Marc A. Hughes

Marc A. Hughes
US Forest Service | FS

PhD (Plant Pathology)

About

37
Publications
7,648
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860
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
653 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
Introduction
Marc A. Hughes currently works as a research plant pathologist at the US Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry in Hilo, Hawaii

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Laurel wilt, caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola, has caused widespread mortality to Persea borbonia across the southeastern United States. The invasive ambrosia beetle vector of the pathogen, Xyleborus glabratus, attacks and infects trees, leaving only P. borbonia seedlings, saplings, and stump sprouts in heavily affected areas. To facilitate...
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Phytosanitary heat treatments of Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis huliohia-colonized Metrosideros polymorpha wood were evaluated using kilns. Wood poles subjected to a 22-to 34-day dehumidification kiln schedule with a heat treatment to 608C to the poles' core. In vacuum kiln trials, logs were heated to 568C at 70 percent log radius depth and...
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Diagnostic testing to detect forest pathogens requires the collection of physical samples from affected trees, which can be challenging in remote or rugged environments. As an alternative to traditional ground-based sampling at breast height by field crews, we examined the feasibility of aerially sampling and testing material collected from upper c...
Article
Metrosideros polymorpha (ʻōhiʻa) trees in Hawaiʻi are dying from two distinct diseases, collectively referred to as Rapid ʻŌhiʻa Death (ROD), caused by Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis huliohia. Boring dust (frass) released when ambrosia beetles attack and colonize infected trees has been suspected as a transmission source. We sampled ambrosi...
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Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (‘ōhi‘a) is the most abundant native forest tree in Hawai‘i and a keystone species of cultural, ecological, and economic importance. ‘Ōhi‘a forests, particularly on Hawaiʻi Island, are being severely impacted by Rapid ‘Ōhi‘a Death (ROD), which is caused by the fungal pathogens Ceratocystis lukuohia and C. huliohia. ROD...
Chapter
Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis huliohia are two newly recognized fungi that have arrived in Hawai‘i and are causing a serious vascular wilt and canker disease, respectively, of ‘ōhi‘a trees (Metrosideros polymorpha), the most common and important tree species in Hawai‘i. Management of these diseases has presented challenges due to unique et...
Article
A new and devastating disease, rapid ohia death (ROD), in Hawaii led to a state quarantine that regulates inter-island transport of ohia wood and plant material to prevent spread of the causal pathogens. Heat treatments of ohia logs in commercial trade were considered for phytosanitary treatment. Vacuum steam (VS) was evaluated for its ability to e...
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Rapid Ohia Death is a major concern for the viability of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii and has led to restrictions on log movement. The potential for using disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) dip diffusion treatments to control the two causal fungi (Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis h...
Article
Full-text available
Host size, density, and distribution, in addition to climate, can affect the likelihood a pathogen will invade and saturate landscapes. Laurel wilt, caused by the vector-borne pathogen Raffaelea lauricola, has devastated populations of native Lauraceae in the Southeastern US, and continues to spread. We surveyed 87 plots in six coastal islands in S...
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This review highlights current advances in the management of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, a primary vector of the pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt. Laurel wilt has a detrimental effect on forest ecosystems of southeastern USA, with hundreds of millions of Lauraceae deaths. Currently, preventive mea...
Article
Extensive mortality of Metrosideros polymorpha (`ōhi`a) trees has been associated with Ceratocystis spp. on Hawai`i Island and was named rapid `ōhi`a death (ROD). Both C. lukuohia and C. huliohia have been associated with ROD, although C. lukuohia appears to be the more important pathogen. Crown observations and dissections of forest trees either w...
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Full-text available
The early detection of plant pathogens at the landscape scale holds great promise for better managing forest ecosystem threats. In Hawai'i, two recently described fungal species are responsible for increasingly widespread mortality in 'ōhi'a Metrosideros polymorpha, a foundational tree species in Hawaiian native forests. In this study, we share wor...
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Full-text available
The fungus Ceratocystis huliohia was detected for the first time in dead and dying Metrosideros polymorpha trees on the Island of Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, U.S.A. Fungal isolates were recovered from diseased trees into culture, and identities were confirmed by diagnostic qPCR assay and DNA sequencing. Growth chamber inoculations confirmed C. huliohia pathog...
Article
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Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional symbiont of its vector the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff. Both are native to Asia but appeared in Georgia in the early 2000s. Laurel wilt has since spread to much of the southeastern United States killing >300 million hos...
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Rapid ʻŌhiʻa Death (ROD) is a fungal disease of ʻōhiʻa lehua (Myrtaceae: Metrosideros polymorpha) caused by Ceratocystis lukuohia and C. huliohia. ROD is the aetiological agent of widespread mortality of this important tree on Hawaiʻi Island, but its epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated the prevalence and viability of C. lukuohia in ambros...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogenic invasions are a major source of change in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. In forests, fungal pathogens can kill habitat-generating plant species such as canopy trees, but methods for remote detection, mapping and monitoring of such outbreaks are poorly developed. Two novel species of the fungal genus Ceratocystis have spread ra...
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Laurel wilt is an extraordinarily destructive exotic tree disease in the southeastern United States that involves new-encounter hosts in the Lauraceae, an introduced vector (Xyleborus glabratus) and pathogen symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola). USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to estimate that over 300 million trees of re...
Article
Full-text available
