Mara Yerkes

Mara Yerkes
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Social Sciences

PhD

About

96
Publications
15,539
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974
Citations

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
The associations between time pressure and health are typically conceptualised and examined as unidirectional. This study examined the reciprocal relationships between time pressure and mental and physical health amongst working mothers of preschool children; a high-risk group for feeling time pressured. Using 5 waves of a panel study of Australian...
Chapter
In this chapter, we use cross-national data from a pilot study fielded in 2014 and 2015 among students in Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Italy, and the Netherlands to explore whether people feel citizenship rights for same-sex families should be established at the national or European level and whether these rights should be transportable within Europe....
Chapter
In this chapter, we consider gender inequality from a social justice framework. The chapter considers gender inequality in paid and unpaid work in relation to distributive, procedural and interactional justice, discussing why this inequality is often perceived to be fair. We then look at whether similar perceptions exist in relation to paid work, f...
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic raises important challenges for solidarity and social justice. Not all social groups are equally affected by the COVID-19 virus, or the measures taken to curb its’ spread. In this chapter, we discuss how social groups differ in the risks they face during the pandemic and outline the most important factors that contribute to th...
Chapter
Throughout this volume, it has become clear that solidarity and social justice are necessary elements in addressing social inequalities. Yet historical and emerging societal challenges put solidarity and social justice under pressure. In this final chapter, we outline important conclusions to be drawn from this interdisciplinary look at solidarity...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the contested nature of solidarity and social justice. We first define central concepts of the book: social inequality, solidarity, and social justice, and consider the fundamental question of where self-transcending motives come from. Subsequently, we outline this edited...
Article
One year after the European work–life balance directive, which recognises the need for work–family policy support, measures to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic began shaping parents’ work–life balance in significant ways. Academically, we are challenged to explore whether existing theoretical frameworks hold in this new environment with com...
Preprint
Objective We studied the association between the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the restrictive measures, and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women and men. Next, we analysed whether changes in these metabolic risk factors were mediated by psychological and behavioural mechanisms. Design In this n...
Article
The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the relative division of care tasks between mothers and fathers: a longitudinal perspective For many parents, the combination of work and care was already demanding and unevenly distributed prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has clearly influenced the relative division of care tasks, but how and w...
Article
Full-text available
The enormous public health burdens of the COVID-19 pandemic are not distributed equally. Inequalities are noticeable along socio-economic and socio-cultural fault lines. These social determinants of health affect both the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 infections as well as the magnitude of negative impacts of the measures taken to slow the sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Work-Life Balance (WLB) is recognized as a fundamental part of people’s well-being and prioritized in European policy making. Until recently, little attention was given to the role of economic inequality in people's inferences of WLB. In Study 1, we experimentally tested and confirmed a) the effect of economic inequality on WLB, and b) the role of...
Article
European welfare reforms often involve the decentralization of social care services. This potentially creates central‐local tensions for professionals implementing and delivering policies on the ground. Using the capability approach (CA) as a conceptual frame, this article compares local professionals' experiences in the decentralization of social...
Article
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In this Voices article, we use emerging evidence to reflect on the consequences of Covid-19 for various aspects of workers' wellbeing. This brief review emphasises how COVID-19 exacerbates existing, well-understood inequalities, along the intersections of community, work, and family. Workers on the periphery of the labour market, including non-stan...
Preprint
One year after passage of the European work-life balance directive, and thus recognition of the need for policy support, measures to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic are shaping parents’ work-life balance in significant ways. Academically, we are challenged to explore whether existing theoretical frameworks hold in this new environment with...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The COVID-19 pandemic is more than a public health crisis. Lockdown measures have substantial societal effects, including a significant impact on parents with (young) children. Given the existence of persistent gender inequality prior to the pandemic, particularly among parents, it is crucial to study the societal impact of COVID-19 from...
