Marc Zimmerman

Marc Zimmerman
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Health Behavior and Health Education

Ph.D.

About

450
Publications
273,232
Reads
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24,960
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1989 - present
University of Michigan
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • My research focuses on adolescent health and resiliency, and empowerment theory. I also translate my findings to community program implementation and evaluation. I am the Editor of Youth and Society and Editor Emeritus of Health Education and Behavior.
August 1989 - present
University of Michigan
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • My research focuses on adolescent health and resiliency, and empowerment theory. I also translate my findings to community program implementation and evaluation. I am the Editor of Youth and Society and Editor Emeritus of Health Education and Behavior.
Education
August 1981 - July 1986
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Community Psychology

Publications

Publications (450)
Article
Background As vacant lot inventories expand in cities across the U.S., vacant land management organizations require strategies that optimize their functioning while ensuring community benefit. Resident engagement in programs to green vacant land may be one helpful strategy. While resident engagement is often required for vacant land management orga...
Article
Firearm injury is a significant public health concern among youth living in the United States. Youth with exposure to violence (ETV) are more susceptible to carrying and using a firearm. Few researchers, however, have examined psychological mechanisms undergirding the association between ETV and firearm aggression. Retaliatory attitudes have been d...
Article
Firearm-related injury is a major public health concern in the U.S. Experience of racism and discrimination can increase the risk of minority group members engaging in or being victims of firearm-related violence. Given the increased racism endured by Asian Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to understand firearm-related behav...
Article
Impact statement: Anonymous reporting systems (ARS) have been used as a violence prevention strategy in schools by providing a means for individuals within a school community to safely and securely report information about potential violence or concerns about mental health, for example, through an anonymous hotline or reporting app. Despite widesp...
Article
Youth violence remains a significant public health problem despite efforts to address it. We describe the evaluation results of Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES), an after-school active learning program implemented by trained local teachers and designed to engage middle school youth in multi-systematic promotive behaviors at the individual-, interp...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a longitudinal observational study of 9873 micro-neighborhoods in a Midwestern city from 2015 to 2018 and estimated multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models to evaluate if seasonal lawn maintenance of vacant properties was associated with a reduction in microneighborhoods’ annual summer maltreatment rates. We found a between-m...
Article
Limited research has been conducted on the state-level factors that may be associated with intentional school shootings. We obtained school shooting data from the Washington Post that identified any act of intentional interpersonal gunfire in a K-12 school over the course of two decades. We also compiled new data on active school shootings during t...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic dating violence is a form of violence perpetrated through electronics between dating partners and is associated with worse mental health, greater risk of substance use, and increased risk of in-person forms of dating violence. Though prevalent and seeming to increase in occurrence across adolescence, little is known about trajectories of...
Article
Racial discrimination jeopardizes a wide range of health behaviors for African Americans. Numerous studies demonstrate significant negative associations between racial discrimination and problematic alcohol use among African Americans. Culturally specific contexts (e.g., organized religious involvement) often function protectively against racial di...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to assess parents’ firearm storage behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and characterize reasons why some parents made their firearms more accessible during this time. In June-July 2020, the study team conducted the FACTS National Survey—a cross-sectional, web-based, survey of 2,924 parents and their teens (ages14–...
Article
Firearms are the leading cause of death among young adults. Given community violence is an important correlate of youth firearm carriage, we evaluated: 1) If the association between perceived community violence and firearm carriage is stronger when perceived police bias is greater; and 2) If this moderated association differs by race. Cross-section...
Article
Globally, one in three women will experience intimate partner violence (IPV) within her lifetime. IPV attitudes are highly predictive of IPV. While a wealth of literature on risk factors related to IPV exist, an overarching critique in the field is the lack of studies examining risk factors across the socioecological framework. Using data from mult...
Article
While much is known about attitudes towards police and weapon carriage independently, it is unclear whether the two are associated. In the current study, we explored this potential association and whether it was moderated by race in a sample of adolescents. After adjusting for age, gender, perceived risk of victimization, and violence victimization...
Article
Unmaintained vacant land in urban areas is associated with a number of negative outcomes for residents of urban areas, including mental and physical health, safety, and quality of life. Community programs which promote land parcel maintenance in urban neighborhoods have been found to reverse some of the effects that unmaintained land has on nearby...
