Marc Garellek

Marc Garellek
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Department of Linguistics

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79
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Publications (79)
Chapter
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Article
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In American English, a glottal stop is sometimes pronounced in place of an expected syllable coda /t/, and audible glottalization is attested before both /t/ and /p/ in coda position. Following previous work, we claim that the voiceless stops in American English involve a glottal constriction gesture to produce voicelessness in coda position, which...
Article
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Twenty years after the publication of a special issue in this journal on non-modal phonation (JPhon 2001: 49(4)), the phonetic study of voice quality has shown impressive progress. Here I focus on what we have learnt over these years about the linguistic sources of voice quality modulation. I stress how voice quality has a role to play in all of sp...
Article
The measure H1–H2, the difference in amplitude between the first and second harmonics, is frequently used to distinguish phonation types and to characterize differences across voices and genders. While H1–H2 can differentiate voices and is used by listeners to perceive changes in voice quality, its relation to voice articulation is less straightfor...
Chapter
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Choguita Rarámuri is an endangered Uto-Aztecan language from Northern Mexico featuring a complex prosodic system, with both stress and tone in its word prosody, as well as postlexical intonation. Based on the analysis of instrumental data obtained through field research, in this chapter we describe how lexical tones in this language are realized in...
Article
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Qaqet is a non-Austronesian Baining language of Papua New Guinea, with a very small phoneme inventory of 16 consonants and four vowels, including the voiced stops /b d ɡ/. These stops are often phonetically realized as prenasalized [mb ⁿd ŋɡ], and this feature is assumed to be a result of language contact with surrounding Oceanic languages. Our dat...
Article
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No PDF available ABSTRACT This study examines the extent to which the phonological structure of a language impacts acoustic variation in voice spaces for individuals and populations of speakers. Our recent work on two typologically different languages, American English and Seoul Korean, showed striking similarities in the acoustic spaces derived fr...
Article
Variation in voicing is common among sounds of the world's languages: sounds that are analyzed as voiceless can undergo voicing, and those analyzed as voiced can devoice. Among voiceless glottal sounds in particular, voicing is widespread: linguists often expect the voiceless glottal stop [ʔ] and fricative [h] to be fully voiced, especially between...
Article
Purpose Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) are described as having altered vocal quality. The current study utilizes psychoacoustic measures, namely, low-amplitude (H1*–H2*) and high-amplitude (H1*–A2*) spectral tilt and cepstral peak prominence (CPP), to identify the vocal fold articulation characteristics in this population. Method Eight chi...
Article
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Hmong languages, particularly White Hmong, are well studied for their complex tone systems that incorporate pitch, phonation, and duration differences. Still, prior work has made use mostly of tones elicited in their citation forms in carrier phrases. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of both the vowel and tone systems of White Hmong...
Article
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No agreed-upon method currently exists for objective measurement of perceived voice quality. This paper describes validation of a psychoacoustic model designed to fill this gap. This model includes parameters to characterize the harmonic and inharmonic voice sources, vocal tract transfer function, fundamental frequency, and amplitude of the voice,...
Article
Tongan ( lea fakatonga , ISO 639-3 code ton) is a Polynesian language spoken mainly in Tonga, where it is one of two official languages (with English). There are about 104,000 speakers of the language in Tonga, with nearly 80,000 additional speakers elsewhere (Simons & Fennig 2017). It is most closely related to Niuean, and more distantly related t...
Article
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It is not yet standard practice in phonetics to provide access to audio files along with submissions to journals. This is paradoxical in view of the importance of data for phonetic research: from audio signals to the whole range of data acquired in phonetic experiments. The phonetic sciences stand to gain greatly from data availability: what is at...
Article
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Central Yiddish (CY) has inserted schwas that occur between long vowels or diphthongs and certain coda consonants. In the most restrictive varieties, schwas are inserted only between long high vowels or diphthongs and uvular or rhotic codas (as in /biːχ/ → [biːəχ] 'book'), and between long high vowels or diphthongs and coronal codas, as long as the...
