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Marcel R.A. van Gent

Marcel R.A. van Gent
Deltares & TU Delft · Hydraulic Engineering

PhD

About

167
Publications
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Publications

Publications (167)
Article
The performance of high-density cubes in the armor layer of a breakwater was investigated through an experimental study. For this purpose, two different cross-sections, one with a conventional cross-section and one with a berm, were modelled in a wave flume. A total of ten tests were performed for both cross-sections. Different concrete densities o...
Article
Estimation of the mean overtopping discharge is a major task in the design and assessment of the crest level of rubble mound structures such as breakwaters and seawalls. The tolerable mean overtopping rates are given based on the associated risk and wave characteristics. Several empirical formulas have been developed for the prediction of mean over...
Article
Full-text available
Physical model tests have been performed to study wave overtopping at rubble mound breakwaters, including breakwaters with a crest wall, breakwaters with a berm, and breakwaters with a crest wall and a berm. For rubble mound structures with a protruding crest wall or with a stable berm, limited information is available in literature even though pro...
Article
Seawalls play a significant role in protecting coastal areas against wave attack and flooding. The accurate estimation of wave overtopping at seawalls is therefore crucial to adequately protect people and infrastructure in these regions. In this study, the mean wave overtopping rate at rubble mound seawalls was investigated through 140 small-scale...
Article
Full-text available
The mean overtopping discharge and the overtopping flow parameters related to individual overtopping events are often used to characterize the wave overtopping processes at dikes. Roughness, berms and oblique waves have significant effects on the wave overtopping processes at dikes while these effects are still not fully understood. A 2DV OpenFOAM®...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate calculation of wave overtopping is important for determining the required crest height and geometry of a dike. Berms and roughness elements are widely used to reduce the average overtopping discharge at dikes while the reductive effects of berm and roughness are still not fully understood. Several empirical formulae are available to predic...
Article
Full-text available
The average overtopping discharge is an important parameter for the design of flood defences. Several empirical formulas are available for predicting the overtopping discharge at dikes. However, these empirical formulas often have their specific applicable conditions. To complement with the empirical methods, a numerical model has been developed us...
Article
Full-text available
The stability number for rubble mound breakwaters is a function of several parameters and depends on unit shape, placing method, slope angle, relative density, etc. In this study two different densities for cubes in breakwater armour layers were tested to determine the influence of the density on the stability. The experimental results show that th...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of wave overtopping at coastal structures such as vertical caisson breakwaters is strongly dependent on the angle of wave attack. The reducing effects of oblique waves on wave overtopping compared to perpendicular wave attack has been studied by means of three-dimensional wave basin tests. In these physical model tests the caisson breakw...
Article
Full-text available
Conventionally, allowable mean overtopping discharge is used as a design criterion for coastal structures. The mean overtopping discharge needs to be limited to ensure structural stability as well as the safety of people, vehicles, and properties behind the structure. Nowadays, limits for the maximum individual overtopping volumes are also specifie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coastal structures are often designed to a maximum allowable wave overtopping discharge, hence accurate prediction of the amount of wave overtopping is an important issue. Both empirical formulae and neural networks are among the commonly used prediction tools. In this work, a new model for the prediction of mean wave overtopping discharge is prese...
Article
Coastal structures are often designed to a maximum allowable wave overtopping discharge, hence accurate prediction of the amount of wave overtopping is an important issue. Both empirical formulae and neural networks are among the commonly used prediction tools. In this work, a new model for the prediction of mean wave overtopping discharge is prese...
Article
In this study, the stability of cube armour units in the lower slope and berm of rubble mound breakwaters with a berm was investigated for irregular and regular placement methods. Cubes are simple and cheap in production. However, the design conditions for the upper slope and lower slope may differ depending on the water level of the dominant storm...
Article
Toe design is an important task for coastal engineers as it ensures the stability of the main armor layer and prevents scour in front of the armor slope. Several laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate the toe stability using different testing approaches, i.e. damage due to a single test condition and cumulative damage due to a nu...
