Marc Fleury

Marc Fleury
IFP Energies nouvelles

PhD HDR

About

143
Publications
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2,326
Citations

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Sub-surface clay samples are difficult to characterize using conventional methods so non-invasive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques were used to evaluate in a preserved state the pore structure, porosity, water mobility, and affinity of various clay systems. Within the CLAYWAT project launched by the NEA Clay Club, some of the most advanc...
Article
Applied to Enhanced Oil Recovery, microemulsions are valuable systems for extracting the crude oil trapped by capillary forces in the porous reservoir rocks. The performances of the injected formulations are often assessed by quantifying oil composition in model systems that contain relatively high amount of surfactant/co-surfactant. Recently, the...
Article
The main motivation of this work is to determine quantitatively the pore occupancy of water and oil in some source rocks. The pore occupancy might be imposed by differences in chemical composition, wettability behavior and sorption of fluids in organic and inorganic porosities and will dramatically affect the hydrocarbons flow through the porous me...
Article
With a NMR based fast diffusion measurement technique we performed a comprehensive experimental program on 30 samples to measure the pore diffusion coefficient in two series of cement pastes, mortar and concrete made with an ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) and a composite cement (CEM V). In addition, measurements were also possible in the presence...
Article
The mechanism behind the ¹H NMR frequency dependence of T1 and the viscosity dependence of T2 for polydisperse polymers and bitumen remains elusive. We elucidate the matter through NMR relaxation measurements of polydisperse polymers over an extended range of frequencies (f0 = 0.01 ↔ 400 MHz) and viscosities (η = 385 ↔ 102,000 cP) using T1 and T2 i...
Preprint
The mechanism behind the $^1$H NMR frequency dependence of $T_1$ and the viscosity dependence of $T_2$ for polydisperse polymers and bitumen remains elusive. We elucidate the matter through NMR relaxation measurements of polydisperse polymers over an extended range of frequencies ($f_0 = 0.01 \leftrightarrow$ 400 MHz) and viscosities ($\eta = 385 \...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we studied experimentally and numerically the pressure–flow rate relationship for yield stress fluids in porous media. We developed and validated 3D numerical simulations of the velocity field via a lattice Boltzmann method based on the TRT scheme, and a specific experimental setup allowing yield stress fluids to flow in a closed-loop...
Article
Full-text available
We present a general novel technique to monitor saturation changes on small rock samples of only 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length for the purpose of assessing the kinetics of spontaneous imbibition processes. With a fully 3D imbibition configuration involving countercurrent flows through all faces of the sample, the method is based on an NMR t...
Article
A silica gel was applied in a porous gas reservoir, with the purpose of testing mitigation and remediation of CO 2 leakage from geological storage reservoirs. The gel has a high strength and a very low water-like viscosity, that extends its applicability to small pore diameters and low permeability media. The gel was prepared and applied on-site wi...
Patent
Full-text available
Patents about laboratory techniques in the field of petrophysics and NMR applied to porous media
Article
Full-text available
Spontaneous imbibition processes can play an important role in oil production. It can be enhanced or influenced by wettability changes generated by properly designed chemicals or by the natural surfactants resulting from reactive crude oils in the presence of alkaline solutions. The reaction of basic salts with some components of oil can, indeed, l...
Chapter
We describe in this overview the transport properties of tight rocks at the core scale representing the matrix between fractures (if any) at larger scale. Techniques for measuring single‐phase transport due to diffusion (induced by a concentration gradient) and convection (induced by a pressure gradient) are critically reviewed. The possible link b...
Article
We propose a deuterium diffusion tracer approach to measure diffusion coefficient in the case of very short NMR relaxation times, too short for NMR pulsed field gradient sequences (T1 or T2 below 1 ms). We also treat the case of porous media containing metallic fibers (such as reinforced concrete) strongly disturbing the magnetic field, and the cas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spontaneous imbibition processes can play an important role in oil production. It can be enhanced or influenced by wettability changes generated by properly designed chemicals or by the natural surfactants resulting from reactive crude oils in the presence of alkaline solutions. The reaction of basic salts with some components of oil can, indeed, l...
Article
Measuring and modelling the permeability of tight rocks remains a challenging task. In addition to the traditional sources of errors that affect more permeable formations (e.g. sample selection, non-representative specimens, disturbance introduced during sample acquisition and preparation), tight rocks can be particularly prone to solid–fluid inter...