Article
Full-text available
Community is a key dimension in the work–family interface as highlighted by the recent Covid-19 pandemic. Yet it is critically understudied by much work–family scholarship. We highlight and address crucial barriers preventing the integration of the community concept, developing an interdisciplinary community-based capabilities approach. This approa...
Preprint
This study examines the impact of the Dutch ‘intelligent lockdown’ during the COVID-19 pandemic on work and family dynamics among parents. This ‘intelligent lockdown’ relied on a combination of restrictive measures and an emphasis on individual responsibility as a means of lessening the spread and health impact of the pandemic. However, the COVID-1...
Article
Dennie Oude Nijhuis. Religion, Class, and the Postwar Development of the Dutch Welfare State. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam2018. 340 pp. € 105.00. - Volume 64 Issue 3 - Mara Yerkes
Article
Full-text available
The family environment and parental guidance are generally considered to be key drivers of children’s health behaviours. Parents, mostly mothers, have become a focal point of policies aimed at preventing children’s health and well-being problems (e.g. childhood obesity). The underlying intensive parenting ideology places significant pressure on par...
Book
The capability approach, an increasingly popular conceptual and theoretical framework focused on what individuals are able to do and be, offers a unique evaluative perspective to social policy analysis. This book explores the advantages of this approach and offers a way forward in addressing conceptual and empirical issues as they apply specificall...
Chapter
This chapter contributes to the dualization debate by investigating the extent to which gender unequal part-time work patterns reflect insider - outsider labour market effects (e.g. based on gender and occupational effects) by comparing the Netherlands - a country with high protection of part-time workers - with Australia - a country with minimal p...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the key challenges and issues related to interpreting basic concepts of the capability approach (CA) in a social policy context. We start by briefly introducing the CA, tracing the idea of capabilities back to the writings of Aristotle and interpreting them in the context of Sen's capability approach. We then discuss the...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the relationships between science and society, in particular social policy 'practice', by consulting the social policy actors (i.e. researchers, professionals and practitioners who deal with or implement diverse policy decisions). The purpose of the chapter is to develop our innovative communication initiative, in which we...
Chapter
This concluding chapter synthesizes the key messages from the book and presents a framework for future uses of the capability approach (CA) in social policy research and practice. As shown throughout the volume, social policy as a multi-layered research field spans numerous domains, each with their inherent complexities and approaches. Taking polic...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable work-family research has investigated the gendered division of work and care. Gender differences in leisure time have received much less attention from work-family scholars, despite the potential importance of such inequalities for women’s quality of life. Combining key insights from the substantial gendered leisure studies literature...
Article
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This article analyses childcare services in six countries, assessing this policy instrument’s potential to facilitate parents’ capabilities for arranging childcare in a way they have reason to value. It draws on Sen’s capability approach to conceptualize and assess childcare policy design across five key aspects of childcare provision (accessibilit...
Article
Social procurement policies, which aim to create employment opportunities for vulnerable groups, such as the long‐term unemployed and the disabled, have become increasingly popular in recent years. Despite their growing popularity, empirical research on this topic is limited. Combining insights from the social policy and public administration liter...
Article
Attitudes towards the civil and social citizenship rights of individuals in diverse family forms are under researched. We use cross-national data from a pilot study among students in Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Italy and the Netherlands to explore cross-country differences in beliefs about partnership, parenthood and social rights of same-sex couples...
Article
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Mothers’ return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers’ perceptions of the fairness and...
Article
In this article, we assess the extent to which national-level work-family policies in the Netherlands enable various groups of working parents (men versus women, low versus highly educated, and dependent employees versus self-employed) to combine work and care. We answer this question by conducting a policy analysis using Sen’s (1992) capability fr...
Article
Work and care policy in the ‘big’ society: an expansion of capabilities? Work and care policy in the ‘big’ society: an expansion of capabilities? In this article, we assess the extent to which national-level work-care policies in the Netherlands enable various groups in society (men and women, lower and higher educated and employees versus self-emp...