Research
Full-text available
Average overtopping discharge is a crucial parameter for design and reinforcement of dikes. Rock armours and berms are widely used to reduce wave overtopping discharge by introducing slope roughness and energy dissipation. Since-methods for estimating the influence of a rock berm and roughness of rock armour at dikes on the average overtopping disc...
Article
Full-text available
Wave overtopping is an important design criterion for coastal structures such as dikes, breakwaters and promenades. Hence, the prediction of the expected wave overtopping discharge is an important research topic. Existing prediction tools consist of empirical overtopping formulae, machine learning techniques like neural networks, and numerical mode...
Article
Estimation of the required armor size is a major task in the design of coastal structures under wave loading such as breakwaters and revetments. Several semi-empirical formulas have been developed for this purpose. However, these formulas are often either limited to certain water depth conditions or do not incorporate the permeability of the struct...
Preprint
Full-text available
Oblique wave attack can significantly reduce the amount of wave overtopping at coastal structures compared to perpendicular wave attack. Guidelines exist to estimate the influence of oblique waves on wave overtopping. Guidelines to estimate the influence of a berm in the seaward slope are also available. These guidelines for the reducing effects of...
Article
Full-text available
The average overtopping discharge is an important parameter for the design and reinforcement of dikes. Rock armour on the waterside slopes and berms of dikes is widely used to reduce the wave overtopping discharge by introducing slope roughness and dissipation of energy in the permeable armour layer. However, methods for estimating the influence of...
Article
In coastal engineering context, the use of video imagery is widespread. Especially in field settings along sandy coasts, many types of data have been derived from video imagery, often using non-learning analysis techniques. Recent advances in the field of computer vision and deep learning allow for the automation of image segmentation. In this pape...
Article
Full-text available
Rubble mound breakwaters usually present a crest wall to increase the crest freeboards without a large increase of the consumption of material. Methods in the literature to design crest walls are based on estimates of the wave loads. These methods are focused on the maximum loading that attacks a single position of the crest wall. In practice, cres...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Projections of sea level rise (SLR) vary in time and go together with large uncertainties. Not only best estimates of SLR vary in time, also the estimated uncertainties in SLR vary in time. Not all processes that cause the SLR are fully understood, which is illustrated by recent studies that discuss the rapid Antarctic ice sheet mass loss with a po...
Article
A reliable estimation of average wave overtopping discharge is important for dike design and safety assessment. Berms and roughness elements are widely applied to reduce the overtopping discharge over dikes. In this study, the effects of a berm and roughness on the wave overtopping discharge are investigated by means of physical model tests. New em...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The probability of overtopping over the crest of dikes increases significantly during extreme events. Wave overtopping over dikes can initiate breaching of the dike. Hence, a reliable estimation of the overtopping discharge is important for the dike design and safety assessment. Berms and roughness elements are widely used around the world to reduc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the crest of rubble mound breakwaters a crest wall is often present to reduce the consumption of material compared to breakwaters without a crest wall or to enable access to the breakwater. Several methods to design crest walls are available. These methods are developed for wave loading where waves approach breakwaters in perpendicular direction...
Article
Toe structures are a common feature in coastal rock armoured structures, both safeguarding the structure against scour at the toe and providing support to the armour layer. The toe structure itself is often comprised of rocks as well. Hence, generally some form of scour protection, such as a filter layer or a geotextile, is applied underneath the t...
Article
At the crest of rubble mound structures a crest wall is often present to reduce the consumption of material compared to breakwaters without a crest wall. To design the crest wall several methods based on estimates of the hydraulic wave loads are available. These methods are focussed on waves that approach breakwaters perpendicular. In practice, the...
Article
Full-text available
Physical model tests were performed in a wave flume at Deltares with rock armoured slopes. A shallow foreshore was present. At deep water, the same wave conditions were used, but by applying different water levels, the wave loading on the rock armoured slopes increased considerably with increasing water levels. This allowed an assessment of the eff...
