Marc Cattet

Marc Cattet
RGL Recovery Wildlife Health & Veterinary Services

BSc, MSc, DVM, PhD

About

93
Publications
30,156
Reads
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2,429
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2000 - July 2015
University of Saskatchewan
Position
  • Researcher
August 2000 - July 2015
University of Saskatchewan
Position
  • Researcher
September 1989 - April 1993
University of Guelph
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (93)
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we set out the prerequisites for the development of killing and restraining trap systems to capture mammals for research, wildlife management and conservation, fur trapping, animal control, and any other activity involving the trapping of a mammal in a mechanical trapping device. We selected them with the main intent of developing ne...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose standards for killing trap systems based on Proulx et al.'s (2022) prerequisites, which provide context and explanations for our approach. Our aim is to identify assessment protocols that are based on the scientific method, and that include evaluation parameters and threshold levels of acceptation, and laboratory and field...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose standards for restraining trap systems based on Proulx et al.'s (2022a) prerequisites, which provide context and explanations for our approach. Our aim is to identify assessment protocols that are based on the scientific method, and that include evaluation parameters and threshold levels of acceptation, and laboratory and...
Preprint
Comparing life history traits among populations that have been separated genetically for several hundred thousand years, but live in similar habitats on different continents, may help us understand how ecological and anthropomorphic factors shape life histories. We compared patterns of growth in body length and mass, and the influence of population...
Article
Full-text available
Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is being used increasingly to evaluate long‐term stress in many mammalian species. Most of the cortisol is assumed to passively diffuse from circulating blood into hair follicles and gradually accumulate in growing hair. However, our research with free‐ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) suggests HCC increases sig...
Article
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Several important techniques for managing wildlife rely on ballistics (the behaviour of projectiles), including killing techniques (shooting) as well as capture and marking methods (darting). Because all ballistic techniques have the capacity to harm animals, animal welfare is an important consideration. Standardised testing approaches that have al...
Article
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In 1999, after pressure from the European Union, an Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS) that would result in the banning of the steel-jawed leghold traps in the European Community, Canada, and Russia was signed. The United States implemented these standards through an Agreed Minute with the European Community. Over the last...
Article
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The deer ked ( Lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia, and the moose ( Alces alces) is its main host. However, little is known about the impact of deer keds on moose. We analyzed the hair cortisol concentration (HCC) from 262 moose harvested in the fall in relation to age class, sex, body ma...
Article
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Cortisol concentrations in hair are used increasingly as a biomarker of long-term stress in free-ranging wildlife. Cortisol is believed to be integrated into hair primarily during its active growth phase, typically occurring over weeks to months or longer periods, depending on latitude. Cortisol concentrations in hair thus reflect the activity of t...
Article
Natural and anthropogenic stressors have been reported to impact the health of marine mammals. Therefore, investigation of quantifiable biomarkers in response to stressors is required. We hypothesized that stress protein expression would be associated with biological and health variables in wild and managed-care bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops trunca...
Article
There seems to be a dichotomy in societal responses to scientific news stories regarding grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) lately. On the one hand, there appears to be strong positive support of research highlighting conservation challenges faced by the bears, including studies of the impacts of road density, human settlement, railway, and human recreat...
Article
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Although combining genetic and endocrine data from non-invasively collected hair samples has potential to improve the conservation of threatened mammals, few studies have evaluated this opportunity. In this study, we determined if steroid hormone (testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol) concentration profiles in 169 hair samples collect...
Article
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Recognizing the potential value of steroid hormone measurements to augment non-invasive genetic sampling, we developed procedures based on enzyme-linked immunoassays to quantify reproductive steroid hormone concentrations in brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair. Then, using 94 hair samples collected from eight captive adult bears over a 2-year period, we...
Article
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The measurement of naturally occurring glucocorticoids and stable isotopes of several elements has gained importance in wildlife studies in recent decades and opened a myriad of ecological applications. Cortisol and stable isotopes equilibrate in animal tissues over periods of integration related to the growth rate of the tissue, providing informat...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or “wash” external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The p...