The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus is the vector of the symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the Lauraceae family. Pioneer X. glabratus beetles infect live trees with R. lauricola, and only when tree health starts declining more X. glabratus are attracted to the infected tr...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family in the southeastern United States. It is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional fungal symbiont of an invasive Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, which was detected in Port Wentworth, Georgia, in 2002. The beetle is the primary vector...
Article
Full-text available
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the vector of the laurel wilt disease fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola. Since the vector's initial detection in the USA in the early 2000s, laurel wilt has killed millions of redbay, Persea borbonia, trees and other members of the plant family Lauraceae. To protect host trees from beetle attac...
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Full-text available
Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial production in the United States and other countries, and currently impacts the avocado industry in Florida. As laurel wilt spreads, the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS) and commercial...
Article
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In October 2014, a survey for diseases and pests of an emerging fruit crop, avocado (Persea americana) (FAO 2000), was conducted in Southern Shan State of Myanmar (aka Burma). In the Tuanggyi District (1,400 m elevation, 20.5°N 97°E), monocultures of up to 20 ha were observed, whereas in the Ywangan District (1,850 m elevation, 21.2°N 96.4°E), avoc...
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This recovery plan is one of several disease-specific documents produced as part of the National Plant Disease Recovery System (NPDRS) called for in Homeland Security Presidential Directive Number 9 (HSPD-9). The purpose of the NPDRS is to insure that the tools, infrastructure, communication networks, and capacity required to mitigate the impact of...
Article
Full-text available
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an important pest of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swamp bay (P. palustris) trees in forests of the southeastern USA. It is also a threat to commercially grown avocado. The beetle is attracted to host wood volatiles, particularly sesquiterpenes. Contrary to other ambrosia beetles that attack stress...
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Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) is an economically important evergreen tree of the family Lauraceae. It is native to Asia Minor and the Balkans and was introduced into the United States for its ornamental and culinary uses (4). In September 2013, a 6-m-tall bay laurel in Gainesville, FL, attracted our attention because it had wilted leaves, discolor...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt, caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by the exotic ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, has killed members of the Lauraceae plant family throughout the southeast United States. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effects of inoculum concentration on the development of laurel wilt in swamp bay, Pers...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetative propagation experiments were conducted on redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. [Lauraceae]) to evaluate disease resistance and to conserve germplasm. We developed a primary framework for redbay vegetative propagation to address limita-tions of long-term seed storage and the need to preserve and screen putatively laurel wilt-resistant red...
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In order to assess the susceptibility of the tree species P. indica to the laurel wilt fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, field and growth chamber experiments were conducted. Accepted for publication 3 June 2013. Published 14 August 2013.
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These preliminary results indicate that there are numerous New World species of the Lauraceae potentially at risk of attack by X. glabratus. More research is needed to fully determine the susceptibility of Persea spp. and other genera within the Lauraceae to both the pathogen and vector. However, because of the difficulty in obtaining bolts of non-...
Article
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Silk bay (Persea humilis Nash) is a member of the Lauraceae precinctive to the scrub forests of central and southern Florida and a sister species to the primary laurel wilt host, redbay (P. borbonia (L.) Spreng), which is generally not found in these ecosystems. In November 2011, observations of silk bay mortality near Lake Placid in Highlands Coun...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt is a fungal vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (1). The disease is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which is vectored by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) (2). Pondspice (Litsea...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, threatens native and non-native species in the Lauraceae in the south-eastern USA. Avocado, Persea americana, is the most important agricultural suscept of laurel wilt. Grafted plants (clonal scions on seedling rootstocks) of 24 cultivars were screened against the disease in the field from 2008 to 2010. D...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt is a lethal, nonnative vascular wilt disease of redbay (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other trees in the Lauraceae (1,4). It is caused by a fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) and transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), a nonnative insect first detected in Georgia in 2002 (1,2). Since introductio...
Article
Full-text available
In 2 no-choice experiments, female redbay ambrosia beetles were released onto young plants of redbay, live oak, and 5 different avocado cultivars of various genetic backgrounds. Beetles bored into all species except live oak, and transmitted the laurel wilt fungus to redbay and all the avocado cultivars except 'Hass'. Only redbay and 'Simmonds' avo...
Article
Full-text available
Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States. It is caused by a fungus (Raffaelea sp.) that is vectored by a non-native insect of Asian origin, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) (1). Since the initial detection of the red...

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Projects (3)
Project
The objectives of this project is to provide new tools to control the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB) (Xyleborus glabratus), the vector of the fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) causing laurel wilt. Since its introduction, laurel wilt has become a major treat of redbay and Lauraceae, killing millions of trees along the southeastern coast. Additionally, RAB is increasingly expanding its range, now colonizing sassafas (Sassafras albidum) and avocado (Persea americana). In response to this threat, we propose to develop a semiochemical-based repellent tool against RAB in Lauracea trees. The final product developed with the support of the company ISCA technologies will allow for manual or mechanical, aerial or ground-based, application directly to target trees using conventional equipment. The successful development of effective repellent to monitor and manage X. glabratus will create opportunities for expanding the use of semiochemical volatiles into the management of this vector of laurel wilt in order to protect Lauraceae plants.