Article
An accurate description of the maximum flow velocity across flood-protective structures is necessary in order to determine the stability of the landward slope and the amount of cover erosion. In this paper, two new formulas are derived to describe the change in the maximum overtopping flow velocity along the dike crest and the adjacent landward slo...
Article
This paper describes a method of determining the reaction forces of a vertical structure with an overhang to impulsive wave impacts. The aim is to develop a method to design a hydraulic structure exposed to the impulsive wave impact. At present, there is a lack of guidelines on the designing and verification with such a purpose. The impulse of the...
Article
Full-text available
In order to design reliable coastal structures, for present and future scenarios, universal and precise damage assessment methods are required. This study addresses this need, and presents improved damage characterization methods for coastal structures with rock armored slopes. The data used in this study were obtained from a test campaign carried...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, a CFD model (OpenFOAM) is extended to allow for the exchange of sediment between the inside of porous structures and the outside. This exploratory extended model is applied to simulate the morphological change around and under toe structures, as are often used in rock armoured coastal structures. Both the dimensions of the toe structu...
Article
Full-text available
Transitions in the dike revetment or in the grass cover can significantly affect the wave overtopping discharge and the dike cover erosion. At the University of Twente, two PhD students recently started on the challenge of quantifying the effect of (1) waterside transition on the wave overtopping discharge and (2) transitions in grass covered dikes...
Article
Full-text available
Physical model tests on the stability of rock armoured slopes have been performed to demonstrate the importance of water level variations during a storm, due to a tide or a storm surge. For the stability of rock armoured slopes also the importance of the sequence of storms at various water levels has been studied. The test results indicate that a s...
Article
Full-text available
For the sake of overtopping, stability and economy, rubble mound breakwaters have been built with a berm in the seaward slope. Here, a breakwater model with cube armour units in the lower slope and a horizontal berm, and rock in the upper slope was tested experimentally. The purpose of the study was to investigate the stability of berms for two dif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Physical model tests on the stability of rock armoured slopes have been performed to demonstrate the importance of water level variations during a storm, due to a tide or a storm surge. For the stability of rock armoured slopes also the importance of the sequence of storms at various water levels has been studied. The test results indicate that a s...
Article
Wave loads on crest walls on top of rubble mound structures determine the size of these crest walls. For the design of crest walls some design guidelines exist, but their validity is limited to particular designs of the cross section (berm, no berm, toe, armour layout, protruding crest element, etc). The present work addresses the validation of Ope...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results t...
Article
Full-text available
Most guidelines on wave overtopping over coastal structures are based on conditions with waves from one direction only. Here wave basin tests with oblique wave attack are presented where waves from one direction are combined with waves from another direction. This is especially of importance for locations where wind waves approach a coastal structu...
Conference Paper
Physical model tests were performed in a wave flume at Deltares with rock armoured slopes. A shallow foreshore was present. At deep water the same wave conditions were used but, by applying different water levels, the wave loading on the rock armoured slopes increased considerably with increasing water levels. This allows the assessment of effects...
Conference Paper
In order to design reliable coastal structures, for present and future scenarios, universal and precise damage assessment methods are required. This study addresses this need, and presents improved damage characterization methods for coastal structures with rock armoured slopes. The data used in this study was obtained from a test campaign carried...
Article
Full-text available
Underneath rock slopes of rubble mound structures often one or more granular filter layers are present. These filter layers prevent base material washout. In contrast to traditional filters, geometrically open filters allow for some movement of base material. In order to design such open filters the amount of erosion and accretion of base material...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cubes in a single armour layer of rubble mound breakwaters are feasible and potentially economically competitive compared to other types of armour layers. The use of a berm in the seaward slope of breakwaters leads to an important reduction in wave overtopping or crest elevation. Another advantage of a berm in the seaward slope is that relatively s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Permeable coastal structures that consist of rock typically contain granular filters. The internal transitions between two layers are normally geometrically tight to prevent material washout. Applying open filters with only minimal loss of material through the layer above, may be a cheaper alternative (see also Van Gent and Wolters, 2015). Physical...
