Marc J Lanovaz

Marc J Lanovaz
Université de Montréal | UdeM · School of Psycho-Education

PhD
Looking for collaborators who want to apply machine learning to their behavioral data, but don't know where to start

About

92
Publications
22,891
Reads
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860
Citations
Introduction
My current research interests involve (a) developing and testing machine learning models to improve decision-making, (b) developing and assessing mobile and web apps to support parents and professionals, (c) automatically detecting motor and vocal behavior using artificial intelligence, and (d) conducting data mining to analyze the behavior of patients, parents and professionals.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - May 2016
Université de Montréal
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 2008 - May 2011
McGill University
Field of study
  • Educational Psychology
September 2005 - December 2007
St. Cloud State University
Field of study
  • Applied Behavior Analysis

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
We developed an iOS app, the iSTIM, designed to support parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in reducing common repetitive vocal and motor behavior (i.e., stereotypy). The purpose of our study was to preliminarily test the decision-making algorithms of the iSTIM using trained university students to implement the assessments and...
Article
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in challenging behaviors, which may interfere with their daily functioning, development, and well-being. To address this issue, we conducted a four-week randomized waitlist control trial to examine the effects of a fully self-guided interactive web training (IWT) on (a) child engagement in ch...
Article
Full-text available
Both researchers and practitioners often rely on direct observation to measure and monitor behavior. When these behaviors are too complex or numerous to be measured in vivo, relying on direct observation using human observers increases the amount of resources required to conduct research and to monitor the effects of interventions in practice. To a...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior analysts commonly use visual inspection to analyze single‐case graphs, but studies on its reliability have produced mixed results. To examine this issue, we compared the Type I error rate and power of visual inspection with a novel approach—machine learning. Five expert visual raters analyzed 1,024 simulated AB graphs, which differed on nu...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and practitioners recognize four domains of behavior analysis: radical behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and the practice of behavior analysis. Given the omnipresence of technology in every sphere of our lives, the purpose of this conceptual article is to describe and argue in favor of a fift...
Article
Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present heterogeneous symptom manifestations and responses to intervention. Despite being well-established, early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has produced inconsistent responding across studies. Investigating individual differences and identifying more homogenous subgroups in s...
Article
Since the start of the 21st century, few advances have had as far-reaching impact in science as the widespread adoption of artificial neural networks in fields as diverse as fundamental physics, clinical medicine, and psychology. In research methods, one promising area for the adoption of artificial neural networks involves the analysis of single-c...
Article
Although early behavioral intervention is considered as empirically-supported for children with autism, estimating treatment prognosis is a challenge for practitioners. One potential solution is to use machine learning to guide the prediction of the response to intervention. Thus, our study compared five machine algorithms in estimating treatment p...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior analysts typically rely on visual inspection of single-case experimental designs to make treatment decisions. However, visual inspection is subjective, which has led to the development of supplemental objective methods such as the conservative dual-criteria method. To replicate and extend a study conducted by Wolfe et al. (2018) on the top...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and practitioners often use single-case designs (SCDs), or n-of-1 trials, to develop and validate novel treatments. Standards and guidelines have been published to provide guidance as to how to implement SCDs, but many of their recommendations are not derived from the research literature. For example, one of these recommendations sugges...
Article
The development of appropriate social skills is critical for all children in establishing relationships and being able to successfully participate in their communities. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, have pronounced difficulties with social skill acquisition, development, execution, generalization and maintenance, which are...
Article
Open-Ended Functional Assessment Interviews have limited empirical support for their concurrent validity with functional analysis. To address this issue, we conducted a study wherein 176 independent behavior analysts relied on data collected using Open-Ended Functional Assessment Interviews to identify the function of challenging behavior in four c...