Article
To describe and identify the correlates of firearm purchasing at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic among US families with teenagers. In June–July 2020, we conducted a national survey of 2924 parents and their teenagers in the US. We report results from this survey to describe firearm purchasing behaviors following the start of the COVID-19 pan...
Article
Objective: Cannabis use is broadly associated with risky sexual behaviors, but evidence regarding how cannabis is related to condomless sex at the individual level is mixed. A better understanding of the context in which cannabis use is occurring, that is, why individuals are using cannabis on a particular day, could help clarify these relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
Background aim: To examine racial/ethnic variations in the effect of parents' subjective neighborhood safety on children's cognitive performance. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 10,027 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The exposure variable was parents' subjective neighborhood safety. The outcome...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framework suggests that, due to structural racism and social stratification, returns...
Article
The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to the key gaps that exist in our understanding of the epidemiology of adolescent firearm violence and to provide a pathway forward for future longitudinal research that will inform prevention efforts. This increased attention is especially salient given: (a...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health issues among Chinese adolescents in boarding schools have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Our study was to examine the relationship between negative life events and depression experienced by Chinese adolescents at boarding schools, and to study whether peer support and active coping would moderate the relations...
Article
Leveraging spatiotemporal variation in homicides that occurred during a 2.5-year weekly panel survey of 387 women ages 18–22 in Flint, Michigan, we investigate how young women's desires to become pregnant and to avoid pregnancy evolve in response to local homicides during the transition to adulthood. To address the endogeneity of exposure, we explo...
Article
Purpose We investigate whether exposure to violence (ETV) during adolescence and emerging adulthood predicts engagement in chronic disease-related health risk behaviors years later among African Americans. Design A longitudinal study following youth from mid-adolescence (mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). Setting F...
Article
This systematic review synthesizes research on school-based crisis intervention protocols, descriptions, and evaluations. We performed a comprehensive literature search, and 60 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. We found an overwhelming lack of evaluation studies (n = 3), suggesting that interventions are being administered post-cr...
Article
Adolescent exposure to violence (ETV) is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. Despite evidence linking adolescent ETV with later experiences of physical, sexual and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, more longitudinal evidence is needed, and potential explanatory mechanisms should be tested. We examine data c...
Article
Introduction Exposure to adverse experiences during adolescence may have significant implications for intimate partner violence during adulthood because it is during this developmental stage that many youth begin to have romantic relationships. Yet, few prospective longitudinal analyses on this topic exist. This study aims to fill a gap in the lite...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Problematic smartphone usage has become a worldwide problem due to its high prevalence, rapid growth, and serious adverse consequences. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating role of depressive symptoms in the relationship between stressful life events and problematic smartphone usage and the protective role o...
Article
African Americans develop hypertension earlier in life than Whites and the racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure level can appear as early as adolescence. Violence victimization, a prevalent environmental stressor among inner-city youth, may play a role in such disparities. In a sample of inner-city youth in the United States, the current stu...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate motivations for firearm possession among urban young adults and determine if differences emerge between parents and non-parents, and to identify if storage practices differed according to motivation for firearm possession and parenting status. Methods: We used cross-sectional data among young adults seeking urban emergenc...
Article
Objective This research examines the influence of adolescent family conflict on relationship quality in early and later emerging adulthood, while considering the interpersonal resources that protect youth against the intergenerational transmission of negative relationship quality. Background Family conflict during adolescence can impede the develo...
Article
Purpose To describe the transition patterns into and out of post-traumatic stress (PTS) for youth and identify social supports preceding these transitions. Methods We used inhomogeneous, continuous-time, Markov Chain models to model transitions in and out of PTS using data from Waves 1, 3, 4, and 5 of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent We...
Preprint
BACKGROUND African American young adults have low rates of uptake and engagement with health technologies, which may further widen sexual health inequalities. OBJECTIVE We examined factors influencing uptake and engagement for a consumer health informatics (CHI) intervention for HIV/STI prevention among African American young adults using the diff...
Article
Background Regarding health technologies, African American young adults have low rates of uptake, ongoing usage, and engagement, which may widen sexual health inequalities. Objective We aimed to examine rates of uptake and ongoing usage, and factors influencing uptake, ongoing usage, and engagement for a consumer health informatics (CHI) intervent...
