Marc Fournier

Marc Fournier
Sorbonne Université | UPMC · Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP)

PhD

About

96
Publications
36,925
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4,031
Citations
Citations since 2016
23 Research Items
1592 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
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The Sistan orogen (Eastern Iran) separates the Afghan and Lut continental blocks and stretches along ~700 km from north to south, at a high angle with respect to other, dominantly E-W trending Alpine-Himalayan orogens. This study reappraises the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the northern part of the orogen, as well as its significance within the...
Article
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Western Makran is one of the few subduction zones left with a largely unconstrained seismogenic potential. According to the sparse GPS stations, the subduction is accumulating some strain to be released during future earthquakes. To enhance the seismic hazard assessment, we here propose to study the finite deformation of the western Makran accretio...
Article
The N-S trendingSistan orogen (E Iran) stretches along ~700 km at a high angle ompared to other Alpine-Himalayan ranges marking the Neotethyan suture (including the nearby Zagros, Makran or Alborz ranges). Both the geometry and timing of closure of the Sistan ocean are currently debated. We provide geochemical data on Late Cretaceous (~78 ± 8 Ma) m...
Book
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The Indian Ocean has witnessed some of the most important geodynamic events that shaped our present-day Earth during the last plate tectonic episode. From the early fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent sustained by an intense hotspots activity to the real-time birth of a new volcano in 2019 in the Comoros Archipelago, almost 200 Myr of geo...
Article
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The Neotethys ocean is transiently involved in two subduction zones during the Late Cretaceous. While the Northern Neotethys subduction zone (below Eurasia) was active from the early Mesozoic until the Eocene, the intra-oceanic Southern Neotethys subduction zone only developed during the Late Cretaceous. We herein document, through a combination of...
Article
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The Monte Maggiore ophiolitic unit of Alpine Corsica consists of an intact to variably hydrated spinel lherzolite intruded by Jurassic gabbro dykes. A widespread serpentinization, marked by low-pressure serpentine polymorphs, results from sea water interaction with mantle rocks during Jurassic sea-floor spreading of the Piemonte-Liguria ocean. A se...
Article
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The Arabian Sea in the NW Indian Ocean is a place where two major transform boundaries are currently active : the Owen Fracture Zone between India and Arabia and the Owen Transform between India and Somalia. These transform systems result from the fragmentation of the India-Africa Transform boundary, which initiated about 90 Myrs ago, when the Indi...
Article
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Millions of seamounts on modern and past seafloor end up being subducted, and only small pieces are recovered in suture zones. How they are metamorphosed and deformed is, however, critical to understand how seamount subduction can impact subduction zone geometry, fluid circulation or seismogenic conditions, and more generally to trace physical cond...
Article
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Bathymetric highs on the ocean floor ultimately sink into highly seismic subduction zones, raising vigorous debates on their potential to trigger or arrest large earthquakes (M w > 7.5). Many geophysical and seismological studies addressing this problem meet penetration and/or resolution issues and deal with only the most recent earthquakes. We her...
Article
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Progressive closure of the Neotethys ocean led to the formation of numerous mountain belts from the Alps to the Himalayas. At the crossroads, the Sistan belt stretches ∼700 km N-S at a high angle to the adjacent Iranian major structures of Zagros, Makran or Alborz. It is characterized by extensive Mesozoic ophiolites, large-scale Mezo-Cenozoic sedi...
Article
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At the northern end of the Cap Corse peninsula, several klippes of ultramafic rocks (peridotite and serpentinite), among which the Monte Maggiore klippe is the least serpentinized one, rest upon continental-crust derived rocks (Centuri gneisses) and basic or metasedimentary schists (Schistes Lustrés). The Monte Maggiore ophiolitic klippe shares sev...
Chapter
The Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) is the present-day, 800-km-long dextral India Arabia plate boundary, with conspicuous pull-apart basins at stepover areas and at its terminations. We summarize geological evidence documenting the age of formation of the OFZ, based on detailed analysis of geophysical and drilling data in the vicinity of the main pull-apa...
Article
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The Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction is the place where Arabia, Somalia, and India meet in the Arabian Sea (NW Indian Ocean). Here we present a new seismic dataset crossing a key structure of the triple junction, namely the Beautemps-Beaupré pull-apart basin at the southern end of the Owen Fracture Zone. The seismic dataset is tied to ODP Leg 11...