Article
Full-text available
Despite showing effects in well-controlled studies, the extent to which early intensive behavioral intervention (EBI) produces positive changes in community-based settings remains uncertain. Thus, our study examined changes in autistic symptoms and adaptive functioning in 233 children with autism receiving EBI in a community setting. The results re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Currently, researchers and practitioners recognize four domains of behavior analysis: radical behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and the practice of behavior analysis. Given the omnipresence of technology in every sphere of our lives, the purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe and argue in favor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite being a cornerstone of the science of behavior analysis, researchers and practitioners often rely on tradition and consensus-based guidelines, rather than empirical evidence, to make decisions about single-case designs. One approach to develop empirically-based guidelines is to use Monte Carlo simulations for validation, but behavior analys...
Article
Practitioners in pediatric feeding programs often rely on single-case experimental designs and visual inspection to make treatment decisions (e.g., whether to change or keep a treatment in place). However, researchers have shown that this practice remains subjective, and there is no consensus yet on the best approach to support visual inspection re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite showing robust effects in well-controlled studies, the extent to which early intensive behavioral intervention produces positive changes in naturalistic, community-based settings remains uncertain. Thus, our study examined changes in autistic symptoms and adaptive functioning in 233 children in children with autism receiving early behaviora...
Article
Background Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often engage in high levels of challenging behaviors, which can be difficult to reduce for parents in home settings. The purpose of our study was to address this issue by examining the effects of adapting the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model (PTR) to support parents in reducing challenging behav...
Preprint
Full-text available
Researchers and practitioners often use single-case designs (SCDs), or n-of-1 trials, to develop and validate novel treatments. Standards and guidelines have been published to provide guidance as to how to implement SCDs, but many of their recommendations are not derived from the research literature. For example, one of these recommendations sugges...
Article
Full-text available
Applied behavior analysis (ABA), which is often used as the basis for designing interventions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is highly misrepresented and underutilized in many countries. One country where ABA remains particularly difficult to access is France. One potential problem is that parents often rely on online resources suc...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have widely reported using technological interventions to support young children with autism spectrum disorder. Given the abundance and diversity of research on the topic, the authors conducted a scoping review of 158 studies published from 1994 to 2019 to provide a current state of the literature and guide future research. Overall, the...
Article
Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an employment rate well below the general population. One potential solution to address this issue is the implementation of supported employment services. The purpose of our study was to evaluate a Canadian community supported employment program designed for individuals with ASD withou...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-021-00280-4
Article
The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) has a high degree of convergent validity, but there is still a lack of agreement between the results of the assessment and the results of experimental function analysis. Machine learning (ML) may improve the validity of assessments by using data to build a mathematical model for more accurate predictio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since the start of the 21st century, few advances have had as far reaching impact in science as the widespread adoption of artificial neural networks in fields as diverse as fundamental physics, clinical medicine, and psychology. In research methods, one promising area for the adoption of artificial neural networks involves the analysis of single-c...
Article
Machine-learning algorithms hold promise for revolutionizing how educators and clinicians make decisions. However, researchers in behavior analysis have been slow to adopt this methodology to further develop their understanding of human behavior and improve the application of the science to problems of applied significance. One potential explanatio...
Article
Although behavioral interventions have been known to effectively reduce stereotypy in children with ASD, these types of interventions are not accessible to all families. In response to this issue, we evaluated the effects of the iSTIM, an iOS application designed to support parents in the reduction of stereotypy in their child with ASD. We used a s...
Chapter
Dans les cours de psychoéducation, de psychologie et d’éducation, l’approche comportementale est souvent introduite en discutant de Pavlov qui faisait saliver des chiens avec des sons de cloche, de Watson qui conditionnait la peur chez le petit Albert, ou de Skinner qui enseignait à des rats à appuyer sur des leviers. Bien qu’ils offrent un survol...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) has a high degree of convergent validity, but a gap exists between the results of the assessment and those obtained through experimental functional analysis. Machine learning (ML) can improve the validity of instruments by using data to build a mathematical model for more accurate predictions. We used...