Article
Measuring the permeability of tight rocks remains a challenging task. In addition to the traditional sources of errors that affect more permeable formations (e.g. sample selection, non-representative specimens, disturbance introduced during sample acquisition and preparation), tight rocks can be particularly prone to solid–fluid interactions and th...
Article
The Vaca Muerta Formation is currently regarded as the most prolific source rock interval for unconventional petroleum exploration in Argentina. In this study, we integrate recent CT-scanner, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T 1-T 2 and Rock-Eval Shale Play® analytical techniques, combined with classical geochemical, petrolo-gical and petrophysical...
Article
The interfacial area between two immiscible phases in porous media is an important parameter for describing and predicting 2 phase flow. Although present in several models, experimental investigations are sparse due to the lack of appropriate measurement techniques. We propose two NMR techniques for the measurement of oil-water interfacial area: (i...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the MiReCOL three-year European project (www.mirecol-co2.eu) on storage remediation technologies, we studied in the laboratory the capacity of foams to reduce gas flow for CO2-brine systems in rock core sample with common surfactants, as a function of interstitial velocity and gas to water fraction. Two different types of experimental se...
Article
Full-text available
In the unlikely case of CO2 leakage from a storage reservoir, it is desirable to close the leak efficiently and permanently. This could be done by injecting a reactive solution into the leak path, thereby immobilizing migrating CO2 by consuming the gas and forming solid reactants. With regard to permanent closure, it is important to consider materi...
Article
Full-text available
A method for treating the surrounding of a well using a reactive suspension is studied, using silicate based solutions. They present the following key qualities: high performance, long term chemical stability, good injectivity, little environmental impact. We present an experimental investigation of the precipitation of commercial low-cost potassiu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Be it electrical signals in resistivity logs, radioactivity in gamma ray logs or magnetic moments of hydrogen protons in NMR logs, most logging techniques use an indirect approach to estimate permeability, which, in simple terms, is the measure of the ease with which a fluid of given viscosity can flow through porous media. These logging techniques...
Article
The technical and economic success of a CO2 geological storage project requires the preservation of the site injectivity and integrity properties over its lifetime. Unlike conventional hydrocarbon gas injection, CO2 injection may imply geochemical reactions between acidified pore fluids and target reservoir formations, leading to modifications of t...
Conference Paper
Foams are among the most promising and cost effective means to alleviate the drawbacks associated with gas-based EOR-processes. The objective of this work is to probe the impact of residual oil saturation on CO2-foam generation and on their flow behavior in porous media Designing a foam-EOR process requires its evaluation and optimisation at labor...
Article
Dispersion of a passive tracer in a tube has been extensively studied in the case of Newtonian fluids since the pioneer work of Taylor (1953). However, the influence of more complex rheological behavior on the transport has only be scarcely investigated. Non-Newtonian fluids are increasingly used in the industry and transport in this type of fluid...
Conference Paper
Surfactant-Polymer flooding is usually not applied in low permeability reservoirs mainly due to injectivity problems in the presence of mobility control agents. Indeed, in the case of surfactant-polymer injection in low permeability formation, one of the major problem is to avoid the plugging of the core due to the jamming of polymer molecules in s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The characterization of shales is challenging due to their very small pore sizes. In a previous paper, we have shown that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxation techniques are well suited for detecting and quantifying water in nanopores. However, the distribution of relaxation times does not necessarily represent the distribution of pore sizes in th...
Article
We present a general model (SMIM) specifically designed for the interpretation of NMR velocimetry data. Extending the well-known concept of Mobile/Immobile tracer particles applied in dispersion theory, we reproduce two mechanisms responsible for non-Gaussian behavior: immobile molecules trapped in non-flowing zones, and unexpectedly long but rare...
Article
Full-text available
CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS) has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon emission that follows from the use of fossil fuels in power production and industry. Integrated demo-scale projects are currently being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of CCS and the first such projects are expected to start operating in Europe un...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a versatile model specifically designed for the quantitative interpretation of NMR velocimetry data. We use the concept of mobile or immobile tracer particles applied in dispersion theory in its Lagrangian form, adding two mechanisms: (i) independent random arrests of finite average representing intermittent periods of very low velocity...
Conference Paper
The characterization of caprocks and gas shales is very similar and cannot be performed using conventional petrophysical techniques. Even for basic properties such as porosity and permeability, appropriate protocols and instrumentation are required. We present a summary of the experience accumulated during several years on samples for which measure...