Article
Phonation types, or contrastive voice qualities, are minimally produced using complex movements of the vocal folds, but may additionally involve constriction in the supraglottal and pharyngeal cavities. These complex articulations in turn produce a multidimensional acoustic output that can be modeled in various ways. In this study, I investigate wh...
Poster
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Bickley (1982) proposed H1–H2 as an index of the stronger H1 observed for breathy vowels compared to modal ones. Because harmonic amplitudes also vary by overall sound pressure level (SPL), H1 amplitude was normalized to that of H2. Studies have also shown that H1–H2 is well perceived and correlates with glottal open quotient, and thus can be used...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we explore the relationship between lexical tone and musical tune in folk songs of Green Mong, a Hmong-Mien language spoken in Southeast Asia and by Hmong diaspora communities. Previous research has claimed that, in folk songs, the seven lexical tones of the language map onto four musical notes. Non-modal quality is impressionisticall...
Conference Paper
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Ends of utterances are often creaky in American English, but the changes in voice quality across the utterance are still poorly understood. In this study, we use electroglottographic contact quotient to track voice quality changes over the course of the English utterance. 10 speakers were recorded using both audio and electroglottography while read...
Article
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In interactive models of speech production, wordforms that are related to a target form are co-activated during lexical planning, and co-activated wordforms can leave phonetic traces on the target. This mechanism has been proposed to account for phonetic similarities among morphologically related wordforms. We test this hypothesis in a Javanese ver...
Article
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Yerevan Armenian is a variety of Eastern Armenian with a three-way voicing contrast that includes voiced, voiceless unaspirated, and voiceless aspirated stops, but previous work has not converged on a description of how voice quality is involved in the contrast. We demonstrate how voice quality can be assessed in a two-dimensional acoustic space us...
Article
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White Hmong contrasts two high-falling tones (one breathy, the other modal) and two low tones (one modal level-tone, the other creaky low-falling). Perceptual studies [Garellek et al. (2013)] have shown that listeners rely on breathy voice to distinguish between the high-falling tones, but ignore creaky voice when distinguishing between the low ton...
Article
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Malayalam (Dravidian) has been described as having seven contrastive nasal places of articulation: labial, dental, alveolar, retroflex, palatal, velar, and a “seventh nasal,” sometimes called palatal-velar /ŋj/ (Asher & Kumari 1997; Namboodiripad & Garellek 2017). Nasal inventories of this size are cross-linguistically rare, and the palatal-velar n...
Article
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In American English, voiceless codas /t/ and /p/ are often glottalized: They have glottal constriction that results in creaky voice on the preceding vowel. Previous claims suggest that such glottalization can serve to enhance /t/ or, more generally, voicelessness of coda stops. In this study, we examine the timecourse of word recognition to test wh...
Article
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Javanese has a contrast between tense and lax stops. While both tense and lax stops are voiceless and unaspirated, the contrast at least in word-initial position is realized through acoustic differences in the following vowel, including lower f0, breathier voice quality, and higher F1 for the lax stops relative to their tense counterparts. However,...
Article
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Previous work demonstrates that a word's status as morphologically-simple or complex may be reflected in its phonetic realisation. One possible source for these effects is phonetic paradigm uniformity, in which an intended word's phonetic realisation is influenced by its morphological relatives. For example, the realisation of the inflected word fr...
Article
In some languages, there is a diachronic correspondence between nasal and breathy sounds, whose origin is often attributed to the acoustic similarities between nasal and breathy vowels. In this study, we test whether nasal consonants and vowels are also produced with breathier voice quality than their oral counterparts in three Yi (Loloish) languag...
Article
In American English, voiceless codas /t, p/ are often realized with glottalization on the preceding vowel. Previous claims suggest that such glottalization can serve to enhance /t/ or, more generally, voicelessness of coda stops. This study examines the timecourse of word recognition to test these claims. 40 American English listeners participated...
Article
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Purpose: The question of what type of utterance-a sustained vowel or continuous speech-is best for voice quality analysis has been extensively studied but with equivocal results. This study examines whether previously reported differences derive from the articulatory and prosodic factors occurring in continuous speech versus sustained phonation....