Article
Researchers have shown that interpersonal and societal mattering have important implications for adolescent development. Yet, few researchers have focused on what predicts mattering, particularly societal mattering, and even fewer have studied mattering among rural youth. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore how perceived contextual and re...
Article
Introduction Exposure to violence is a risk factor for firearm carriage. Youth exposed to violence also have difficulty envisioning positive future outcomes (e.g., educational outcomes), which can increase the likelihood of firearm carriage over time. Researchers, however, have not yet examined whether changes in exposure to violence over time can...
Article
Objective This study examined the association between baseline substance use and mental health, and non-partner violence trajectories among youth presenting to an urban emergency department who screened positive for drug use. Non-partner violence is physically violent victimization or aggression involving someone other than a dating partner. Metho...
Article
Researchers have documented the negative associations between racial discrimination and alcohol use for young Black people, yet fewer researchers have examined these associations longitudinally and with racial identity as a protective factor. We use data from the Flint Adolescent Study (465 Black/African Americans) to investigate the relationship b...
Article
Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been documented as a risk factor for worse psychological well-being among African Americans. Yet, most researchers have not examined how trajectories of PRD during emerging adulthood shape psychological well-being in adulthood. Moreover, less is known about whether demographic factors and components of raci...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent research has documented marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) of socioeconomic status (SES), defined as weaker effects of SES indicators, such as parental educational attainment, on securing tangible outcomes for the members of socially marginalized (e.g., racial and ethnic minority) groups, compared to privileged so...
Article
Introduction Youth who carry firearms—and peers that surround them—are at increased risk for violent injuries. Because firearm carriage behaviors can change over time within an individual, it is important to identify individual and social-contextual determinants that explain this within-person variability in carriage. Methods The authors identifie...
Conference Paper
Statement-of-Purpose Firearm violence is a leading cause of U.S. mortality. Intensive longitudinal daily data studies [ILDDS] have not examined firearm carriage or same-day/next-day predictors of carriage or violent conflict. Such data are necessary to inform violence interventions. Methods/Approach ED youth/young adults (age=16–29) screening posi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Youth educational outcomes are a function of a wide range of factors including parental education level. This effect, however, is shown to be smaller for African American, Hispanic, and Asian American youth, a pattern called Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs). It is, however, unknown if it is race/ethnicity or other condit...
Article
Although childhood trauma exposure has a high incidence, traumatic stress often goes untreated in children and youth. We investigated peer relationship quality as a prevention strategy for reducing traumatic stress across different developmental periods. We analyzed longitudinal data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW...
Article
BACKGROUND The Michigan Model for Health™ (MMH) is the official health curriculum for the State of Michigan and prevailing policy and practice has encouraged its adoption. Delivering evidence‐based programs such as MMH with fidelity is essential to program effectiveness. Yet, most schools do meet state‐designated fidelity requirements for implement...
Article
Within a lifetime, one in four women and more than one in 10 men will experience intimate partner violence (IPV). Researchers have begun to examine physical and social neighborhood risk factors of IPV, often using cross-sectional data. Most studies focus on risk or promotive factors. Often, neighborhood factors are studied through the lens of socia...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the effects of a neighbourhood greening and beautification strategy called Clean & Green on crime prevention and reduction. Point level data for all Part I index crimes and Clean & Green efforts in the study area from 2005 to 2014 are analysed using spatial and linear regression with two key modifications: (1) controlling for te...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a health promotion program to prevent school dropout and substance use among middle school-aged youth who display early warning signs of school disengagement. Intervention: Youth Empowerment Solutions for Positive Futures (YES-PF), an intensive, theoretically driven, 5-week summer enric...
Article
Full-text available
Adapting evidence-based interventions (EBIs) guided by implementation science frameworks is a promising way to accelerate the translation of effective violence prevention in schools. School-based interventions offer an opportunity to reduce the risk of multiple forms of violence, including sexual violence (SV) and teen dating violence (TDV). EBIs i...
Article
The debate about whether measurement reactivity exists in daily diary research on substance use is still unsettled due to the issues of study design and statistical methodology. This study proposes a time-varying effect model (TVEM) that characterizes the trajectory of substance use behaviors with nonparametric functions determined by the data rath...