Article
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We compared anesthetic features, blood parameters, and physiological responses to either medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam using a double-blinded, randomized experimental design during 40 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) either captured by helicopter in Sweden or by culvert trap in...
Data
Detailed results of physiological responses in free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) undergoing anesthesia with medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (MTZ) or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (DTZ) in Sweden (N = 34) and Alberta, Canada (N = 6) in 2014–2015. (DOCX)
Data
Capture date, age (years), sex (M: male; F: female), body weight (kg), body length (cm), drug combination used for anesthesia (DTZ: dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam; MTZ: medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam), alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dose level (μg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam dose level (TZ dose level, mg/kg), induction time (minutes), use an...
Data
Capture date, age (years), sex (M: male; F: female), body weight (kg), body length (cm), drug combination used for anesthesia (DTZ: dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam; MTZ: medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam), alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dose level (μg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam dose level (TZ dose level, mg/kg), induction time (minutes), use an...
Data
Physiological responses (mean ± standard deviation) in six free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) undergoing anesthesia with medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in Alberta, Canada in 2014–2015. The median value and range are shown in parenthesis. Measurements were not recorded from all bears at all time poin...
Data
Hematological and biochemical parameters (mean ± standard deviation) in arterial blood from free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) undergoing anesthesia with medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in Sweden (N = 34) and Alberta, Canada (N = 6) in 2014–2015. For the bears captured in Alberta, the median value an...
Data
Arterial blood gases, acid-base status, and oxygen saturation (mean ± standard deviation) in free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) undergoing anesthesia with medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in Sweden (N = 34) and Alberta, Canada (N = 6) in 2014–2015. For the bears captured in Alberta, the median value a...
Data
Physiological responses (mean ± standard deviation) in 34 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) using medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in Sweden in 2014–2015. Measurements were not recorded from all bears at all time points. (DOCX)
Data
Detailed results of pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) undergoing anesthesia with medeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (MTZ) or dexmedeteomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (DTZ) in Sweden (N = 34) and Alberta, Canada (N = 6) in 2014–2015. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Sea ice is declining over much of the Arctic. In Hudson Bay the ice melts completely each summer, and advances in break-up have resulted in longer ice-free seasons. Consequently, earlier break-up is implicated in declines in body condition, survival, and abundance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) in the Western Hudson Bay (WH) subpopul...
Article
Full-text available
A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalam...
Article
Full-text available
Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are often captured and handled for research and management purposes. Although the techniques used are potentially stressful for the animals and might have detrimental and long-lasting consequences, it is difficult to assess their physiological impact. Here we report the use of the leukocyte coping capacity (LCC) technique...
Article
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To reduce predation on a woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou ) population threatened by industrial disturbance, a recent study in Alberta (Canada) used strychnine baits to kill wolves ( Canis lupus ). Strychnine should not be used to control wolves because it is: (1) inhumane; (2) in contravention of animal welfare guidelines; and (3) non-...
Article
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Although killing neck snares are used on traplines in Canada to capture gray wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (C. latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), they are not subject to trap performance criteria set out in the Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS). This paper reviews scientific information related to the humaneness and...
Article
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Many species at risk in Canada and globally are at or approaching a crisis, especially where little or nothing consequential is being done to prevent extirpation. Such is the case of endangered boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in southern Alberta, Canada. Expedient but inadequate emergency ‘fixes’ have been experimentally implemented to a...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement of cortisol in hair is becoming important in studying the role of stress in the life history, health and ecology of wild mammals. The hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is generally believed to be a reliable indicator of long-term stress that can reflect frequent or prolonged activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis over...
Article
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Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habi...
Article
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Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta,...
Article
In this study, we develop spatial autoregressive (SAR) models relating grizzly bear body length to environmental predictor variables in the Alberta Rocky Mountains. We examine the ability of several different spatial neighborhoods to model spatial dependence and compare the estimated parameters and residuals from a standard linear regression model...
Article
Full-text available
Individual body growth is controlled in large part by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of, and competition for, resources. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos L.) are an excellent species for studying the effects of resource heterogeneity and maternal effects (i.e. silver spoon) on life history traits such as body size because their habitats are high...
