Marc-André Kaufhold

Marc-André Kaufhold
Universität Siegen · Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Media

MSc

About

69
Publications
8,190
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,096
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
1059 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
The use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to monitor and detect cybersecurity threats is gaining popularity among Cybersecurity Emergency or Incident Response Teams (CERTs/CSIRTs). They increasingly use semi-automated OSINT approaches when monitoring cyber threats for public infrastructure services and incident response. Most of the systems use p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past few decades, the number and variety of cyberattacks and malware patterns have increased immensely. As a countermeasure, computer emergency response teams were established with the responsibility of securing the cyber environment. However, recent studies revealed that currently performed manual processes and the unavailability of adequ...
Conference Paper
Das Resilient Smart Farming Lab (RSFLab) beschäftigt sich mit digitalen Technologien und Anwendungen die einen Beitrag zur Resilienz landwirtschaftlicher Prozesse liefern. Dabei werden Themen wie der Einsatz von Sensoren in der Landwirtschaft fokussiert (z.B. LoRa-Sensortechnologien, NIR-Sensortechnologien) und deren Nutzen für die landwirtschaftli...
Article
Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing a model's generalization capabilities, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training dat...
Article
Full-text available
In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Security Operation Centers are tasked with collecting and analyzing cyber threat data from multiple sources to communicate warning messages and solutions. These tasks are extensive and resource consuming , which makes supporting approaches valuable to experts. However , to implement such approaches, information about the challenges these experts fa...
Article
Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and o...
Chapter
Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the s...
Chapter
Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twi...
Preprint
Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of trainin...
Chapter
Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Computerunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt.
Chapter
Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden beziehungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden...
Chapter
Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disasters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergen...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the application field and research domain of this thesis. First, it will define and discuss different foundations and terms, such as incidents, emergencies, crises, disasters, and catastrophes, with regard to crisis management. Thereafter, it will introduce crisis informatics, focusing on social media technologies and mobile...
Chapter
Almost two decades of mobile technology and social media usage in crises led to the emergence and steadily foundation of crisis informatics, which is a research field combining computing and social science knowledge of disasters to improve ICT-supported crisis management and response. In order to utilise these sources of social big data for the sit...
Chapter
Security and conflict research mainly focuses on issues of vulnerability, reinforcement of resilience and preservation or recovery of critical infrastructures. Additionally, the importance of social media and crisis apps is being increasingly acknowledged. To what degree is German civil society effectively prepared for the case a crisis occurs? Whi...
Chapter
The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however...
Chapter
Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuelles Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fachbuch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren u...
Chapter
Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001.
Chapter
This chapter presents the overall research design of the dissertation. Based on the research field and epistemological foundations, I argue for the research approach of extended design case studies, which were applied in three research projects using a multitude of methods for literature reviews, empirical inquiry as well as design and evaluation o...
Chapter
In part I of the thesis, information refinement was defined as the process of applied practices and used technologies to refine obtained information according to contextual, i.e. event-based, human, organizational, societal, and technological, boundary conditions in order to improve crisis management, response and, as a desired consequence, social...
Chapter
The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale in...
Chapter
Although media and ICT play an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1,024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required fun...
Chapter
Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human-induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use o...
Chapter
Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT a...
Chapter
The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of d...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal r...
Book
Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis info...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have...
Article
Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs’ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence...
Article
The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale in...
Article
Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving...
Conference Paper
People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens’ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representativ...
Conference Paper
Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and systems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on commu...
Chapter
Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil...
Conference Paper
The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing....
Article
Full-text available
Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use o...
Preprint
The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well-established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that suppo...
Article
The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of d...
Chapter
Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapt...
Chapter
Full-text available
Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an out...
Chapter
Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and manmade crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political...
Article
Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media before, during, or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called crisis informatics. In this article, we evaluate and analyze cris...
Chapter
Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen g...
Chapter
Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentli...
Chapter
Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das...
Chapter
Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980ern in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Computerunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) abgedeckt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderheiten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Saf...
Article
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. Ac...
Article
The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however...
Article
Full-text available
Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT a...
Chapter
The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report builds on the previous work produced in the EMERGENT project, which presented the results of the first and second round of case studies carried out previously. Each of these focused on a particular type of emergency – the riots that took place in London in 2011 and six examples of floods across Europe between 2010 and 2015 – and the way...
Chapter
Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the res...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed...
Article
Full-text available
For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other servi...
Article
Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summ...
Conference Paper
Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are...
Article
Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Kata...
Article
Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz....

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Archived project