Article
Rubble mound breakwaters and revetments typically contain granular filters in one or more layers. The transition from the armour layer to the filter layer, and transitions between other layers within the structure, are normally geometrically tight to prevent material washout. This requires a limited ratio of the material size of the upper layer and...
Article
Full-text available
This paper treats the numerical modelling of the behaviour of a sand core covered by rocks and exposed to waves. The associated displacement of the rock is also studied. A design that allows for erosion and deposition of the sand core beneath a rock layer in a coastal structure requires an accurate prediction method to assure that the amount of ero...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rubble mound breakwaters and revetments typically contain granular filters in one or more layers. The transition from the armour layer to the filter layer, and transitions between other layers within the structure, are normally geometrically tight to prevent material washout. This requires a limited ratio of the material size of the upper layer and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When design wave conditions are high and available rock sizes are small, the application of concrete armour units for the design of breakwaters becomes nearly inevitable. Modern day design practice then shows that often single layer concrete armour units are applied. The concept of a single layer obviously results in a considerable cost reduction c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For most existing coastal structures such as sea defences an estimate of the amount of future sea level rise has been taken into account in the design stage. Once estimates of sea level rise change, sea defences need to be reassessed and adapted to ensure that they provide the required safety under the envisaged new conditions. The evaluation of ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the technique is assessed, and the application of the techniq...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Permeable coastal structures under wave loading typically contain granular filters in one or more layers. The transition from the armour layer to the filter layer, and transitions between other layers within the structure, are normally geometrically tight to prevent material washout. This requires a limited ratio of the material size of the upper l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new large-scale wave flume has been constructed in Delft. The new Delta Flume has a length of about 300m, a width of 5m and a height of 9.5m. The maximum wave heights that can be generated are about Hs = 2.2m. Maximum individual wave heights of about Hmax = 4.5m have been generated. This unique facility enables physical modelling at prototype-sca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Permeable coastal structures typically contain granular filters in one or more layers. These filters are normally geometrically tight to prevent material washout. A cheaper alternative is a geometrically open filter where only minimal base material loss or settlement occurs. In Van Gent and Wolters (2015) physical model tests were performed to esti...
Article
This paper will address the validation and application of a volume of fluid method for coastal structures under the influence of normal incident irregular wave fields. Several physical processes will be addressed as part of the validation process, namely: (i)wave reflection from permeable and impermeable structures, (ii) wave transformation over a...
Article
Full-text available
The new Delta Flume in Delft was constructed to facilitate large-scale physical model testing. The new Delta Flume has a length of about 300m, a width of 5m and a height of 9.5m. The maximum significant wave height that can be generated is about Hs = 2.2m and maximum individual wave heights in the range between Hmax = 4m and 4.5m. This unique facil...
Article
Full-text available
The phase-averaged wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) is often used for the design of dikes and harbors. However, various hindcast studies have shown that SWAN underpredicts the wave energy when waves are penetrating into bathymetries with shallow areas traversed by channels, such as tidal inlets or harbor entrances. The underprediction o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proper modelling of core material is essential in hydraulic model testing of rubble mound breakwaters, since it can significantly affect the wave damping process, and thus the amount of wave transmission and the stability of armour layers. In this study the wave damping process within 4 breakwaters was investigated at varying scales. Based on the r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At Deltares, Delft, new hydraulic facilities have been constructed recently and existing facilities have been upgraded. A selection of hydraulic facilities for coastal engineering purposes is described with the main focus on the new Delta Flume in Delft. The new Delta Flume has a length of about 300m, a width of 5m and a height of 9.5m. The maximum...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper treats damage to 3D rubble mound structures, with a focus on the way to describe and quantify the damage. The damage to 8 roundheads with rock armour was measured simultaneously. The measured variation in damage can be used as a basis for probabilistic design methods for rubble mound breakwaters. Furthermore, the measurements can be to o...