Marc Conrad

Marc Conrad
University of Bedfordshire

PhD

About

104
Publications
24,340
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460
Citations

Publications

Publications (104)
Chapter
With the exponentially increasing number of AI (Artificial intelligence) applications on Big Data being developed, AI cyber security defense becomes ever required. Blockchain technology invented in 2008 with BitCoin could be benefited alongside the customer of Big Data and so on. Following a rapid progress in its advance, this subject has recently...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current COVID-19 experience seems to expose the need for a new approach on how we interpret and handle privacy. This paper the notion of privacy whether it is old, current, or simply misunderstood? Is the notion of privacy central to our modern perspective? This paper presents Privacy vs COVID-19's: limitations, constraints and pitfalls that pr...
Presentation
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This paper investigates the notion of privacy whether it is old, current, or simply misunderstood? The author presents the limitations, constraints, and pitfalls that privacy could pose on the use of AI and emerging technology as a potential nonpharmaceutical weapon against the current and future pandemic. This paper seeks to encourage governments,...
Conference Paper
Intangible trust perceptions have been shown to form an important part of the User Experience (UX) in relation to various B2C (Business-to-Customer) contexts of use. The extant literature appears somewhat immature in relation to intangible trust and UX models from a "non-Western" perspective. Indeed it appears from our recent e-Banking audit using...
Chapter
Full-text available
There are still problems in applications of Machine Learning for face recognition. Such factors as lighting conditions, head rotations, emotions, and view angles affect the recognition accuracy. A large number of recognition subjects requires complex class boundaries. Deep Neural Networks have provided efficient solutions, although their implementa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The successful employment of Virtual Reality Environments in distance education contexts led to the development of various frameworks and taxonomies related to the Virtual-Learning approach. However, when it comes to Blended or 'Hybrid' Virtual Learning (HVL) scenarios, where the learners are concurrently co-present both in the physical and in the...
Article
Full-text available
Using a single numerical value to indicate the quality of water, a so-called Water Quality Index (WQI) is a well-established way of rating the overall water quality status of a given water body. During the last few years, researchers in the water sector have developed different such indices to address their specific needs. In this study, we attempt...
Article
Full-text available
Our ongoing research is focusing on identifying and taxonomising the elements and the factors that affect learner engagement with virtual worlds when hybrid virtual learning models are used. Our main hypothesis links learner engagement with interactions, both in the virtual world and in the physical classroom. In order to examine this subject, ther...
Conference Paper
Security1 design of mobile apps is very important, and it is also important that researchers consider and disseminate the continually changing requirements. For mobile application i.e. a software program that runs on a mobile phone, its design, development and management need to consider security impact. In particular, because of mobile app is runn...
Article
This research links learner engagement with interactions when Hybrid Virtual Learning models are used. Various aspects have been considered, such as learners’ prior experiences related to virtual worlds, their preconceptions regarding their use as a learning tool, and the impact that instructional designers’ choices have on enhancing the opportunit...
Conference Paper
The main advantage of Desktop Virtual Reality is that it enables learners to interact with each other both in the physical classroom and in a 3D environment. Even though, no explicit theories or models have been developed to contextualise Virtual Learning, instructional designers have successfully employed the traditional approaches with positive r...
Chapter
This chapter maps the types of interactions that relate to the use of virtual worlds in hybrid virtual learning scenarios. Students were asked to state their opinions regarding their experiences and were also observed along the way. The results highlight that the learning activities and students’ attitudes and experiences greatly affect learner eng...
Conference Paper
The global aim of this research is to identify, map, and form a taxonomy of the ways, the elements, and the factors that affect learner engagement with virtual worlds when Hybrid Virtual Learning models are used. Thereafter, the more specific objective of the research is to provide clear guidance to educators who are already utilising or are planni...
Article
Virtual worlds can establish a stimulating environment to support a situated learning approach in which students simulate a task within a safe environment. While in previous years Second Life played a major role in providing such a virtual environment, there are now more and more alternative-often OpenSimbased- solutions deployed within the educati...
