Marcel Kuntz

Marcel Kuntz
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Laboratoire de Physiologie Moléculaire & Cellulaire

PhD; Director of Research

About

177
Publications
34,980
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6,688
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Publications

Publications (177)
Article
The aim of this survey is to identify and characterize new products in plant biotechnology since 2015, especially in relation to the advent of New Breeding Techniques (NBTs) such as gene editing based on the CRISPR-Cas system. Transgenic (gene transfer or gene silencing) and gene edited traits which are approved or marketed in at least one country,...
Chapter
The main belief systems that express themselves over GMOs are summarized. The existence of these different modes of thought (termed modernism, postmodernism, environmentalism and religious views) partially explains the reason why it has not been possible to overcome the public controversy despite the accumulation of scientific data. In addition, th...
Book
Written in easy to follow language, the book presents cutting-edge agriculturally relevant plant biotechnologies and applications in a manner that is accessible to all. This book updates and introduces the scope and method of plant biotechnologies and molecular breeding within the context of environmental analysis and assessment, a diminishing supp...
Article
Full-text available
Europe is often the center of origin of restrictions regarding technologies (e.g., biotechnologies: GMOs and, more recently, gene editing). The causes have already been analyzed in relation to European regulations, but not to its deeply embedded roots. This is what the present article attempts to do. It first depicts the broader historical backgrou...
Article
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The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastohydroquinone:oxygen oxidoreductase that shares structural similarities with alternative oxidases (AOX). Multiple roles have been attributed to PTOX, such as involvement in carotene desaturation, a safety valve function, participation in the processes of chlororespiration and setting the redox poise for...
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Cell compartmentalization is an essential process by which eukaryotic cells separate and control biological processes. While calmodulins are well known to regulate catalytic properties of their targets, we show here their involvement in the subcellular location of two plant proteins. Both proteins exhibit a dual location, namely in the cytosol in a...
Book
In September 2012, Gilles-Éric Séralini and his colleagues’ alarmist article on the consumption of a GMO-type maize in the scientific journal Food and Chemical Toxicology was illustrated with monstrous tumours in rats, triggering a worldwide media wave, political reactions and a huge shock among scientists. Although it was gradually discredited, re...
Article
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A survey of the CRISPR patent landscape shows the improvement of technology, a diversity of potential sectors of application, and a new geopolitical balance of forces in the field.
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The chloroplast is a major plant cell organelle that fulfills essential metabolic and biosynthetic functions. Located at the interface between the chloroplast and other cell compartments, the chloroplast envelope system is a strategic barrier controlling the exchange of ions, metabolites and proteins, thus regulating essential metabolic functions (...
Article
Diatoms are a major phylum of phytoplankton biodiversity and a resource considered for biotechnological developments , as feedstock for biofuels and applications ranging from food, human health or green chemistry. They contain a secondary plastid limited by four membranes, the outermost one being connected with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Upon...
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Chloroplasts are major components of plant cells. Such plastids fulfill many crucial functions, such as assimilation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen as well as synthesis of essential metabolites. These organelles consist of the following three key sub-compartments. The envelope, characterized by two membranes, surrounds the organelle and controls th...
Book
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Depuis une vingtaine d'années, les biotechnologies, tout spécialement les organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM) agricoles, sont au cœur d'une controverse sociétale particulièrement vive dans l'Union européenne. Elle a conduit à ce que la presque totalité de ses États membres refuse la mise en culture des variétés transgéniques alors que le reste...
Article
Thraustochytrids are marine protists highly ecologically relevant in mangrove environments. The family Thraustochytriaceae underwent profound taxonomical rearrangements in the last decade, with the description and emendation of several genera. Here, we identified two new thraustochytrid strains (CCAP 4062/1 and CCAP 4062/3) collected from the same...
Chapter
Plastids contain several key subcompartments. The two limiting envelope membranes (inner and outer membrane of the plastid envelope with an intermembrane space between), an aqueous phase (stroma), and an internal membrane system terms (thylakoids) formed of flat compressed vesicles (grana) and more light structures (lamellae). The thylakoid vesicle...