Article
The empirical literature on social capital has repeatedly focused on positive social connections and the resources that accrue from them. Nevertheless, social capital theory indicates that social networks may also consist of negative ties and negative resources. This exploratory study among Vocational Education and Training (VET) students confirms...
Article
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This study investigates how couples negotiate and rationalise gendered divisions in infant care. We take a social constructivist approach to analysing qualitative data from 11 couples with infants (aged 6 to 8 months). We find that even where fathers are actively involved in infant care there are strong gendered divisions in the types of care that...
Article
Full-text available
Onder 108 hbo-docenten is onderzoek gedaan naar de relatie tussen werk-privé cultuur en de ervaren werk-privé balans. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat de werk-privé cultuur en het aantal overuren van invloed zijn op het ervaren werk-privé conflict. Dit betekent dat docenten die zich belemmerd voelen, een gebrek aan steun ervaren en regelmatig overwerke...
Article
This article addresses questions of how and why the Dutch corporatist welfare state has succeeded in responding to social risks where others have struggled. Summarizing the major findings from a primarily qualitative, historical, in-depth case study carried out in the Netherlands (including 52 in-depth interviews and extensive document analysis of...
Conference Paper
In the absence of policy measures widely-recognized as conducive to fathers’ parental leave-taking, such as well-remunerated and non-transferable leave arrangements, a relatively low proportion of Australian fathers (around 30%) use paid paternity or parental leave, although around half take some paid annual leave in association with the birth of a...
Article
Issues such as caring and family policy have received increased attention within the sociological literature on the welfare state during the past decades. At the same time, there has been much debate about the protection of social risks. In particular, scholars have questioned the ability of welfare states to respond to so-called new social risks,...
Article
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Sociological analysis has mainly portrayed empowerment as a manipulative, masking discourse. However, various actors in society view it as the opposite of domination and espouse it as a goal. Empowerment can constitute a discursive field shaped by its internal contractions between autonomy and control, between ambition and risk of programmed failur...
Article
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A delay in PhD completion, while likely undesirable for PhD candidates, can also be detrimental to universities if and when PhD delay leads to attrition/termination. Termination of the PhD trajectory can lead to individual stress, a loss of valuable time and resources invested in the candidate and can also mean a loss of competitive advantage. Usin...
Article
Sociological analysis has mainly portrayed empowerment as a manipulative, masking discourse. However, various actors in society view it as the opposite of domination and espouse it as a goal. Empowerment can constitute a discursive field shaped by its internal contractions between autonomy and control, between ambition and risk of programmed failur...
Article
Este artículo analiza la influencia de las preferencias individuales de trabajo en el comportamiento de las mujeres en el mercado de trabajo en Holanda, Alemania y Reino Unido, abordando la cuestión, ¿Hasta qué punto las preferencias individuales tienen un efecto causal en el promedio de las horas de trabajo semanales de las mujeres? Usando datos d...
Chapter
Social policy exists as an academic discipline but also refers to the practice of policymaking and administration (including service delivery). As an academic discipline, social policy is distinct in its empirical focus on welfare provision but overlaps with other social science fields such as sociology, political science, and public administration...
Article
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This article presents data from a project exploring women's experiences of work and care. It focuses primarily on work–life balance as a problematic concept. Social and economic transformations across advanced post-industrial economies have resulted in concerns about how individuals manage their lives across the two spheres of work and family and a...
Article
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Despite increased attention for doctoral education in recent years, one particular phenomenon has received little attention—the unemployment of doctoral candidates following graduation. While the unemployment of doctoral recipients is relatively low in comparison to the general popula-tion, the absence of empirical studies means possible important...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of employment often focus on general labour market developments or the employment status of vulnerable groups concentrated at the lower end of the labour market. In contrast, the employment of highly educated individuals, in particular PhD recipients, has received less em-pirical attention. This article contributes to this area using data f...
Article
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Hoewel de verschillen tussen mannen en vrouwen op de arbeidsmarkt in ruime mate zijn onderzocht, weten we veel minder over de mate van genderverschillen in arbeidsmarktposities op het hoogste niveau. Daarom is het relevant om zowel de genderverschillen in het promotiestelsel als in de arbeidsmarktposities van gepromoveerden te verkennen. In dit art...