Article
Research on finding a relationship between institutional policy and the proliferation of cyberstalking, cyberharassment and cyberbullying in young adults, is limited. It has been reported that stalking on university campuses has a different profile than stalking nationally because of the nature of their mate-seeking age, proximity of the perpetrato...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current state of information systems security management (ISSM) in Zanzibar’s public sector. The investigation involves ten public organisations and six public websites in Zanzibar and is underpinned by a survey and field observations.
Working Paper
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Conference Paper
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Effective physical presence detection in Smart Homes (SH) can be very useful for supporting ageing in place and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions. It can contribute to ensuring peace of mind and sense of comfort for patients, their families and their carers as well as enhancing their overall physical security. Motion sensor data acquired from...
Article
In this paper we aim to explore the potential advantages of interactions on student engagement and provide guidance to educators who seek interactive and immersive learning experiences for their students through the use of hybrid virtual learning approaches. We define as hybrid virtual learning the educational model where students are co-present an...
Chapter
Effective physical presence detection in Smart Homes (SH) can be very useful for supporting ageing in place and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions. It can contribute to ensuring peace of mind and sense of comfort for patients, their families and their carers as well as enhancing their overall physical security. Motion sensor data acquired from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our ongoing research focuses on the ways that interactions affect learner engagement with a virtual world and, consequently, the educational activities that take place within it when a hybrid learning approach is used. It aims to form a complete taxonomy of the types of interactions that can lead to the development of engaging and interactive learn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The proliferation and popularity of smart autonomous systems necessitates the development of methods and models for ensuring the effective identification of their owners and controllers. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss the responsibility of Things and their impact on human affairs. This starts with an in-depth analysis of IoT Charact...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is part of our ongoing research on the ways interaction affects student immersion within a virtual world and, consequently, student engagement with the educational activities that take place within it when a hybrid learning method is used. We confirm and further enhance our hypothesis investigating student feelings and thoughts about the...
Chapter
Increasingly, the virtual became reality by a hybridization of the world as we knew it: the process that went on in recent years is one of a technically assisted hybridization of both space and self, the »old« world is becoming virtualized and functionalized to a degree never experienced before. For the first time in human history, we have reached...
Article
Full-text available
Human embodiment in virtual worlds is becoming increasingly popular in this day and age. Many researchers argue the need for investigation into human involvement in virtual worlds. We aim to investigate the human involvement in virtual worlds such as Second Life. This is increasingly popular on Second Life which is a 3-D dimensional digital role-pl...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study is to form a complete taxonomy of the types of interactions that relate to the use of a virtual world for engaging learning experiences, when blended and hybrid learning methods are to be used. In order to investigate this topic more accurately and effectively, we distinguish four dimensions of interactions based on the c...
Conference Paper
Lake monitoring is a necessity for aquatic healthy living. Stakeholders are particularly interested not just in the aesthetics but also in the quality of water bodies. Our work tends to initially analyze historic data of the sensed water quality parameters at Luton Hoo lake to detect outliers. Dissolved oxygen has been predicted from available data...
Article
Full-text available
The increased demand for the use of virtual worlds in higher education has led many educators and researchers in in-depth analysis and evaluation of a number of different virtual environments, aiming to highlight their potentials. Until recently, Second Life was one of the most widely used virtual worlds for educational purposes. However, the decis...
Article
Over the last few years, there has been emerging interest in authenticating users through the medium of music. Historically, developers of alternate modality systems have focused on image- and haptic-based techniques, instinctively shying away from music. This might be due to the inherently temporal nature of the listening task and the belief that...
Article
Full-text available
After identifying how trust and semiotics work considering the case of Zanzibar we compare two contrasting e-Bank site localization design paradigms: namely that of Deutsche Bank and HSBC with respect to two target audiences: namely China and Taiwan. The findings of the e-Culture audit are aligned to the ubiquitous set of cultural dimensions first...