Article
In American English, the presence of creaky voice can derive from distinct linguistic processes, including phrasal creak (prolonged irregular voicing, often at edges of prosodic phrases) and coda /t/ glottalization (when the alveolar closure for syllable-final /t/ is replaced by or produced simultaneously with glottal constriction). Garellek (2015)...
Article
A psychoacoustic model of the voicesourcespectrum is proposed. The model is characterized by four spectral slope parameters: the difference in amplitude between the first two harmonics (H1–H2), the second and fourth harmonics (H2–H4), the fourth harmonic and the harmonic nearest 2 kHz in frequency (H4–2 kHz), and the harmonic nearest 2 kHz and that...
Article
Malayalam ( / m a l a j a ːɭ a m /; ISO 639) is a Dravidian language (Southern branch) spoken by over 33 million people in India, predominantly in Kerala (Lewis, Simmons & Fenning 2013). The language is diglossic, with the formal register used in written media and orally in formal settings. Colloquial Malayalam, for which there is no standard orth...
Conference Paper
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There is not one kind, but instead several kinds, of creaky voice, or creak. There is no single defining property shared by all kinds. Instead, each kind exhibits some properties but not others. Therefore different acoustic measures characterize different kinds of creak. This paper describes how various acoustic measures should pattern for each kin...
Article
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Models of the voice source differ in their fits to natural voices, but it is unclear which differences in fit are perceptually salient. This study examined the relationship between the fit of five voice source models to 40 natural voices, and the degree of perceptual match among stimuli synthesized with each of the modeled sources. Listeners comple...
Article
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In this study, we determine the acoustic correlates of primary and secondary stress in Tongan. Vowels with primary stress show differences in f0, intensity, duration, F1, and spectral measures compared to unstressed vowels, but a linear discriminant analysis suggests f0 and duration are the best cues for discriminating vowels with primary stress fr...
Article
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American English has several linguistic sources of creaky voice. Two common sources are /t/-glottalization (where /t/ is produced as a glottal stop and/or with creaky voice, as in "button") and phrase-final creak. Both /t/-glottalization and phrase-final creak have similar acoustic properties, but they can co-occur in English. The goal of this stud...
Conference Paper
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This study proposes a model of the intonation of Choguita Rarámuri (Tarahumara), a Uto-Aztecan language spoken in Chihuahua, Mexico. Tonal patterns of utterances were examined by varying the length of a word and a phrase, the location of lexical stress-tone, and sentence types. The only attested prosodic unit above the prosodic word is the Intona-t...
Conference Paper
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Glottalization of coda /t, p/ is a common process in American English. This study uses acoustic measures to determine when coda glottalization occurs in the conversational speech of the Buckeye Corpus. Vowels preceding coda /t, p/ tokens for 40 speakers were analyzed using H1*–H2*, an acoustic correlate of glottal constriction. Results indicate tha...
Conference Paper
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Models of the voice source differ in how they fit natural voices, but it is still unclear which differences in fit are perceptually salient. This study describes ongoing analyses of differences in the fit of six voice source models to 40 natural voices, and how these differences relate to perceptual similarities among stimuli. Listeners completed a...
Article
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At present, two important questions about voice remain unanswered: When voice quality changes, what physiological alteration caused this change, and if a change to the voice production system occurs, what change in perceived quality can be expected? We argue that these questions can only be answered by an integrated model of voice linking productio...
Conference Paper
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Code-switching offers an interesting methodology to examine what happens when two linguistic systems come into contact. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to see if (1) listeners were able to anticipate code-switches in speech-in-noise, and (2) prosodic cues were present in the signal as potential cues to an upcoming code-switch....
Article
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Our previous study examined the perceptual adequacy of different source models. We found that perceived similarity between modeled and natural voice samples was best predicted (in the time dimension) by thematch between waveforms at the negative peak of the flow derivative (R(2) = 0.34). The extent of fit during the opening phase of the source puls...
Article
Bilinguals have shown a hyper-awareness of fine phonetic detail in speech, while also sometimes losing out on higher-level syntactic and semantic information in speech-in-noise studies. This study seeks to determine how bilinguals process speech in noisy environments across different language contexts. Specifically, this study tests whether bilingu...