Chapter
Plastids are semiautonomous organelles like mitochondria, and derive from a cyanobacterial ancestor that was engulfed by a host cell. During evolution, they have recruited proteins originating from the nuclear genome, and only parts of their ancestral metabolic properties were conserved and optimized to limit functional redundancy with other cell c...
Poster
Aim/hypothesis-In response to global climate change and the foreseen depletion of fossil hydrocarbons, microalgae have emerged as candidates of interest for the development of novel resources for bioenergies. When grown under conditions of environmental stress (i.e nitrogen or phosphate starvation), microalgae are able to accumulate triacylglycerol...
Article
It is generally accepted that transgenesis can improve our knowledge of natural processes, but also leads to agricultural, industrial or socio-economical changes which could affect human society at large and which may, consequently, require regulation. It is often stated that developing countries are most likely to benefit from plant biotechnology...
Article
Ricroch A., S. Akkoyunlu, Martin-Laffon J., & M. Kuntz (2017). Bees and GMOs. In: special issue ‘Transgenic plants’. Advances in Botanical Research (M. Kuntz, Editor). 86, Abstract: Bees play an important role in the pollination of a wide range of plants and are likely to encounter genetically engineered crops (often termed “genetically modified”...
Article
Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring radionuclide that is toxic to plants. It is known to interfere with phosphate nutrition and to modify the expression of iron (Fe)-responsive genes. The transporters involved in the uptake of U from the environment are unknown. Here, we addressed whether IRT1, a high-affinity Fe(2+) transporter, could contribute...
Article
The recent meeting of the International Society for Biosafety Research (ISBR) focused on so-called genetically modified organisms. For decades, in most regulatory frameworks, recombinant DNA-modified organisms have been the wrong focus of unbalanced agri-food regulations. The ISBR should instead adopt a scientifically defensible and truly risk-base...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.cropgen.org/article_711.html The consequences of delayed approvals of GM crops John Davison (INRA de Versailles, France [retired]) and Marcel Kuntz (Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire & Végétale, CEA CNRS INRA Université Grenoble-Alpes, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9) Biotech crops (often termed Genetically Modified, G...
Article
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Context: Higher plants, as autotrophic organisms, are effective sources of molecules. They hold great promise for metabolic engineering, but the behavior of plant metabolism at the network level is still incompletely described. Although structural models (stoichiometry matrices) and pathway databases are extremely useful, they cannot describe the...
Poster
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Presentation of the publication ”Challenges facing european agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.” published in Critical Reviews in Biotechnology by Ricroch, A. et al (2016), highlighting the contribution of the Scientific Information Professional
Article
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Although this has become mainstream thinking, there is simply no proof that engaging the public early in the research, and “as equals,” benefits either scientists or society... The participative approach and its benefit for science, for risk assessment, or for the general public understanding of these processes need critical analyses
Article
Given that some groups want to force scientists into "public engagement", it is legitimate to engage in a debate about the ideology of those groups, which I define as postmodern. Postmodernism tries to impose social coercive tools in the form of 'democratization of science' or 'Responsible Research and Innovation'.
Book
Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation o...
Chapter
Bees play an important role in the pollination of a wide range of plants and are likely to encounter genetically engineered crops (often termed "genetically modified" or "GM") during their foraging period, especially insect-resistant crops since these crops have been cultivated worldwide. Thus, it is important to assess potential impacts of these c...
Article
Full-text available
Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A ma...
Chapter
Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation o...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the ongoing discussion in the EU whether new plant varieties generated by genome editing are genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or not, we propose a novel approach for regulating plant breeding in general. Our proposal involves a flexible and scalable system that is capable of adapting to the rapid evolution of new technologies such...
Article
The National Academies of Sciences of the USA recently published a report entitled Gene Drive on the Horizon. This commentary discusses the 'Aligning Research with Public Values' aspects in this report, the topic of public engagement, and the worrying ideological shift towards postmodernism which aims to deconstruct Enlightenment values.
Article
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Life can thrive in extreme environments where inhospitable conditions prevail. Organisms which resist, for example, acidity, pressure, low or high temperature, have been found in harsh environments. Most of them are bacteria and archaea. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is considered to be a champion among all living organisms, surviving extre...
