Marc Corbeels

Marc Corbeels
Cirad - La recherche agronomique pour le développement | CIRAD · Unité Propre de Recherche Systèmes de Culture Annuels (SCA)

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192
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Publications

Publications (192)
Chapter
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This chapter deals with two major issues rural households face in tropical areas: preserving natural resources and guaranteeing food security. Tackling these two challenges simultaneously may require developing profitable production systems that can both guarantee food security for farmers, while also ensuring sustainable management of natural reso...
Article
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Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in natural and cultivated ecosystems is proposed as a natural climate solution to limit global warming. SOC dynamics is driven by numerous factors such as land-use change, land management and climate change. The amount of additional carbon potentially stored in the soil is the subject of much debate in the scien...
Article
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We have read with interest an opinion paper recently published in the European Journal of Soil Science (Berthelin et al., 2022). This paper presents some interesting considerations, at least one of which is already well known to soil scientists working on soil organic carbon (SOC), i.e. a large portion (80-90%) of fresh carbon inputs to soil is sub...
Article
CONTEXT: Fostering diversity within agricultural systems can substantially contribute to improved food security among smallholder farmers. Agroforestry parklands are diverse agricultural landscapes where trees can provide an array of ecosystem services. Previous studies analyzing the agricultural landscape diversity-food security nexus in agrofores...
Article
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Major drivers of gains or losses in soil organic carbon (SOC) include land management, land-use change, and climate change. Thousands of original studies have focused on these drivers of SOC change and are now compiled in a growing number of meta-analyses. To critically assess the research efforts in this domain, we retrieved and characterized 192...
Article
Sustainable alternatives to slash-and-burn shifting cultivation in the (sub)humid tropics rely on the use of external nutrient inputs to address soil fertility decline. The use of organic inputs is widely accepted as a practice to improve soil fertility, in particular soil organic carbon (SOC). On the other hand, its combined use with mineral ferti...
Article
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Forest conservation on privately owned lands is a cornerstone of the Brazilian environmental policy framework. Brazilian legislation requires that all farms in the country maintain and protect forest areas known as Legal Reserves. Since Legal Reserves have major implications for forest conservation and agricultural production, it is key that we und...
Article
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Tropical Savannas cover an area of approximately 1.9 billion hectares around the word and are subject to regular fires every 1 to 4 years. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of burning windrow wood from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) deforestation on the spatial variability of soil chemical properties, in the field. The data were analysed by u...
Article
Poor soil fertility and erratic rainfall constrain crop production in rain-fed smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Integration of drought tolerant and N2-fixing crops into maize-based cropping systems is a risk-averse strategy that also improves nitrogen cycling. A field experiment was carried out during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 cropp...
Article
In West Africa, new management practices such as conservation agriculture with crop residue mulching can improve crop yields for individual farmers. However, in a context of complex social interactions between farmers, the introduction of such practices can also lead to conflicts between private interests and communal use of resources, for example...
Article
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The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and expanding agricultural frontier, representing a hotspot of land‐use change (LUC) from natural vegetation to farmland. It is known that this type of LUC impacts soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, particularly labile carbon (C) pools (living and non‐living), decreasing soil health and agricultural sustainability,...
Article
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Intercropping is a common practice among farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, regarded as a sustainable way of improving land productivity to meet food and nutritional requirements for a growing population, especially in marginal areas. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is often intercropped with major cereal crops, maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum...
Article
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Relay intercropping of maize with fodder crops is a promising option for sustainable intensification of dairy small-scale farms in the Cerrado of Brazil. Twenty-six intercropping trials were conducted on farmers’ fields with the following experimental treatments: sole maize crop cropping (MS), maize- Brachiaria intercropping (MB) and maize-pigeon p...
Article
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Conservation agriculture (CA) is recognized as a promising crop management strategy for sustainable agricultural intensification. The objective of this study was to evaluate CA cropping systems for rainfed maize as an alternative to the traditional tillage-based cropping systems (CT) in the context of family farms, using a multi-criteria model that...