Poster
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The Arabia, Somalia and India tectonic plates meet at the Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction in the NW Indian Ocean. There, strike-slip motion along the Owen Fracture Zone (the current India-Arabia plate boundary) turns into diffuse extension instead of directly connecting to the Sheba spreading center. The main structure of this area of diffuse e...
Article
Suture zones preserve metamorphosed relicts of subducted ocean floor later exhumed along the plate interface that can provide critical insights on subduction zone processes. Mélange-like units are exceptionally well-exposed in the Sistan suture (Eastern Iran), which results from the closure of a branch of the Neotethys between the Lut and Afghan co...
Article
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We conducted a stress field analysis of the northern part of the ~700 km-long north-south trending, seismically active Sistan orogenic belt of Eastern Iran formed as a result of the closure of a branch of the Neo-Tethys during the early Cenozoic. Fault kinematic data reveal drastic changes in the stress regime of Eastern Iran during the late Cenozo...
Article
The relationships between oceanic circulation in the Arabian Sea and Late Cenozoic climate changes, including variations in monsoon intensity at the million year time-scale, remain poorly investigated. Using multibeam and seismic data, we provide the first description of a contourite drift in the Arabian Sea, along the south-eastern Oman margin. Th...
Article
Pseudotachylyte in the Cima di Gratera ophiolite, Alpine Corsica, is distributed in the peridotite unit and in the overlying metagabbro unit and was formed under blueschist to eclogite metamorphic facies conditions, corresponding to a 60–90 km depth range. Peridotite pseudotachylyte is clustered in fault zones either beneath the tectonic contact wi...
Article
The location of the India-Arabia plate boundary prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden is a matter of debate. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin base...
Article
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New geophysical data acquired during three expeditions of the R/V Southern Surveyor in the southern part of the North Fiji Basin allow us to characterize the deformation of the upper plate at the southern termination of the New Hebrides subduction zone, where it bends eastward along the Hunter Ridge. Unlike the northern end of the Tonga subduction...
Conference Paper
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The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions,...
Conference Paper
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Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen...
Article
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The Dalrymple Trough is a 150-km-long, 30-km-wide basin located at the northern termination of the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ), which is the present-day active India-Arabia plate boundary. The Dalrymple Trough is closely associated with the Murray Ridge, a complex of prominent bathymetric highs located on its eastern flank. Recent multibeam mapping of...
Article
The pelagic cover of the Owen Ridge in the Arabian Sea recorded the evolution of the Indian monsoon since the Middle Miocene. The uplift of the Owen Ridge resulted from tectonic processes along the previously unidentified Miocene India–Arabia plate boundary. Based on seismic reflection data tied with deep-sea drilling to track the Miocene India–Ara...
Article
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[1] Pull-apart basins are common features observed at releasing bends along major strike-slip faults. The formation and structural evolution of such basins have mostly been investigated in the continental domain and by sandbox laboratory experiments or numerical models. Here we present recently acquired multibeam bathymetry, 3.5 kHz echo sounder, a...
Article
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The recent discovery of voluminous submarine landslides along the Owen Ridge may represent a source of tsunami hazard for the nearby Oman coast. We assess the severity of this potential hazard by performing numerical simulations of tsunami generation and propagation from the biggest landslide (40 km3 in volume) observed along the Owen Ridge. A fini...
Article
The Indus sedimentary basin forms one of the largest “source-to-sink” systems of the Quaternary and extends over 106 km2 offshore. It is characterized by a complex tectonic setting marked by the Himalayan active orogenic belt in the source area, and the active strike-slip India-Arabia plate boundary (Owen Fracture Zone; OFZ) in its distal reaches....
Article
The Owen Ridge is a prominent relief that runs parallel to the coast of Oman in the NW Indian Ocean and is closely linked to the Owen Fracture Zone, an 800-km-long active fault system that accommodates today the Arabia–India strike–slip motion. Several types of mass failures mobilizing the pelagic cover have been mapped in details along the ridge u...
Article
Full-text available
The Owen Fracture Zone is a 800 km-long fault system that accommodates the dextral strike-slip motion between India and Arabia plates. Because of slow pelagic sedimentation rates that preserve the seafloor expression of the fault since the Early Pliocene, the fault is clearly observed on bathymetric data. It is made up of a series of fault segments...