Article
After identifying how trust and semiotics work considering the case of Zanzibar we compare two contrasting e-Bank site localization design paradigms: namely that of Deutsche Bank and HSBC with respect to two target audiences: namely China and Taiwan. The findings of the e-Culture audit are aligned to the ubiquitous set of cultural dimensions first...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of culture on information security in a developing country's view. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Two questionnaires adopted from the GLOBE project and OCAI were used to collect quantitative data on national and organisational culture. Also, a face to face semi-structured interview was...
Conference Paper
Distributed software systems comprise a decentralized network topography wherein a collection of autonomous computers communicate with each other by exchanging messages [1]. The internet (Web 2.0) and social networks and immersive virtual worlds (VW) are the focus of our research. Distributed systems embed a variety of applications that seek to dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to bridge the gap between subjective literary criticism and natural language processing by creating a model that emulates the results of a survey into literary tastes. A panel of human experts qualified segments of literary text according to how aesthetically pleasing they found them. These segments were then rated for literariness...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Educational activities previously performed in Second Life are now more and more move moving to other alternatives. This study concentrates on the features of Second Life and its open-source alternative, OpenSim that affect the results of the in-world educational activities. The need for educators to take these features into account is another focu...
Article
Full-text available
This pilot study investigates the potential of automatic translation engines to be used as a tool for literary analysis. Two sample texts, one prose and one poetry, were chosen as representative of their genre and translated from English into one of 62 languages. Re-translated back into English, the resulting texts were compared with a stylistic an...
Article
A data mining (DM) integrated decision support system (DSS) is suggested to improve the performance of the DSS implemented in a police organisation. A prototype of the suggested system is provided. The paper provides an insight into DM-DSS integrated systems in the literature, and uses the results of the investigation as a basis for a suggested sys...
Chapter
Devising access control systems to support needs and capabilities of users, as well as the security requirements of organisations, is a key challenge faced in many of today's business environments. If users are to behave securely, they must not be overburdened with unworkable authentication policies and methods. Yet the prevailing alphanumeric pass...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst until recently Second Life was the most popular and widely used virtual world, the OpenSimulator (OpenSim), a new technology for the implementation of virtual worlds, has the potential to replace Second Life, given its similarity with the underlying technology. In this study we investigate and compare the immersion developed within Second Li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous attempts to quantify immersion have been pursued within the context of game virtual worlds where there is a clear outline of a goal. This paper seeks to investigate the problem of immersion measurement in an online based virtual world (ReactionGrid) where there is no distinct in-world goal and environmental context is less immersive as in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This pilot study investigates the potential of automatic translation engines to be used as a tool for literary stylistic analysis. By translating from English into one of 62 languages and then re-translating back into English, the resulting texts were compared with a stylistic analysis of the original. Although the similarity index varied widely be...
Conference Paper
Information Systems (IS) have become important tools in developing countries for data management, visualisation hence an essential tool to aid decision makers at all levels within organisations of all types, both private and public sector. This paper seeks to redefine the term developing country from an information security perspective. The empiric...
Conference Paper
Intangible trust perceptions have been shown to form an important part of the User Experience (UX) in relation to various B2C (Business-to-Customer) contexts of use. The extant literature appears somewhat immature in relation to intangible trust and UX models from a “non-Western” perspective. Indeed it appears from our recent e-Banking audit using...
Article
Devising access control systems to support needs and capabilities of users, as well as the security requirements of organisations, is a key challenge faced in many of today's business environments. If users are to behave securely, they must not be overburdened with unworkable authentication policies and methods. Yet the prevailing alphanumeric pass...
Chapter
Project Management is a field of intellectual and pragmatic enquiry that is inherently inter-disciplinary. It typically involves the integration of areas such as: project scoping, time, cost, and human resource management, whilst the management of effective inter-team communication, project risk, and procurement aspects are all central to the disci...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper examines how senses of online identity may converge with, and diverge from, those of offline identity through a case study of the intentions behind, and interpretations of, avatar use within the virtual environment of Second Life™ among a group of UK university students. In exploring the participants’ rationales for their choices of avat...
Article
Second Life is a virtual world, a multi-user, 3D, immersive environment, which has its own internal economy. The aim of this chapter is to develop a framework that can be used to understand the complex and inter-related factors that affect the use of Second Life in terms of consumer satisfaction in a virtual world. Based on prior works, a framework...