Article
We observed the arrangement of water molecules when confined in the interlayer space of smectites using low field nutation experiments. Despite the presence of paramagnetic impurities that prevent such observation at high field, we can determine the amount of water in strong interaction with the clay surface, i.e., water molecules which are partial...
Article
We present a pore network model combined with a random walk algorithm allowing the simulation of molecular displacement distributions in porous media as measured by NMR. A particular feature of this technique is the ability to probe the time evolution of these distributions. The objective is to predict the displacement behaviour for time intervals...
Article
Caprocks play a key role in hydrocarbon entrapment and in the geological storage of gas. Top seals inhibit vertical migration due to their low permeability and high entry pressure (PE). This study investigated four different techniques for measuring PE: (1) step by step method; (2) dynamic approach; (3) racking method; (4) residual pressure method....
Conference Paper
This paper proposed an integrated experimental approach to the characterization of CO2 injection chemical impact on rock dynamic poroelastic properties. Acoustic measurements have been performed on intact and homogenously altered carbonate samples. The obtained results show a decrease of both the drained bulk modulus and the shear modulus under the...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site — Reservoir simulations and monitoring of CO2 storage require specific petrophysical data. We show a workflow that can be applied to saline aquifers and caprocks in order to provide the minimum data set for realistic estimations of storage potenti...
Article
The NMR propagator technique allows the measurements of the variance σ^{2}=〈(ξ-〈ξ〉)^{2}〉 of the displacements as a function of time t when flowing in a porous media. The time dependence of σ is a very sensitive test of Gaussian behavior compared to the analysis of the shape of the propagators. Superdispersion occurs when σ^{2}∝t^{α} with the expone...
Article
We show that simple low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can provide quantitative measurements of water content in clays providing appropriate instrumentation and protocols. In particular, NMR is a good tool to study the swelling of smectites and the interlayer water content despite pore sizes of the order of or less than 1 nm and the presenc...
Article
This work benefited from a comprehensive set of logging and mineralogical data that was acquired from the 2-km-deep EST433 borehole of Montiers-sur-Saulx (Meuse, France). A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on three sets of data: (a) sonic data (P- and S-wave velocities), (b) total combinable magnetic resonance (TCMR) porosity data,...
Article
Due to the intricate structure of carbonate rocks, relationships between porosity or saturation and petrophysical transport properties classically used for reservoir estimation and recovery strategies are either very complex or nonexistent. Thus, further understanding of the influence of the rock structure on the petrophysical transport properties...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of the Geocarbone-Integrity program are to develop techniques, methodologies and knowledge concerning the long term confinement of CO2 in geological storage. Linked to other French programs such as Geocarbone Injectivity or Picoref, it is an integrated approach involving geochemistry, petrophysics, geology and geomechanics. Different...
Article
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the solutions studied to reduce greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs have been studied for potential storage sites but also saline aquifers that have the advantages of much larger pore volume. In this latter case, injection of large volume of anhydrous carbon dioxi...
Poster
Full-text available
Anomalous dispersion in heterogeneous porous media have been shown by numerous authors. In order to investigate truly anomalous dispersion, it is needed to distinguish pre-asymptotic non Gaussian dispersion from anomalous dispersion at long scale. This work present experimental an numerical results of investigation of dispersion transition between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effets de mémoire et diffusion : les moments de la densité d'un traceur Résumé : Nous développons dans ce travail un outil pour modéliser et analyser les résultats de mesure issus d'expériences RMN sur le transport de soluté dans un milieu poreux en régime insaturé au sein des-quels des effets de mémoire sont observés. Ces effets de mémoire sont mo...
Article
Standard reservoir evaluations are based on Archie's law relating the average water saturation to the average electrical resistivity by R(ind) = S(w)(-2). However, especially in the case of complex heterogeneous carbonates, deviation from Archie's law is observed and generally attributed to factors affecting the percolation or disconnectedness of t...
Article
NMR relaxation is routinely used in the field of geosciences to give basic petrophysical properties such as porosity, pore size distribution, saturation etc. In this tutorial, we focus on the pore size distribution deduced from NMR. We recall the basic principle used in the interpretation of the NMR signal and compare the results with other standar...
Article
We propose a theoretical framework to analyze nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments for the description of dispersion processes featuring memory effects. Memory effects, addressed here, can be represented by subordinated Brownian motions with random time changes that invert Lévy time processes, with stable densities of exponent between 0 and...