Preprint
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an employment rate well below the general population. One potential solution to address this issue is the implementation of supported employment services. The purpose of our study was to evaluate a Canadian community supported employment program designed for individuals with ASD witho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both researchers and practitioners often rely on direct observation to measure and monitor behavior. When these behaviors are too complex or numerous to be measured in vivo, relying on direct observations using human observers increases the costs of conducting research and monitoring interventions in practice. To address this issue, we conducted a...
Article
Full-text available
Design quality guidelines typically recommend that multiple baseline designs include at least three demonstrations of effects. Despite its widespread adoption, this recommendation does not appear grounded in empirical evidence. The main purpose of our study was to address this issue by assessing Type I error rate and power in multiple baseline desi...
Preprint
Full-text available
ABC narrative recordings and Open-Ended Functional Assessment Interviews have limited empirical support for their concurrent validity with functional analysis. To address this issue, we conducted a study wherein 187 independent behavior analysts relied on data collected using ABC recordings and Open-Ended Functional Assessment Interviews to identif...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning algorithms hold promise in revolutionizing how educators and clinicians make decisions. However, researchers in behavior analysis have been slow to adopt this methodology to further develop their understanding of human behavior and improve the application of the science to problems of applied significance. One potential explanation...
Article
Researchers have demonstrated that video-based interventions are effective at teaching a variety of skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities. To replicate and extend this line of research, we initially planned to compare the effects of video modeling and video prompting on the acquisition of a novel work skill (i.e., data entry) in two...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently, Lanovaz et al. (2020) have found that machine learning algorithms may adequately control for Type I error rate and power when analyzing single-case graphs. However, the study limited most of its analyses to simulated datasets. To replicate and extend this study, we applied the four machine learning models developed by Lanovaz et al. (2020...
Preprint
Full-text available
Design quality guidelines typically recommend that multiple baseline designs include at least three demonstrations of effects. Despite its widespread adoption, this recommendation does not appear grounded in empirical evidence. The main purpose of our study was to address this issue by assessing Type I error rate and power in multiple baseline desi...
Article
Full-text available
Visual analysis is the most commonly used method for interpreting data from single-case designs, but levels of interrater agreement remain a concern. Although structured aids to visual analysis such as the dual-criteria (DC) method may increase interrater agreement, the accuracy of the analyses may still benefit from improvements. Thus, the purpose...
Article
Health professionals often recommend the use of medical devices to assess the health, monitor the well‐being, or improve the quality of life of their patients. Children with autism may present challenges in these situations as their sensory peculiarities may increase refusals to wear such devices. To address this issue, we systematically replicated...
Article
Using a changing-criterion design, we replicated and extended a study (Cook, Rapp, & Schulze, 2015) on differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO). More specifically, educational assistants implemented DNRO to teach a 12-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder to comply with wearing an anti-strip suit to prevent inappropriate fe...
Article
Single-case experimental designs often require extended baselines or the withdrawal of treatment, which may not be feasible or ethical in some practical settings. The quasi-experimental AB design is a potential alternative, but more research is needed on its validity. The purpose of our study was to examine the validity of using nonoverlap measures...
Article
The R programming language has an active community of both users and developers, which maintain mailing lists to communicate. Given their differences in training and stability, the effects of communication tone on responding may differ across these two groups. We thus compared the prevalence and characteristics of different tones in the R-help user...
Article
Background: Due to deficits in adaptive and cognitive functioning, productivity may pose challenges for individuals with intellectual disability in the workplace. Method: Using a changing‐criterion embedded in a multiple baseline across partici‐pants design, we examined the effects of differential reinforcement of high rates of behaviour (DRH) on t...
Article
The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of tablet- and instructor-delivered teaching (i.e., prompting and reinforcement) on the receptive identification of one-word concepts in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To this end, we embedded a multielement design within a multiple probe design to compare the effectiveness...
Article
Behavior analysts have widely adopted and embraced within-subject replication through the use of reversal and multielement designs. However, the withdrawal of treatment, which is central to these designs, may not be desirable, feasible, or even ethical in practical settings. To examine this issue, we extracted 501 ABAB graphs from theses and disser...