Article
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Smallholder farmers in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) currently grow rainfed maize with limited inputs including fertilizer. Climate change may exacerbate current production constraints. Crop models can help quantify the potential impact of climate change on maize yields, but a comprehensive multi‐model assessment of simulation accuracy and uncertainty i...
Article
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Conservation agriculture (CA) has become a dominant paradigm in scientific and policy thinking about the sustainable intensification of food production in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet claims that CA leads to increasing crop yields in African smallholder farming systems remain controversial. Through a meta-analysis of 933 observations from 16 different c...
Article
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Sustainable food production requires approaches that reconcile agricultural production with the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. While the contribution of agriculture to the provision of individual ecosystem services has received considerable scientific attention, little is known...
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Droughts in southern South America affect grazing systems in many ways. They reduce biomass productivity; decrease livestock feed intake, weight and reproductive performance; increase farmers’ costs; and reduce farm income. It was hypothesized that simple grazing management variables affect the resilience of grazing systems to droughts at the paddo...
Conference Paper
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The livestock sector is facing the challenge of producing high-value, low-cost protein while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In Uruguay almost 75% of the farms specialized in beef and wool production are family farms based on native grasslands. Those systems exhibit low sustainability, explained mostly by low family income and low produc...
Conference Paper
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Estoques de carbono do solo após 20 anos de adoção em cronosequências de plantio direto na região de Rio Verde/Montividiu, Goiás
Technical Report
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A summary presenting the challenges for soil carbon sequestration research, hypothesis to be further tested and key research (and innovation) products.
Article
Since the early 2000s conservation agriculture (CA) has been promoted in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar for a more sustainable and profitable agriculture. There is, however, little known about its performance in low-input rainfed rice-based cropping systems. We conducted a study during two growing seasons (2013/14 and 2014/15) on an experime...
Article
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Intended to test broad hypotheses and arrive at unifying conclusions, meta-analysis is the process of extracting, assembling, and analyzing large quantities of data from multiple publications to increase statistical power and uncover explanatory patterns. This paper describes the ways in which meta-analysis has been applied to support claims and co...
Article
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The 4‰ initiative launched by the French government at COP21 in Paris in December 2015 aspires to increase global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at a rate of 0.4% per year. We conducted a systematic literature review on SOC storage under agroforestry and conservation agriculture systems in sub-Saharan Africa, where we reported 66 and 33 cases for...
Article
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We calibrated the crop model STICS and used it in a simulation experiment to assess the effect of no-tillage cropping systems, with and without millet as cover crop (NTM and NT), on the water-limited yield of maize, its inter-annual variability, water runoff and drainage below the root zone, compared to conventional tillage-based cropping systems (...
Presentation
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The 4‰ Initiative launched by the French government at COP21 in Paris in December 2015 aspires to increase global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at a rate of 0.4% per year. We conducted a systematic literature review on SOC storage under agroforestry and conservation agriculture systems in sub-Saharan Africa, where we reported 66 and 33 cases for...
Article
Climate model projections coupled with process-based crop models are advocated for assessing impacts of climate change on crop yields and for informing crop-level adaptations. However, most reported studies are vague on the choice of the global circulation models (GCMs) for climate projections, and on the corresponding uncertainty with this type of...
Article
Worldwide, native grasslands are being converted to non-native pastures and cropland. This process threatens local grassland biomes as well as the livelihoods of farm families that utilize these grasslands. In the Río de la Plata grasslands region meat production and multispecies native grasslands have coexisted for more than 400 years. Low levels...
Presentation
Une comparaison entre l'agriculture de conservation et le labour traditionnel a été faite sur des rendements mesurés en dispositifs expérimentaux, pour diverses cultures, obtenus à partir des résultats publiés dans un ensemble d'articles. Marc Corbeels, Krishna Naudin et moi nous sommes basés sur 64 références bibliographiques, qui font l'objet d'u...
Article
Weeds are a major constraint to crop yields in tropical production systems, especially for smallholder farmers who cannot afford to purchase herbicides. It has been argued that the practice of mulching with crop residues can suppress weeds in conservation agriculture systems. However, few data are available on the effect of crop residue mulching on...