Presentation
Full-text available
Dans le cadre de l’étude de la dispersion hydrodynamique anormale, i.e. non gaussienne (Néel1, Berkowitz2) en milieu poreux, la connaissance de la distribution des déplacements ou des vitesses dans un échantillon de milieu poreux (propagateur RMN) est une donnée expérimentale importante permettant de mieux comprendre l’influence de la microstructur...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of the Geocarbone-Integrity program are to develop techniques, methodologies and knowledge concerning the long term confinement of CO2 in geological storage. Linked to other French programs such as Geocarbone Injectivity or Picoref, it is an integrated approach involving geochemistry, petrophysics, geology and geomechanics. Different...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation of ”Fractional p.d.e and stochastic processes for dispersion: application to porous media”
Article
Diffusion Properties of Carbonated Caprocks from the Paris Basin - The efficiency of geological storage of CO2 lies in the confinement properties of the caprock. Among these properties, diffusive characteristics play an important, though sometimes underestimated, role. Although diffusion is a slow process, it can play a significant role in the long...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last fifteen years the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep geological formations has been considered with increasing attention as one of the major solutions to contribute to the struggle against anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification. Predicting the part it could play during the 21st century is still a matter of discussio...
Article
Full-text available
Reservoir simulations and monitoring of CO 2 storage require specific petrophysical data. We show and illustrate an integrated workflow dedicated to CO 2, including log data analysis and laboratory measurements. This workflow has been applied on the Ketzin site. Carbon dioxide has been injected into a saline aquifer of the Triassic Stuttgart Format...
Article
Low field NMR T(2) distribution is an efficient tool for characterizing pore size distribution in porous media. In NMR relaxation experiments, we measure the magnetization decay characterized by the so-called T(2) relaxation time, resulting essentially from liquid-solid interactions of the spins carried by molecules and exploring the pore space by...
Article
Full-text available
We experimentally study the electrical transport in partially water-saturated pore network. The porous medium under investigation is a Fontainebleau sandstone, characterized by x-ray tomography. We show the existence of two electrical conductivity regimes. At high water saturation, the electric resistivity follows a well-known Archie law. Below a w...
Article
Diffusion of dissolved CO2 is a possible transport mechanism in caprocks which should be evaluated precisely for long term storage of CO2. It is also a mechanism controlling the caprock geochemical reactivity in the vicinity of the top of the storage where CO2 accumulates driven by gravity. As a first step, we studied the diffusion properties of wa...
Article
Full-text available
With the perspective of long term CO2 storage, thermodynamic data are necessary for the simulations of CO2 injection in aquifers of depleted oil reservoirs. We focus here on the determination of the resistivity and viscosi ty of aqueous NaCl solutions with dissolved CO2. It is well known that dissolved CO2 increases slightly the water density. Rece...
Conference Paper
Reservoir rocks often present complex pore-structures involving multiple porosity systems with various interconnectivity patterns. These pore-systems, from microporosity to vugs/fissures, drastically affect petrophysical properties. This is particularly true for electrical properties (formation factor and resistivity index) for which both the amoun...
Article
The effect of dissolved CO2 on the electrical conductivity and viscosity of three NaCl solutions covering the range of salinity usually encountered in potential CO2 storage geological formations has been studied. At a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, the variations of conductivity and viscosity are proportional to the mole fraction of dissolve...
Article
Water diffusivity D measured by using NMR techniques in Na-smectite suspensions decreases with increasing smectite fraction (up to 50 wt%), but increases with increasing salinity (NaCl or CaCl(2) aqueous solutions) at a fixed clay fraction. The increase, larger for CaCl(2) solutions, is explained by aggregation of clay particles when high salinitie...
Article
Full-text available
The interpretation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on fluid- saturated formations assumes that pores of each size relax independently of other pores. However, diffusional coupling between pores of different sizes may lead to false interpretation of measurements, and thereby, a wrong estimation of formation properties. The objective...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water saturation in reservoir rocks is generally determined using Archie's relation with a usual saturation exponent n = 2. However, this exponent varies greatly and sometimes the Resistivity Index (RI) curves can be nonlinear in log-log scale, even in a water wet rock. This is usually attributed to complex porous structure. In this work, we measur...
Article
In certain situations, such as in viscous liquids or nano-porous media, the transversal relaxation time T2 may become so short that the pulse duration or the detector dead time is no longer negligible. These cases raise fundamental questions about relaxation during the radio-frequency pulses used in classical CPMG or Inversion-Recovery sequences. F...