Article
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In oxygenic photosynthesis, light produces ATP plus NADPH via linear electron transfer, i.e. the in-series activity of the two photosystems: PS1 and PS2. This process, however, is thought not to be sufficient to provide enough ATP per NADPH for carbon assimilation in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle (Allen 2002). Thus, it is assumed that additional...
Article
The European Commission will guide the regulatory fate of these new biotechnologies crucial for the future of plant breeding. To reach the agricultural challenges facing the 21st century, we need a product-oriented, flexible and adjustable regulatory system according to used technologies. Full-text: http://www.euractiv.com/sections/agriculture-foo...
Article
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Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungar...
Research
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Politics of GMOs in EuropeDans divers dossiers (dont celui des OGM), la politique a pris le pas sur les faits scientifiques, en France et dans d’autres États membres de l’Union Européenne (UE). Cette dérive risque maintenant de toucher la Commission européenne (CE). Le mardi 22 juillet 2014, neuf organisations de l’écologie politique ont demandé au...
Article
Le postmodernisme est un mouvement philosophique, politique, social et artistique qui se caractérise notamment par ses critiques de la foi en la science, du progrès et de l’universalité de la raison. En sociologie des sciences, cette école de pensée exerce aujourd’hui une influence dominante dans certaines institutions scientifiques. Cet article ex...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we dissect the physiological role of the transient photosynthetic stage observed in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.By combining biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that despite similar features of the photosynthetic apparatus, light absorption, chloroplast morphology and electron transport are modified in...
Book
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Foreword Bruce McPHERON, Dean, College of Agricultural Sciences, Ohio State University, USA Introduction - Biotechnological interventions for crop improvement: answers to global challenges William DAR, Director General, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru PO, Andhra Pradesh, India Part I. The T...
Article
http://www.euractiv.fr/sections/agriculture-alimentation/m-juncker-ne-rejetez-pas-la-science-307784 (EN version: http://www.euractiv.com/sections/science-policymaking/mr-juncker-do-not-scrap-science-307785) Jean-Claude Juncker, le prochain président de la Commission européenne, devrait maintenir le poste de conseiller scientifique principal. Les co...
Article
http://www.euractiv.com/sections/science-policymaking/mr-juncker-do-not-scrap-science-307785 We should be worried that the European Commission’s chief scientific adviser position is under attack as an incoming EU president prepares to review legislation on GMOs, write Marcel Kuntz and John Davison Marcel Kuntz is the research director at CNRS, La...
Article
Anti-GM activists are demanding that the European Commission abolish the post of Chief Scientific Officer. Scientists John Davison and Marcel Kuntz lament the way science is losing out to politics. You can view the article here: https://cosmosmagazine.com/biology/european-science-under-siege
Article
Full-text available
The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to gro...
Article
Full-text available
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. The gene encoding GGPPS from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been cloned in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and its heterologous expression analyzed in this model organism for eukaryotes. We aim to partially d...
Article
The main belief systems that express themselves over GMOs are summarized. The existence of these different modes of thought (termed modernism, postmodernism, environmentalism and religious views) partially explains the reason why it has not been possible to overcome the public controversy despite the accumulation of scientific data. In addition, th...
Article
http://beta.cosmosmagazine.com/society/france-fails-science-test France does not walk in the footsteps of Norman Borlaug. Half a century of rising farm productivity has let France forget the importance of plant breeding. We may not suffer from food shortages but farmers face major economic and agronomic challenges. Modern plant biotechnology can ad...
Article
Full-text available
All genetically modified (GM) plants must undergo a meticulous assessment of their safety before marketing. This involves comparative compositional and other phenotypic analyses between the GM line and a conventional comparator. In the European Union (EU), these comparisons have often been followed by 90-day subchronic toxicity feeding studies. We...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book contains 15 chapters that discuss the use of transgenic plants as animal feeds. Topics include the limitations of transgenic plants for animal nutrition; fundamentals of plant biotechnology; nutritional, safety and compositional assessment of feeds from transgenic plants; feeding studies using transgenic plants; the fate of transgenic DNA...