Chapter
Project Management is a field of intellectual and pragmatic enquiry that is inherently inter-disciplinary. It typically involves the integration of areas such as: project scoping, time, cost, and human resource management, whilst the management of effective inter-team communication, project risk, and procurement aspects are all central to the disci...
Chapter
Project Management is a field of intellectual and pragmatic enquiry that is inherently inter-disciplinary. It typically involves the integration of areas such as: project scoping, time, cost, and human resource management, whilst the management of effective inter-team communication, project risk, and procurement aspects are all central to the disci...
Article
Full-text available
The study focuses on the relationship users of virtual worlds, such as Second Life, may or may not develop toward the avatar they use. A questionnaire was developed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from students engaged in a university assignment that required them to use an avatar in Second Life. The findings are contextualized an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the paper we propose a formal model for class of authentication systems termed, “Infinite Alphabet Password Systems” (IAPs). We define such systems as those that use a character set for the construction of the authentication token that is theoretically infinite, only bound by practical implementation restrictions. We find that the IAP architectu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Security and usability are key elements in system design. A bad design might result in unnecessary inverse proportion between the two, while a good design must find a balance to achieve usable security. In this paper we present and discuss the results of a user study to show how good application of click-based systems can produce a system people ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Identity management is an area that has proved challenging for many e-service providers such as e-banks. The problem is how to authenticate on-line consumers at the initial point of registration and also how to re-authenticate on-line customers each time they wish to access e-banking services. Hitherto, e-banks have adopted several different techno...
Article
Full-text available
The study focuses on the relationship users of virtual worlds, such as Second Life, may or may not develop towards the avatar they use. A questionnaire was developed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from students engaged in a university assignment that required them to use an avatar in Second Life. The findings are contextualized a...
Article
Full-text available
When members of society cannot access the World Wide Web, or the information and services it contains in a mean-ingful or useful way, they can become digitally excluded. Many factors have been highlighted as having an effect on the likelihood of exclusion, including psychological, mate-rial and skills related barriers. In this paper, we consider th...
Article
Full-text available
The modern world increasingly requires us to prove our identity. When this has to be done remotely, as is the case when people make use of web sites, the most popular technique is the password. Unfortunately the profusion of web sites and the associated pass-words reduces their efficacy and puts severe strain on users' limited cognitive resources....
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, for any positive integer N we shall study the special values of multiple polylogarithms at Nth roots of unity, called multiple polylogarithmic values (MPVs) of level N. By standard conjectures linear relations exist only between MPVs of the same weight. LetMPVZ(w;N) be the Z-module spanned by MPVs of weight w and level N. Our main in...
Article
Current developments in grid technologies involve fluid and dynamic interactions between service providers and service consumers. We are particularly interested in a notable obstacle, namely how to keep service consumers informed of relevant changes about data committed in multiple and distributed service provider levels, and most importantly, when...
Article
Full-text available
Exposing students to leading edge vocational areas of relevance such as Web Services can be difficult. We show a lightweight approach by embedding a key component of Web Services within a Level 3 BSc module in Distributed Computing. We present a ready to use collection of lecture slides and student activities based on XML-RPC. In addition we show t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Shadows are well known as a programming language feature in the application area of MUDs (a certain type of multi-player online game). We argue that agile methodologies can be enhanced by the use of shadows as this feature because of its inherent ability to dynamically change the behavior of classes and objects, provides mechanisms to ease common t...
Article
Full-text available
Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example f...
Article
Full-text available
Agile methodologies can be enhanced by the use of shadows as this fea- ture because of its inherent ability to dynamically change the behavior of classes and objects, provides mechanisms to ease common tasks such as prototyping, deprecating, dynamic classification and interclassing at run-time. We feel however that shadows should be considered a no...
Article
Platform independence is the major advantage of the Java programming language. Whereas Java is widespread on servers, desktop computers and mobile phones. In contrast, PDA and Pocket PC applications are usually based on C or C# applications in the .NET Compact Framework. The paper focuses on the J2ME standard and its suitability for Pocket PCs and...