Article
Firearm violence is a leading cause of death for urban adolescents and young adults (A/YAs). Little is known about patterns of risky firearm behaviors (RFBs) that may increase firearm-related fatality and non-fatal injury risk. To inform prevention efforts, we examined the rates and correlates of RFBs, including firearm carriage in risky situations...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite intervention efforts to date, the prevalence of risky drinking among adolescents and emerging adults remains high, increasing the risk for health consequences and the development of alcohol use disorders. Peer influences are particularly salient among this age group, including via social media. Thus, the development of efficaci...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Despite intervention efforts to date, the prevalence of risky drinking among adolescents and emerging adults remains high, increasing the risk for health consequences and the development of alcohol use disorders. Peer influences are particularly salient among this age group, including via social media. Thus, the development of efficaciou...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo in the last author name. The author name was incorrectly listed as Mark Zimmerman. The correct name should be Marc A. Zimmerman.
Article
Violence is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States and abroad, with far-reaching consequences for individuals and communities. Interventions that address environmental and social contexts have the potential for greater populationwide effects, yet research has been slow to identify and rigorously evaluate these types of interve...
Article
Background: The psychosocial correlates and longitudinal trajectories of driving after drinking (DAD) among youth remain understudied in at-risk populations. Objectives: We investigated the relationships of DAD trajectories and negative peer and parental influences, substance use, and mental health among predominantly marijuana-using youth seeking...
Article
Objective: Interpersonal violence is a significant public health problem, with substance use a key risk factor. Intensive longitudinal methods (ILMs) provide data on daily patterns/relationships between substance use and violence, informing prevention. Prior daily research has not focused on these relationships among urban minority samples. Metho...
Article
Full-text available
Although multiple interventions to remediate physical blight have been found to reduce urban firearm violence, there is limited evidence for demolishing vacant buildings as a violence reduction strategy. Starting in 2014, Detroit, MI launched a large-scale program that demolished over 10,000 buildings in its first 3 years. We analyzed the pre-post...
Article
Full-text available
To conduct our scoping review of risk and protective factors for firearm violence among youth, we searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Criminal Justice Abstracts for English-language research articles published between January 1985 and May 2018. We included studies of modifiable risk or protective factors associated with intentional (including suic...
Article
Full-text available
Firearm carriage is a key risk factor for interpersonal firearm violence, a leading cause of adolescent (age < 18) mortality. However, the epidemiology of adolescent firearm carriage has not been well characterized. This scoping review examined four databases (PubMed; Scopus; EMBASE; Criminal Justice Abstracts) to summarize research on patterns, mo...
Article
Full-text available
Risk and protective factors for firearm assault (FA) have been established, but little is known about factor preceding transitions in FA behavior. We modeled covariate effects on individuals’ transitions in FA behavior (Yes/No) using inhomogeneous, continuous-time, Markov Chains. 3287 assessments were made across five initial biannual follow-ups, a...
Article
Busy streets theory supported in qualitative study of neighborhoods in a rust belt city. Community engaged neighborhood improvement enhances psychological empowerment. Resident control of neighborhood revitalization results in most empowered outcomes of busy streets. Busy streets theory predicts that engaging residents in physical revitalization of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective While low parental socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower levels of child executive functioning (EF), few have examined the intergenerational effect of SES on child EF across three generations. We adopt a resilience framework to investigate positive parenting as a protective factor in the intergenerational effect of low...
Article
Psychological stressors such as violence victimization are known contributors to obesity. However, moderators and mediators of this association have not been studied, although they might offer pathways for intervention or prevention. Using a sample of African American young adults, this study tested: (1) the moderating effect of sex on the effect o...
Article
We explored whether purpose in life and mastery predicted perceived physical health and problematic substance use among a sample of emerging adults who reported ever using alcohol or drugs. We examined perceived stress and coping as potential mediators of these associations and explored whether parental support moderated any of these associations....
Article
Highlights • Violence exposure adversely implicates sexual health behaviors among African American girls. • Religiosity and mentorship can offset the effect of violence exposure on sexual risk behaviors. • Culturally relevant contexts shape adolescent health behaviors and promote resilience. Abstract African American adolescent girls are at incre...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Firearm injuries are the second leading cause of death among US children and adolescents. Because of the lack of resources allocated to firearm injury prevention during the past 25 years, research has lagged behind other areas of injury prevention. Identifying timely and important research questions regarding firearm injury prevention is...