Article
Conservation agriculture, which is based on minimum tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations, has widely been promoted as a practice to maintain or improve soil quality and enhance crop productivity. To a large extent, the beneficial effects of conservation agriculture are expected to be provided by permanent soil cover with crop residues....
Article
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New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of external inputs. We synthesised 242 references from...
Conference Paper
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The land use change process occurred in Uruguay between the years 2000 and 2013 has had a profound impact in the country. In this period, soybean and forest crops have increased by 100,000 and 40,000 ha per year, respectively. Changes in farming structure and access to resources between 2000 and 2010 endangered the livelihood of 57 % of family farm...
Article
With the practice of conservation agriculture (CA) soil water and nutrient dynamics are modified by the presence of a mulch of crop residues and by reduced or no-tillage. These alterations may have impacts on crop yields. The crop growth model DSSAT (Decision Support Systems for Agrotechnology Transfer) has recently been modified and used to simula...
Article
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The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different a...
Article
Specific practices of conservation agriculture (CA) in sub-Saharan Africa are diverse and vary according to local farming conditions. However, despite more than two decades of investment in its development and dissemination, adoption of CA is low. Crop responses to CA are highly variable, and not always positive, which is an important hindrance for...
Article
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Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption...
Conference Paper
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It has been argued that the practice of Conservation Agriculture (CA) provides an agro-ecological approach to reduce weed pressure on crops. However, very few data are available on the effective impact of CA on weed infestation, especially in tropical countries. In this study we quantified the effect of CA principles (no-tillage, mulching and crop...
Article
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Low crop yields in the savannah zones of West Africa are commonly attributed to rainfall deficits and poor soil fertility. In this study, an assessment was made on how the position of fields belonging to different farm types can explain soil variability and related crop yield gaps in two villages in Burkina Faso, Yilou and Koumbia, located, respect...
Article
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Privatisation of grazing resources is emerging in the agro-pastoral systems of West Africa, resulting in increased pressure on the remaining communal rangelands and greater competition between farmers for access to crop residues. Differential management strategies arise as determined by household diversity. This study quantified the flows of biomas...
Conference Paper
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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) faces the challenge of developing a climate-smart agriculture (CSA) that simultaneously ensures food security, mitigation and adaption to climate change (CC). Conservation agriculture (CA) is widely promoted in SSA and is considered as a way to meet these CSA objectives. The objective of the study was to assess whether CA i...
Conference Paper
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Volatile climatic conditions, poor soil fertility and low resource endowments are major causes of poor crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Despite these barriers, innovative pathways are needed to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this study was to use climatic as well...
Chapter
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Many simulation studies have been carried out to predict the effect of climate change on crop yield. Typically, in such study, one or several crop models are used to simulate series of crop yield values for different climate scenarios corresponding to different hypotheses of temperature, CO2 concentration, and rainfall changes. These studies usuall...
Conference Paper
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Southern Africa (SA) is expected to be particularly impacted by climate change projecting a 40% decrease in rainfall in critical areas over the next 70 years and maize productivity falling by up to 30% by 2030. The high variability in agro-climatic conditions, farming systems and rural livelihoods in SA represents a challenge in the generation of l...
Article
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Agricultural production in the Sudano–Sahelian zone of west Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and climate change. The present study aimed to understand farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and change and to evaluate adaptation options together with farmers, including tactical management of planting date in com...
Conference Paper
About 70% of Brazil's farm output is produced in the Cerrado region. The climate is sub-humid tropical, typical of the rather moister savanna regions of the world. Climate changes will have a severe impact on the agricultural sector in this region. A temperature increase of between 2 °C and 4 °C by the end of the century has been predicted. Model p...
Article
Traditionally, cereal crop harvest residues are communally grazed by the ruminant herds of villagers and transhumant pastoralists in the agro-pastoral systems which predominate in the savannah zone of West Africa. We analysed the impact of the private use of crop residues by individual farmers on crop and livestock productivity at three scales: the...