Article
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We surveyed the Owen Fracture Zone at the boundary between the Arabia and India plates in the NW Indian Ocean using a high-resolution multibeam echo-sounder (Owen cruise, 2009) for search of active faults. Bathymetric data reveal a previously unrecognized submarine fault scarp system running for over 800 km between the Sheba Ridge in the Gulf of Ad...
Article
Several types of mass failures are observed along the Owen ridge (NW Indian ocean) using multibeam bathymetry, acoustic imagery and sediment echosounder. The Owen ridge is associated with the Owen fracture zone, a 800 km-long active fault system which accommodates the strike-slip motion between the Arabia and India plates. Mass failures mobilize a...
Article
The present-day India-Arabia plate boundary in the NW Indian Ocean is located along a 800 km long dextral strike slip fault system, known as the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ). This fault system connects the spreading centres of the Sheba and Carlsberg ridge system to the Makran subduction zone. The OFZ is bounded to the west by the Owen Ridge, a series...
Article
Full-text available
New geophysical data collected at the Aden‐Owen‐Carlsberg (AOC) triple junction between the Arabia, India, and Somalia plates are combined with all available magnetic data across the Gulf of Aden to determine the detailed Arabia‐Somalia plate kinematics over the past 20 Myr. We reconstruct the history of opening of the Gulf of Aden, including the p...
Article
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Entre l'Arabie et la Somalie, une mer s'ouvre depuis 30millions d'années. Sa brève histoire géologique révèle les phénomènes marquants du début d'une expansion océanique.
Article
Although small, the present-day Arabia-India motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700...
Article
Since the advent of Plate Tectonics, tectonic plate boundaries were explored on land as at sea for search of active faults where the destructive energy of earthquakes is released. Yet, some plate boundaries, less active or considered as less dangerous to humankind, escaped general attention and remained unknown to a large extent. Among them, the bo...
Article
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Processes of continental extension and oceanic seafloor spreading are investigated with a kinematic and tectonic approach in different geodynamic settings from intraplate deformation to continental breakup, rifting at ridge axis, and opening of back-arc basins. We focus on the Gulf of Aden, a type example of young oceanic basin, which offers the op...
Article
Apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) data are used to bring new light on the long-term and recent history of the Baikal rift region (Siberia). We describe the evolution of the topography along a NW-SE profile from the Siberian platform to the Barguzin range across the Baikal-southern Patom range and the northern termination of Lake Baikal. Our res...
Article
Full-text available
New geophysical data collected at the Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction (AOC survey) between the Arabia, India, and Somalia plates are combined with all available magnetic data across the Gulf of Aden and the NW Arabian Sea to determine the detailed Arabia-Somalia plate kinematics over the past 20 Myr. We reconstruct the history of opening of the...
Article
This paper sheds light on the evolution of the Patom belt. This mountain range draws an arc along the southeastern edge of the Siberian craton. It is supposed to be of Caledonian age and to result from the accretion of microcontinents against the craton, but up to now, its detailed stratigraphic and tectonic history was unclear. A field study allow...
Article
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Les processus d'extension continentale et d'accrétion océanique sont étudiés avec une approche cinématique et tectonique dans différents contextes géodynamiques depuis la déformation intra-plaque jusqu'à la fragmentation des continents, le rifting à l'axe des dorsales et l'ouverture des bassins arrière-arc. L'accent est mis sur le golfe d'Aden, un...
Article
The triple junctions predicted to be ridge–ridge–fault (RRF) types on the basis of large-scale plate motions are the Azores triple junction between the Gloria Fault and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Juan Fernandez triple junction between the Chile Transform and the East Pacific Rise and the Aden–Owen–Carlsberg (AOC) triple junction between the Owen f...
Article
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) also known as the Altaides is supposed to result from the accretion of volcanic arcs and microcontinents against the Siberian craton. An interdisciplinary approach including stratigraphic and structural study and a field survey led in the Patom area allows us to precise the geodynamic history of the region. Th...
Article
The "Vélodrome" overturned syncline, at the northern margin of the Cenozoic foreland basin of Valensole in SE France, was formed during the Late Cenozoic at the front of the Digne nappe. Microstructural analyses reveal that mesoscale faulting in the molassic series, from the Oligocene "Molasse Rouge" at the base to the middle to late Miocene "Valen...