Article
Background: Children with a developmental disability often engage in challenging behaviour, which may require that parents implement behavioural assessments and interventions. The purpose of our pilot study was to examine the effects of an interactive web training (IWT) to teach behavioural function identification and intervention selection to pare...
Article
Challenging behaviors are a known predictor of high parenting stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of reducing challenging behaviors on parenting stress. The purpose of our study was to (a) examine the impact of reducing the frequency and severity of challenging behaviors on p...
Article
Full-text available
Les publications scientifiques représentent une source importante d’informations pour les psychoéducateurs qui interviennent auprès des personnes en difficultés d’adaptation. Cependant, la majorité des articles figurant dans les bases de données paraissent en anglais. Par conséquent les découvertes et les développements scientifiques restent moins...
Article
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in children. However, the majority of studies conducted to date have included heterogeneous samples of children combining social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) together. Few studies have examine...
Article
Although visual inspection remains common in the analysis of single-case designs, the lack of agreement between raters is an issue that may seriously compromise its validity. Thus, the purpose of our study was to develop and examine the properties of a simple structured criterion to supplement the visual analysis of alternating-treatment designs. T...
Chapter
Behavior analysts typically conceptualize social skills as behaviors, or series of behaviors, that mediate the responses of others. As such, practitioners may assess and teach social skills using the principles of learning derived from operant conditioning (e.g., positive reinforcement). In the current chapter, we first discuss the conceptualizatio...
Chapter
This chapter presents the issue of challenging behaviors co-occurring within individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because ASD is highly associated with challenging behaviors, it is important that practitioners consider the presence of multiple comorbid challenging behaviors. This chapter describes the characteristics, prevalen...
Article
Given that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often require one-to-one individualized instruction, using tablets as teaching tools may represent an interesting option in classrooms with high student to teacher ratios. The purpose of our study was to extend research by evaluating the effects of tablet-based instruction on the generalizat...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of serial and concurrent training on the generalization of receptive identification in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: We taught one to three pairs of stimulus sets to nine children with ASD between the ages of three and six. One stimulus set within each pair wa...
Article
Prior research has shown that background music may be effective at reducing problem behaviors maintained by non-social (sensory) reinforcement in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, no study has examined the effects of background music on socially-reinforced problem behaviors, which are also common in this population. Thus, the...
Article
Full-text available
Although many researchers have examined the prevalence of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities, the results of previous studies have not been aggregated and analyzed methodically. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the prevalence of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities. Our results...
Article
The purpose of our study was to examine the probability of observing false positives in nonsimulated data using the dual-criteria methods. We extracted data from published studies to produce a series of 16,927 datasets and then assessed the proportion of false positives for various phase lengths. Our results indicate that collecting at least three...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of behavior analytic procedures for assessing and treating stereotypical behavior that is exhibited by individuals diagnosed with autism and intellectual disabilities. First, the chapter begins with a functional definition of motor and vocal stereotypy. Second, the chapter briefly reviews the epidemiology of stereo...
Article
Using computer tablets, we assessed preference for videos in five children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Then, we provided access to most preferred and less preferred videos contingent on sitting on one of two chairs within a concurrent schedule design. All participants spent consistently more time sitting on the chair associated with the vi...
Article
Full-text available
For practitioners, the use of single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) in the research literature raises an important question: How many single-case experiments are enough to have sufficient confidence that an intervention will be effective with an individual from a given population? Although standards have been proposed to address this question, c...
Article
Full-text available
To compare trends in coverage of empirically supported and alternative autism treatments in Canadian newspapers during a 10-year period and to examine whether the portrayal of empirically supported and alternative treatments differed. We searched a sample of 10 daily local and national Canadian newspapers using the word autism combined with interve...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of our study was to replicate and extend previous research on using multicomponent behavioural interventions designed to reduce engagement in stereotypy by examining their effects when implemented by parents over several months. Methods: We used an alternating treatment design to examine the effects of the parent-implement...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Several researchers have reduced engagement in stereotypy in individuals with intellectual disability and deafblindness using interventions containing a punishment component. The purpose of our study was to examine whether we could produce reductions in stereotypy in an individual with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and deafblindness by usi...
