' thermal comfort in office buildings. However, there is a gap between predicted-actual comfort votes and comfort-related behaviors. One reason could be differences in comfort expectations. This study investigates...
Article
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building systems’ operations and efficiency. As a result, several innovative approaches have been introduced to quantify the dynamics of occupants within indoor environments, such as interactions with different building systems and the impact of various feedback and interventions to reduce the building...
Article
Despite the fact that buildings are designed for occupants in principle, evidence suggests buildings are often uncomfortable compared to the requirements of standards; difficult to control by occupants; and, operated inefficiently with regards to occupants’ preferences and presence. Meanwhile, practitioners –architects, engineers, technology compan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adaptive thermal comfort guidelines have been developed within the work of Annex 69: "Strategy and practice of adaptive thermal comfort in low energy buildings". The guidelines have been established based on a framework for adopting adaptive thermal comfort principles in building design and operation developed by the authors. The guidelines target...
Article
Full-text available
Literature on thermal comfort presents two concepts beyond a static view of perception: adaptation and alliesthesia. Both concepts are typically analyzed separately and consequences for optimal conditions when following one or the other concept are not compared. Predictions concerning preferred conditions in different seasons derived from these con...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, human behavior and the impact on energy use have become an important consideration in energy efficiency programs both in the residential and commercial building sectors. Because of this, great advances, in both energy efficient technologies and behavior-based saving approaches, have been made. Designers are discovering innovative w...
Article
Full-text available
People's subjective response to any thermal environment is commonly investigated by using rating scales describing the degree of thermal sensation, comfort, and acceptability. Subsequent analyses of results collected in this way rely on the assumption that specific distances between verbal anchors placed on the scale exist and that relationships be...
Article
Full-text available
Building occupants are continuously exposed to multiple indoor environmental stimuli, including thermal, visual, acoustic, and air quality related factors. Moreover, personal and contextual aspects can be regarded as additional domains influencing occupants’ perception and behaviour. The scientific literature in this area typically deals with these...
Article
Conventional heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed to condition the entire building volume. In contrast, Personal Comfort Systems (PCS) target conditioning only the occupied zones of the space, while maintaining the remaining volume at a relatively under-conditioned state. PCS offer the occupants the choice of modul...
Article
Full-text available
Nach Angaben der Internationalen Energieagentur sind Gebäude für über 40% der weltweiten CO2 Emissionen verantwortlich [1] und so stellt vor dem Hintergrund des globalen Klimawandels, die effiziente Planung, Ausführung und Bewirtschaftung von Gebäuden eine signifikante Herausforderung dar. In diesem Zusammenhang kann die Digitalisierung aller Proze...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Literature sets personal control over indoor environmental conditions in relation to the gap between predicted and actual energy use, the gap between predicted and observed user satisfaction, and health aspects. A focus on building energy performance often leads to the proposal of more automated and less occupant control of the indoor environment....
Article
Full-text available
Thermal expectation is mentioned as one aspect of psychological adaptation to indoor thermal conditions. However, there is a lack of studies in the built environment assessing expectations directly and the relationship between expectations and thermal perception. Therefore, this paper studies potential influences on occupants’ expectations of indoo...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal discomfort is one of the main triggers for occupants’ interactions with components of the built environment such as adjustments of thermostats and/or opening windows and strongly related to the energy use in buildings. Understanding causes for thermal (dis-)comfort is crucial for design and operation of any type of building. The assessment...
Article
Full-text available
Data was collected in the field, from an office building located in Frankfurt, Germany, over the period of 4 years. The building was designed as a low-energy building and featured natural ventilation for individual control of air quality as well as buoyancy-driven night ventilation in combination with a central atrium as a passive cooling strategy....
Article
Background: Pain ratings are almost ubiquitous in pain assessment, but their variability is high. Low correlations of continuous/numerical rating scales with categorical scales suggest that individuals associate different sensations with the same number on a scale, jeopardizing the interpretation of statistical results. We analyzed individual conc...
Article
Full-text available
As thermal perception is a subjective “condition of mind”, a high variance in observed thermal sensation votes does not come to a surprise. Literature reviews show a large number of individual and contextual influences. However, the quantification of the effect of individual drivers on thermal perception as well as thermal adaptation and their inte...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing building user needs and preferences is widespread and often questionnaire surveys are applied in order to assess environmental perception and satisfaction. A central question in this context is the quality of the questionnaires used, but little is known regarding their reliability. The present study addresses interdisciplinary aspects suc...