Conference Paper
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The study investigates the importance of phonation cues in White Hmong tone identification.
Article
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A psychoacoustic model of the source spectrum has been proposed in which source contributions to overall voice quality can be quantified by four spectral slope components: H1-H2 (the amplitude difference between the first and second harmonics), H2-H4, H4-2000 Hz (i.e., the harmonic nearest to 2000 Hz), and 2000-5000 Hz. The natural variability of t...
Conference Paper
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Many glottal source models have been proposed, but none has been systematically validated perceptually. Our previous work showed that model fitting of the negative peak of the flow derivative is the most important predictor of perceptual similarity to the target voice. In this study, a new voice source model is proposed to capture perceptually-impo...
Article
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A psychoacoustic model of the source spectrum has been proposed in which four spectral slope parameters describe perception of overall voice quality: H1-H2 (the difference in amplitude between the first and second harmonics), H2-H4, H4-2000 Hz (i.e., the harmonic nearest 2000 Hz), and 2000-5000 Hz. The goals of this study are to evaluate perceptual...
Article
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Many glottal source models have been proposed, but none has been systematically validated perceptually. Our previous work showed that model fitting of the negative peak of the flow derivative is the most important predictor of perceptual similarity to the target voice. In this study, a new voice source model motivated by high-speed laryngeal videoe...
Article
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This study investigates the importance of source spectrum slopes in the perception of phonation by White Hmong listeners. In White Hmong, nonmodal phonation (breathy or creaky voice) accompanies certain lexical tones, but its importance in tonal contrasts is unclear. In this study, native listeners participated in two perceptual tasks, in which the...
Article
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At present, it is not well understood how changes in vocal fold biomechanics correspond to changes in voice quality. Understanding such cross-domain links from physiology to acoustics to perception in the "speech chain" is of both theoretical and clinical importance. This study investigates links between changes in body layer stiffness, which is re...
Article
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This study investigates the relative importance of phonation and pitch cues in (White) Hmong tone identification. Hmong has seven productive tones, two of which involve non-modal phonation. The breathy tone is usually produced with a mid- or high-falling pitch contour similar to the high-falling modal tone. Similarly, aside from some pitch differen...
Article
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This study compares the phonations of 9 languages. Some of the languages use phonation types contrastively, independently of any pitch contrasts (Gujarati: modal, breathy; White Hmong and Black Miao: modal, breathy; Jalapa Mazatec: modal, breathy, creaky; Southern Yi, Bo, and Hani: tense, lax), while some use phonation as correlates of pitch contra...
Article
a b s t r a c t Despite the growing number of studies on the acoustics of non-modal phonation, little is known about how two distinct non-modal phonations can interact acoustically when coarticulated. This study investigates the acoustics of breathy-to-creaky phonation contours in vowels from a production study of native speakers of English and Whi...
Article
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Modeling the source spectrum requires understanding of the perceptual importance of different spectral-domain attributes of the voice source. Although the roles of H1-H2 and high-frequency harmonics in quality perception are somewhat understood, the extent of spectral detail that is perceptually significant in other frequency ranges is not known. T...
Article
Glottalized stops in codas (e.g., [t]) are commonly found in English, often when the coda-stop is unreleased. Glottalized phonation is known to increase the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum, possibly due to faster closing velocity of the vocal folds (Stevens, 1977). This suggests that glottalized phonation occurring before an unreleas...
Article
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San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz (Jalapa) Mazatec is unusual in possessing a three-way phonation contrast and three-way level tone contrast independent of phonation. This study investigates the acoustics of how phonation and tone interact in this language, and how such interactions are maintained across variables like speaker sex, vowel timecourse, and pr...
Article
The term sonority projection refers to behavioural distinctions speakers make between unattested phonological sequences on the basis of sonority. For example, among onset clusters, the well-formedness relation [bn]>[lb] is observed in speech perception, speech production and non-word acceptability (Davidson 2006, 2007, Berent et al. 2007, Albright,...