Marc Hockings

Marc Hockings
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Earth and Environmental Sciences

PhD

About

182
Publications
121,923
Reads
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13,380
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
January 2016 - July 2016
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Deputy Head
January 2010 - December 2015
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (182)
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a decision on protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs). It contains the definition of an OECM and related scientific and technical advice that has broadened the scope of governance authorities and areas that can be engaged and recognised...
Article
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This paper is freely available open access from: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2021.PARKS-27-SICP.en The intersection of potential global targets and commitments for ocean conservation with the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has resulted in an opportunity to rethink the future of marine area-based conservation tools, particularly for marine protected...
Article
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Work on the post‐2020 global biodiversity framework is now well advanced and will outline a vision, goals, and targets for the next decade of biodiversity conservation and beyond. For the effectiveness of Protected areas and Other Effective area‐based Conservation Measures, an indicator has been proposed for “areas meeting their documented ecologic...
Book
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The Eastern and Southern Africa region covers 24 countries from South Africa in the south to Sudan in the north and four of the six Western Indian Ocean island nations. The region is culturally diverse and extremely rich in biodiversity, with an abundance of spectacular wildlife, and many endemic species of flora and fauna. Considerable effort...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is having a dramatic impact on the global community; on people's lives and health, livelihoods, economies, and behaviours. Most zoonotic disease pandemics, including COVID-19, arise from the unsustainable exploitation of nature. This special editorial provides a snapshot of how protected and conserved areas around the world ar...
Article
There are a many reasons for creating quantitative models of deforestation, supported by a variety of modelling techniques for doing so. We examine the suitability of four different modelling techniques for predicting deforestation; Bayesian networks (BNs), artificial neural networks (ANNs), Gaussian processes (GPs), and generalised linear mixed mo...
Preprint
Work has begun in earnest to formulate a post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework which will outline the vision and targets for the next decade of biodiversity conservation and beyond. However, the performance of the 2011-2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity suggests that even a meaningful target can fail to deliver if not accompanied by fit-for-pur...
Book
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The development of this second edition of these guidelines was in part a response to evidence of the widespread incorrect application of the categories to marine protected areas (MPAs). Marine management and sustainable fisheries management are critical elements of good oceans management, but are not the same as protected areas management, where th...
Article
Although protected areas represent a pivotal response to escalating anthropogenic threats, they face many pressures, inside and outside their boundaries. Amid these challenges, effective conservation is guided by evidence-based decision making supported by dynamic processes of learning and knowledge exchange. Although different models promote knowl...
Article
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Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool in efforts to safeguard biodiversity against increasing anthropogenic threats. As signatories to the 2011–2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, 196 nations pledged support for expansion in the extent of the global PA estate and the quality of PA management. While this has resulted in substantial increases in PA...
Article
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Local application of the biosphere reserve concept in Kien Giang, Vietnam was examined to see how it compared with other biosphere reserves both in Vietnam and internationally and from that to assess the level of adoption and what could be limiting processes. This was undertaken mainly through qualitative document analysis, field surveys, and exten...
Article
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As partnerships between Indigenous peoples and conservation practitioners mature, new methods are being sought to assess their effectiveness. The increasing diversity of income sources mobilised by Indigenous land and sea managers in Australia is intensifying the pressures on them to demonstrate their ‘effectiveness’ through a range of frameworks,...
Article
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Protecting important sites is a key strategy for halting the loss of biodiversity. However, our understanding of the relationship between management inputs and biodiversity outcomes in protected areas (PAs) remains weak. Here, we examine biodiversity outcomes using species population trends in PAs derived from the Living Planet Database in relation...
Article
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A hundred research priorities of critical importance to protected area management were identified by a targeted survey of conservation professionals; half researchers and half practitioners. Respondents were selected to represent a range of disciplines, every continent except Antarctica and roughly equal numbers of men and women. The results analys...
Article
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Context Conflict over land use is endemic to natural resource management given the limited availability of resources and multiple stakeholders’ interests, but there has been limited research to examine conflict from an integrative social-ecological perspective. Objectives We sought to determine how the potential for land use conflict—a social cons...
Article
Protected areas will vary in how they respond to climate-related threats and impacts. An important step in adapting protected area management to respond to climate change is identifying how protected areas and their values may be impacted. This requires an understanding of the ecological and social system impacting on the particular values so that...
Article
Full-text available
Protecting important sites is a key strategy for halting the loss of biodiversity. However, our understanding of the relationship between management inputs and biodiversity outcomes in protected areas (PAs) remains weak. Here, we examine biodiversity outcomes using species population trends in PAs derived from the Living Planet Database in relation...
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas (PAs) represent a cornerstone of efforts to safeguard biodiversity, and if effective should reduce threats to biodiversity. We present the most comprehensive assessment of threats to terrestrial PAs, based on in-situ data from 1,961 PAs across 149 countries, assessed by PA managers and local stakeholders. Unsustainable hunting was t...
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas (PAs) represent a cornerstone of efforts to safeguard biodiversity, and if effective should reduce threats to biodiversity. We present the most comprehensive assessment of threats to terrestrial PAs, based on in-situ data from 1,961 PAs across 149 countries, assessed by PA managers and local stakeholders. Unsustainable hunting was t...
Article
Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora specie...
Article
Current protected area management is becoming more challenging with advancing climate change and current park management techniques may not be adequate to adapt for effective management into the future. The framework presented here provides an adaptive management decision making process to assist protected area managers with adapting on-park manage...
Article
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Social considerations in conservation are increasingly recognized as important for successful environmental outcomes. However, social measures lack consistency and may underreport key issues. This paper analyses social indicators and well-being dimensions used in protected area effectiveness tools, with specific attention to local communities and I...