Conference Paper
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5 Institute of the Earth Crust, Russian Federation The Patom fold and thrust belt, a segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) also known as the Altaides, draws an arc along the southeastern edge of the Siberian craton. It is supposed to be of Caledonian age and to result from the accretion of volcanic arcs and microcontinents against the c...
Article
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The map differs from, geologic, tectonic, and terranes maps, by emphasising on the correlation of the large belts of Eurasia. The units represented are not tectono-stratigraphic terranes but stable block v.s. deformed belts and accretionary wedge. The map is oriented toward a global legibility of the tectonic belts that contributed the continental...
Article
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The Arabia–India plate boundary—also called the Owen fracture zone—is perhaps the least-known boundary among large tectonic plates1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Although it was identified early on as an example of a transform fault converting the divergent motion along the Carlsberg Ridge to convergent motion in the Himalayas7, its structure and rate of motion...
Article
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The plateau edge of southern Oman is used as a natural laboratory to independently test apatite fission-track analysis, (U-Th)/He dating, and stratigraphy as methods for quantifying post-rift erosion depths and lithospheric response at passive margins. A mappable unconformity between the Proterozoic basement and the low-conductivity, pre-rift sedim...
Article
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We investigate the respective roles of climatic parameters and the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere in the erosion history and behavior of two adjacent rift escarpments along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aden, in Oman. At this 25 Myr old passive margin, we define a type 1 scarp, which is high, sharp-crested and has retreated 25–30 km inlan...
Article
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On the island of Socotra, the southern passive margin of the Gulf of Aden displays along its strike two different types of asymmetric structures. Western Socotra is made up of a series of southward tilted blocks bounded by consistently northward dipping normal faults. Eastern Socotra consists of a broad asymmetric anticline with a steep northern li...
Article
The relationship between spreading and stretching directions is investigated at oblique-spreading oceanic ridges using earthquake focal mechanisms. The stretching direction at ridge axes corresponds to the direction of the greatest principal strain ɛ1 taken as the mean trend of the seismic T-axes of extensional earthquake focal mechanisms. It is co...
Article
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After the obduction of the Samail ophiolitic nappe onto the Arabian Platform in the Late Cretaceous, north Oman underwent several phases of extension before being affected by compression in the framework of the Arabia-Eurasia convergence. A tectonic survey, based on structural analysis of faultslip data in the post-nappe units of the Oman Mountains...
Article
Magnetic and gravity data gathered during the Encens-Sheba cruise (2000 June) in the eastern Gulf of Aden provide insights on the structural evolution of segmentation from rifted margins to incipient seafloor spreading. In this study, we document the conjugate margins asymmetry, confirm the location of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) previousl...
Article
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The Gulf of Aden and the Sheba spreading ridge (Gulf of Aden) forms the southern boundary of the Arabian Plate. Its orientation (075°E) and its kinematics (about 030°E divergence) are interpreted as the result of an oblique rifting. In this contribution, a field study in the northeastern Gulf of Aden allows us to confirm the Oligo-Miocene synrift d...
Article
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On the basis of field observations in the Huqf area in eastern Oman, Montenat et al. (2003) defined an extensional phase of faulting of Aptian age in the Arabian platform (see also Montenat and Barrier, 2002). We recently revisited the fault exposures of the Wadi Sha'bat al Tawraq from which this conclusion has been drawn (location in Figure 1a). O...
Article
The Gulf of Aden is a young and narrow oceanic basin formed in Oligo-Miocene time between the rifted margins of the Arabian and Somalian plates. Its mean orientation, N75°E, strikes obliquely (50°) to the N25°E opening direction. The western conjugate margins are masked by Oligo-Miocene lavas from the Afar Plume. This paper concerns the eastern mar...
Article
Most numerical models of Asian deformation focus on rapidly deforming zones close to the Indian indenter, and seldom extend to its northern ‘deformation front’. In this study, we examine the present-day deformation of the Amurian continental plate (northeast Asia) which faces stable Eurasia along the Baikal–Stanovoy boundary. The present-day veloci...
Article
Full-text available
The Gulf of Aden is a young, obliquely opening, oceanic basin where tectonic structures can easily be followed and correlated from the passive margins to the active mid-oceanic ridge. It is an ideal laboratory for studies of continental lithosphere breakup from rifting to spreading. The northeastern margin of the Gulf of Aden offers the opportunity...