Article
Stereotypy is often characterized as repetitious, invariant behavior that generates its own reinforcing consequence. Stereotypy represents a unique treatment challenge, because the consequences produced by stereotypy cannot be directly controlled by the practitioner. Likewise, practitioners have relatively few options for identifying the function o...
Article
Full-text available
We repeatedly paired preferred stimuli with known establishing properties and poster boards (i.e., neutral stimuli) to examine whether these poster boards would acquire the effects of a conditioned establishing operation in five children with autism. Following pairing, the poster boards, which had been previously shown to be neutral, increased imme...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the availability of several interventions designed to reduce engagement in vocal stereotypy, few studies have compared two or more interventions together. Consequently, practitioners have limited amount of data to make informed decisions on whether an intervention may be more suitable than another to begin treating vocal stereotypy. The pur...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article a pour but de décrire le programme d’intervention Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR; Dunlap et al., 2010) en mettant l’accent sur les théories béhaviorales sous-jacentes qui ont servi à son développement. Le PTR est un programme visant la diminution des comportements problématiques chez les enfants et les adolescents en milieu scolaire qui e...
Article
Individuals with an intellectual disability often require intensive services to promote their social participation to the fullest extent. As such, measuring satisfaction with these services appears essential to enhance the quality of life of individuals with an intellectual disability and to improve service delivery within agencies. Thus, the purpo...
Article
Researchers have shown that high levels of stereotypy in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were correlated with more significant impairments in social and adaptive functioning. Reducing stereotypy may thus potentially occasion an increase in appropriate social and adaptive behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review w...
Article
Many professionals report using ABC narrative recording to identify the function of problem behavior in children with developmental disabilities, but research has not established whether their analyses yield valid results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the function identified by expert reviewers using ABC narrative recordin...
Article
A 6-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism participated in a pilot study that showed that (a) television was associated with increased vocal stereotypy and (b) sitting was associated with lower levels of vocal stereotypy. Subsequently, we reduced vocal stereotypy while the television was on by reinforcing sitting on a variable-interval sch...
Article
Motivating operations are stimulus events that alter the value of a consequence as well as the occurrence of behavior that it maintains. We conducted a literature review on the impact of motivating operations on the treatment of problem behavior (e.g., aggression, destruction, self-injury, stereotypy) in individuals with disabilities. The studies r...
Article
Full-text available
One of the professional activities of psychoeducation, results assessment, involves the continuous monitoring of the effects of the intervention proposed by the psychoeducator. To implement this monitoring, single-case experimental designs are an option to favour because they allow (a) the assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention and (b)...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a modified paired-choice preference assessment and used a multielement design to examine the effects of noncontingent access to high- and low-preference music on vocal stereotypy exhibited by children with autism. For 3 of the 4 participants, high-preference music (a) produced lower levels of vocal stereotypy than low-preference music...
Article
Full-text available
The authors evaluated the effects of matched and unmatched stimuli on immediate and subsequent engagement in targeted vocal stereotypy (Experiment 1)and untargeted motor stereotypy (Experiment 2). Results of Experiment 1 showed that (a) matched stimulation decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for 8 of 11 participants and increased sub...
Article
Noncontingent music has been shown to reduce engagement in vocal stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorders, but its effects on appropriate collateral behavior remain unknown. Given that noncontingent music is typically implemented during periods of free play, clinicians may be concerned with the effects of the intervention on toy manipu...
Article
Full-text available
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is an intervention with strong empirical support to reduce problem behaviour in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention involves providing access to a preferred stimulus, typically the reinforcer maintaining the problem behaviour, on a regular or continuous basis. The paper has an educa...