Article
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Recovery planning is an important global conservation strategy for threatened species. Despite the existence of international standards for recovery planning, deficiencies and anomalies have been detected in several jurisdictions. This study evaluated the quality of recovery plans based on internal consistency as a measurement of coherent planning....
Article
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Biosphere reserves operating under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme aim to achieve three mandate management objectives of conservation, sustainable socioeconomic development, and logistic support. The apparent mismatch between the biosphere reserve (BR) concept and implementation reality has led to the call for assessment of management ef...
Article
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of s...
Article
The range and quality of freely available geo-referenced datasets is increasing. We evaluate the usefulness of free datasets for deforestation prediction by comparing generalised linear models and generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a variety of machine learning models (Bayesian networks, artificial neural networks and Gaussian processes)...
Article
The way biosphere reserve principles are applied in Vietnam was assessed through analysis of legal documents and an online survey with 41 managers and staff members of the Biosphere Reserve Management Boards and National Man and the Biosphere Committee. The significant growth of the biosphere reserve network in Vietnam since 2000 is indicative of s...
Chapter
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) exhibit enormous variety of size, location and management. They include long-term, traditional management systems that are now being incorporated into national protected area networks, along with many newly designated areas imposed by governments and sometimes, tentatively, by the international community. The considera...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an important marine conservation strategy; however, managing MPAs is challenging due to threats such as coastal development, non-compliance and recreational pressures. We conducted semi-structured interviews with MPA managers and rangers in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria to discuss the opportunity to appl...
Article
Horta e Costa et al. (Marine Policy 72 (2), 2016) suggest a new way of defining marine protected areas based around an analysis of uses (primarily fishing, but also aquaculture, boating and anchoring). Whilst the authors highlight some important, we believe there are strong arguments to stick with the existing IUCN classification system and outline...
Article
Conservation relies heavily on protected areas (PAs) maintaining their key biodiversity features to meet global biodiversity conservation goals. However, PAs have had variable success, with many failing to fully maintain their biodiversity features. The current literature concerning what drives variability in PA performance is rapidly expanding but...
Article
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Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations...
Chapter
International conservation efforts rely heavily on protected areas, which are commonly considered the most important tool available to maintain habitat integrity and species diversity in the face of increasing anthropogenic threats worldwide. Improved understanding of drivers would lead to management and policy that are more likely to maximise spec...
Article
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Protected area coverage has reached over 15% of the global land area. However, the quality of management of the vast majority of reserves remains unknown, and many are suspected to be “paper parks”.Moreover, the degree to which management can be enhanced through targeted conservation projects remains broadly speculative. Proven links between improv...
Article
Recognising that protected areas (PAs) are essential for effective biodiversity conservation action, the Convention on Biological Diversity established ambitious PA targets as part of the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Under the strategic goal to "improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity",...
Article
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Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts...
Article
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Human–elephant conflict is one of the main threats to the long-term survival of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus . We studied the nature and extent of human–elephant interactions in the buffer zones of Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, through household questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, site observations, a...
Chapter
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Protected areas have emerged as a cultural feature and perhaps the largest land resource allocation decision in human history. Yet they are not without controversy on their adequacy for conservation and social justice. We argue that protected areas not only are necessary for conservation, they also contribute to human well-being and social justice...
Article
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Despite a highly visible presence, policy-maker knowledge of the drivers and participants in the informal economy of wild-harvested medicinal plants in Cape Town remains limited. To illuminate the workings of this local cultural business activity, the researchers adopted value chain analysis (VCA) for dissecting harvesting, trading and consumer dem...
Article
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Originally conceived to conserve iconic landscapes and wildlife, protected areas are now expected to achieve an increasingly diverse set of conservation, social and economic objectives. The amount of land and sea designated as formally protected has markedly increased over the past century, but there is still a major shortfall in political commitme...
Article
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We studied the effectiveness of protected area management within a Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) priority place for conservation investment, located in the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. At least 473 sites in this region have completed Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) assessments since 2003, often associated with Gl...
Article
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In this editorial essay, members of the Editorial Board of PARKS review the status of conservation literature. Three problems are identified: 1) the growing gap between the formal conservation literature and the so-called ‘grey literature’ of project reports, studies and working papers;; 2) the effectiveness of the majority of conservation literatu...
Article
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Protected areas face a suite of impacts from anthropogenic climate change and land use change, and current management approaches may not conserve these areas adequately as these changes occur. Most protected areas require the cooperation and support of local communities and an understanding of stakeholder values and perspectives. Collaborative appr...
Article
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The scarcity of environmental data means that other sources of information are needed to complement empirical evidence for conservation decisions. By regularly interacting with their local environment, protected area practitioners may generate local ecological knowledge (LEK) that can be used to inform management decisions. However, the accuracy of...
Article
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South Africa's organically emerged cultural business of traditional healing is almost exclusively reliant on wild-harvested resources extracted from wilderness areas or open-access commons. The wild medicine business has been described for much of South Africa, although is little understood in Cape Town, the urban centerpiece of the Cape Floristic...
Article
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The IUCN World Parks Congress is a once in a decade event that has traditionally been a major forum for advancing global protected area policy and practice. The Congress this November in Sydney Australia will be run along eight streams; addressing biodiversity, climate change, health, ecosystem services, development, governance, indigenous peoples...