Conference Paper
In order to detect a person's individual momentary thermal sensation and comfort, an increased number of models are developed that involve physiological data, especially skin temperatures and features based on the heart activity. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of Machine Learning (ML) models which include physiological data based on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Europe, more than 14% of the whole building stock dates from before 1920, but this percentage reaches over 50% in several urban centres. Therefore, historic buildings are fundamental to reach the current Europeans CO2 emissions' reduction targets. Historic buildings' energy retrofit is relevant not only from an environmental point of view; since...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the major challenges of building industry today is to provide indoor spaces allowing the occupants to make themselves comfortable while achieving low energy consumption. Considering the observed increasing temperatures and a more extreme climate, this becomes even more urgent and difficult to accomplish. It is therefore necessary to rely on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of sustainable cities and buildings needs to include thoughts on circumstances influencing human satisfaction be it for thermal, visual, or other dimensions of human perception. While human satisfaction should be regarded as a dimension of sustainability alone, the provision of thermal and visual satisfaction is also a key driving force...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Today, there is an increasing consciousness regarding the role of historical build-ings’ energy retrofit in reaching the ambitious European CO2 emissions’ reduction goals, which represents a great challenge due to the necessity of protecting their historic evi-dence. In elaborating strategies to increase historical buildings’ energy efficiency whil...
Article
Purpose Today, about 30 per cent of European existing buildings can be entitled as “historical buildings”. Nowadays, their energy retrofit is important to reach the ambitious European CO2 emissions’ reduction objectives. The purpose of this paper is to outline a methodology to investigate the potential energy savings and the enhancement of histori...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers leading to individual differences in human thermal perception has become increasingly important, amongst other things due to challenges such as climate change and an ageing society. This review summarizes existing knowledge related to physiological, psychological, and context-related drivers of diversity in thermal percept...
Article
Full-text available
Low-temperature radiant heating systems can be considered as suitable candidates for the refurbishment of old heating systems. These systems are proven to save energy, however, their drawback is their impact on the creation of radiant temperature asymmetry and local thermal discomfort, especially in old buildings where the temperatures of surfaces...
Conference Paper
The objectives of this study are to analyze interactions between thermal and visual influences on comfort and behaviors and to present a clustering method based on the results of mixed-effect regression analyses for simulation and control purposes. Results show a) interactions between thermal and visual influences on comfort and behavior, b) the ad...
Conference Paper
In Europe, some historical cities have more than 50% of buildings dated from before 1920. Nowadays, these buildings faces challenges when adapted to the current necessities of livability, environmental and economical sustainability. Literature demonstrates that occupants’ comfort perception and consequent behavior affect buildings’ energy efficienc...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley's Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney's Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leaving the static view on thermal comfort, two concepts are presented in the literature: adaptation and alliesthesia. So far, there was no comparison between the consequences of these two concepts. However, their basic hypothesis related to preferred conditions in different seasons are antithetic-while adaptation suggests warmer conditions in summ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ASHRAE-scale is often applied in the field of thermal comfort in order to evaluate occupants' perception of the built environment. Participants' ratings on the scale are considered as being comparable, based on the assumption that participants have similar associations with the labels of the scale. Because of the complexity of perception, this...
Article
Full-text available
In order to reduce the energy consumption in buildings, more and more energy efficient technologies for the building-HVAC system have been developed. Several studies showed that occupant behaviour has a much larger influence on the energy performance of a building than the thermal process within the building façade. This underlines the need to inve...
Article
Full-text available
Current thermal comfort models are fairly inaccurate at predicting occupants' thermal comfort from parameters of indoor environment. The predicted variables, thermal sensation and thermal comfort, are commonly measured using scales. These scales might themselves contribute to the problem of poor prediction due to inter- and intra-individual differe...
Chapter
Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments is high and a large number of physical, physiological...
Chapter
When conducting research, one of the primary considerations should be to maintain high scientific and ethical standards, including protecting the rights and benefits of all participants. Researchers should take great care to ensure scientific validity during the design of a study; at the same time, ethical conduct should not be considered a researc...
Chapter
Occupants’ presence and actions within the built environment are crucial aspects related to understanding variations in energy use. Within this chapter, first, a nomenclature for the field of research dealing with occupants in buildings is defined. This nomenclature distinguishes between occupants’ presence and behavior, states and actions, adaptiv...
Conference Paper
Worldwide, the building sector accounts for 40% of total energy consumption. In Europe, where more than 14% of buildings dates from before 1920, reaching over 50% in some cities, historical buildings are fundamental to reach the current ambitious emissions’ reduction targets. Today, the energy retrofit of historical buildings is relevant not only f...
Article
Full-text available
In order to optimize building energy consumption, Member States will have to establish minimum efficiency requirements for systems, and promote the introduction of active control system in new constructions or major renovations. Energy saving, plant efficiency and environmental sustainability are also factors delineating smart buildings. Interestin...
Article
Understanding humans’ perception of the thermal built environment is one of the prerequisites for designing satisfactory workplaces and related to their energy use. This paper compares the predictive performance of nine thermal comfort indices with respect to the population mean and individual votes together with the effect of false assumptions of...