Article
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One of the principal goals of wildlife research and management is to understand and predict relationships be-tween habitat quality, health of individuals and their ability to survive. Infrequent sampling, non-random loss of individuals due to mortality and variation in capture susceptibility create potential biases with conventional analysis method...
Article
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Although biologists and veterinarians have shown considerable success in working together to address wildlife-related issues, including disease, chemical immobilization, reproductive biology, and conservation biology, examples of shared efforts to evaluate and ensure the welfare of study animals are mostly absent. I present the case that this defic...
Article
Long-term physiological stress in individual animals may be an important mechanism linking ecological change with impaired wildlife population health. In the Southern Hudson Bay (SH) subpopulation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), increasing stress associated with climate warming may be related to declining body condition. Accordingly, the developm...
Article
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Climate change and industrial development are contributing to synchronous declines in Rangifer populations across the Arctic. Chronic stress has been implicated as a proximate factor associated with decline in free-ranging populations, but its role in Rangifer is unspecified. Analysis of glucocorticosteroid (GC) concentration in feces, and more rec...
Article
The relationship between the water content and lipid content of adipose tissue was compared between 25 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and 25 black bears (Ursus americanus) to determine if it was affected by species differences in the fatty-acid composition of adipose tissue. The adipose tissue of polar bears had a lower water content and a higher pr...
Article
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Numerous large perisinusoidal cells containing prominent cytoplasmic lipid droplets were observed in the livers of adult and subadult polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The cells were identified as Ito cells by histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. The ratio of Ito cell to hepatocyte numbers in three bears was 1:5.6, much higher th...
Article
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Thirty-eight black bears (Ursus americanus) and 43 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were dissected to determine equations for predicting body weight (BW) and nonfat body weight (NFBW). Nutritional condition was estimated by calculating a fat to nonfat (FNF) ratio, equalling (BW – NFBW)/NFBW. For each species, BW and NFBW were accurately predicted by m...
Article
We evaluated the potential for different types of remote drug-delivery systems (RDDS) to injure target animals. We recorded dart velocity, time, and distance from projector muzzle at 8.5-millisecond intervals by Doppler radar chronograph for 4 types of RDDS. We used darts of different volume and unique combinations of charges, power settings, and d...
Article
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Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the...
Article
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Human-caused landscape change negatively affects the sustainability of many wildlife populations. In Alberta, Canada, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) live in one of the most populated and heavily exploited landscapes in which the species survives. Long-term physiological stress in individual animals may be the predominant mechanism linking la...
Article
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from several subpopulations undergo extended fasting during the ice-free season. However, the animals appear to conserve protein despite the prolonged fasting, though the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary cortiso...
Article
Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protei...
Article
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We assessed the efficacy and safety of hyaluronidase to improve chemical immobilization of free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) captured from helicopter by remote drug delivery along the Ontario coast line of northwestern James Bay and southern Hudson Bay during September 2005 and October 2007. We used a single blind study design in which one...
Article
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The objective of this study was to define the conditions under which the body mass of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be estimated by morphometry with acceptable accuracy (high precision and low bias). Morphometric and body mass values from 563 polar bears captured and handled in southern Hudson Bay during 1984–86 and 2000–03 were analyzed to det...
Article
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We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the p...
Article
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The need to capture wild animals for conservation, research, and management is well justified, but long-term effects of capture and handling remain unclear. We analyzed standard types of data collected from 127 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) captured 239 times in western Alberta, Canada, 1999-2005, and 213 American black bears (U. americanus) capture...
Article
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Forty free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) were captured by net gun in Riding Mountain National Park (Manitoba, Canada) during February 2002 and were administered either saline (control) or xylazine by the intranasal route, to evaluate the efficacy and benefit of intranasal xylazine to reduce stress. Elk that received xylazine had higher...
Article
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Serum samples collected from 200 polar bears (Ursus marititnus) from two populations in the Canadian arctic, the western Hudson Bay and Lancaster Sound populations, between 1989 and 1996, were tested for antibodies to canine distemper (CDV) and phocine distemper viruses (PDV) using virus neutralization. Antibodies to CDV and PDV were detected in 48...