Article
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ABSTRACT EU governments are ignoring on their own scientific risk evaluation committees and creating false pseudo-scientific documents for political gain, argue Marcel Kuntz, Agnès E. Ricroch and John Davison. http://guests.blogactiv.eu/2013/12/05/efsa-rejects-italian-request-for-a-ban-on-mon-810-maize/
Data
EU governments are ignoring on their own scientific risk evaluation committees and creating false pseudo-scientific documents for political gain, argue Marcel Kuntz, Agnès E. Ricroch and John Davison. http://guests.blogactiv.eu/2013/12/05/efsa-rejects-italian-request-for-a-ban-on-mon-810-maize/
Article
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Press Release 10/06/2013 Lying over GMOs is becoming the norm for European governments In a study published in the June issue of the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology, GMO experts from 3 major French public research institutions strongly criticize their former government, and those of 6 other European governments, for grossly falsifying sci...
Article
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Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes. State transitions (qT) represent changes in the relative anten...
Article
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Postmodernism is a philosophical, political, social and artistic movement. It is mainly defined by its suspicion towards the Enlightenment's faith in science, progress and the universality of reason. It has become a powerful movement that exerts a strong influence on academic thought in American and European societies, especially as it has become h...
Article
R. glacialis leaves were tested for their PTOX content and electron flow to photorespiration and to alternative acceptors. In shade-leaves, the PTOX and NDH content were markedly lower than in sun-leaves. Carbon assimilation/light and C(i) response curves were not different in sun- and shade-leaves but photosynthetic capacity was the highest in sun...
Chapter
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Large-scale profiling techniques have been increasingly applied to the analysis of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants with regard to their food safety and nutritional equivalence. Although metabolomics are becoming the prevalent approach, proteomics are also used to detect unintended effects that may be triggered by insertion of a transgene. I...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United K...
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The physiological role of the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) involved in plastoquinol oxidation in chloroplasts has been investigated in vivo in tomato leaves. Enzyme activity was assessed by non-invasive methods based on the analysis of the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence changes. In the dark, the maximum PTOX rate was smaller than 1 electro...
Article
Full-text available
Plastids are semiautonomous organelles derived from cyanobacterial ancestors. Following endosymbiosis, plastids have evolved to optimize their functions, thereby limiting metabolic redundancy with other cell compartments. Contemporary plastids have also recruited proteins produced by the nuclear genome of the host cell. In addition, many genes acqu...
Article
Full-text available
French President François Hollande will face judicial problems over the ban on the cultivation of genetically modified plants, and this has widespread implications for science-based risk assessment in the EU, argue Marcel Kuntz, John Davison and Agnès E. Ricroch.
Article
In this special issue of Futuribles devoted to genetically modified organisms, Marcel Kuntz and Agnès Ricroch offer a review of the situation regarding biotechnological plants and their socio-economic prospects. After reminding us of the agricultural (and food) challenges our planet will face by the middle of the century, they outline the possible...
Article
Full-text available
In 1987, a National Academy of Science (USA) report entitled Introduction of Recombinant DNA-Engineered Organisms into the Environment had already stated that "there is no evidence that unique hazards exist in the use of recombinant DNA techniques or in the transfer of genes between unrelated organisms" and "that the risk[s]...are the same in kind...
Chapter
Plastids fulfill a number of essential functions, including photosynthesis, assimilation of nitrogen and sulfur, synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, and many secondary metabolites. Pure computation-based predictions are limited in predicting plastid proteomes, and proteomic and especially subcellular proteomics studies are essential to provide a...
Article
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The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed fo...
Article
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Transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic profiling techniques have been increasingly used for the detection of unintended effects of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants with regard to their food safety and nutritional equivalence. This literature survey is based on 44 recent "omic" comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines with or without d...
Article
MADS-box transcription factors play crucial roles in organ and cell differentiation in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Most of the work on plant MADS-box proteins focused on their roles in floral development whereas less information is available on their function in fruit maturation. We cloned three distinct tomato cDNAs using a RT-PCR appr...
Article
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MON810 is a transgenic trait introgressed into a number of maize varieties, consisting of a Bacillus thuringiensis-derived gene (Bt), or more precisely, a truncated cry1Ab gene encoding an insecticidal protein for control of some lepidopteran pest insects such as Ostrinia nubilalis, the European maize borer. We examined the justifications invoked b...
Article
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Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among w...