Chapter
The interaction of political, economic, and social actors within the institutional context of the Dutch welfare state creates processes of social-risk protection. Drawing from institutional and rational-actor theories, this chapter looks for social mechanisms that play a role in explaining social-risk protection. These mechanisms, at the level of i...
Chapter
This chapter shows that, in the Dutch case, protection of a new social risk – insufficient employability – is possible even without the creation of collective welfare-state protection, namely through collective bargaining. It describes four major developments in employability policy in the Netherlands. Each of these developments is looked at in tur...
Chapter
This chapter demonstrates that the perception and management of sickness and disability has greatly changed in the Netherlands. Originally intended as a passive, full income-support scheme of benefits provided by the welfare state, sickness and disability policy underwent serious changes to policy goals. From a generous welfare-state policy providi...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how, in contrast to other Continental European welfare states, the Dutch welfare state has been successful in responding to changing and emerging social risks, leading to a transformation from a generous but passive welfare state during the 1980s to an active welfare state delineated along the lines of welfare and workfare to...
Book
This comprehensive study provides a thorough account of important policy developments in the Netherlands that are significant beyond the borders of the Dutch welfare state. It demonstrates the dramatic changes that have taken place in the protection of old and new social risks, exploring the mechanisms behind these changes in the context of corpora...
Article
The current economic crisis is assumed to create new pressures for the welfare state. In this article we investigate to what extent the crisis leads to changes in Dutch welfare state policies and institutions. Usually these changes are operationalized in terms of retrenchment (cost reduction) or restructuring (institutions). We focus, however, on d...
Article
Full-text available
A major shortcoming in the existing literature on welfare state legitimacy is that it cannot explain when social policy designs follow public preferences and when public opinion follows existing policy designs and why. Scholars examining the influence of public opinion on welfare policies, as well as scholars investigating institutional influences...
Chapter
This study investigates the consequences of processes of social individualisation and economic globalisation for welfare state solidarity. Solidarity is defined as the willingness to share risks. The institutions of the welfare state, such as social security or health care insurance, are founded on the willingness of citizens to share risks and org...
Article
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To what extent can collective bargaining compensate for a decline in or absence of welfare state protection against social risks? In this article, we use a comprehensive collective agreement database to analyse social risk coverage in the Netherlands from 1995 to 2009. We compare two forms of social risk, disability and work—life arrangements, anal...
Article
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Combining work and life is central to women's participation in the labour market. Work life balance has been a key objective of UK and Dutch policy since the 1990s, but policies created at the national level do not always connect with the day to day experiences of women juggling caring and domestic responsibilities with paid work. Using qualitative...
Article
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In this article we try to investigate the empirical validity of the convergence thesis, which assumes that welfare states are increasingly similar because more generous universal welfare states are adopting policies of retrenchment and neo-liberalization. Using data on the popularity of neo-liberal ideology, welfare state expenditures and the gener...
Article
The Netherlands is often heralded for the success of its 'part-time model' of employment. Yet the supposed success of this model raises the question whether the Dutch part-time variant is the ideal gender-neutral policy approach. A comparative, longitudinal analysis of employment transitions in the Netherlands and the UK shows that while the Dutch...
Article
Employment patterns are gender-driven, yet analyses of women's employment have yet to explain this diversity across time. This article examines the variation in women's employment patterns across time and across countries. It focuses on the effects of individual differences in educational level, marital status and motherhood in The Netherlands, Ger...
Article
Choice or impediment? The labour participation of women Choice or impediment? The labour participation of women This article researches the influence of individual preferences on women's labour market behaviour in the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom, addressing the question, to what extent do individual preferences have a causal effect...
Chapter
If there is one non-controversial stylized fact about the development of employment in the western world, it is the feminization of labor markets. On average, calculated across twenty OECD countries, the female employment rate rose from 49.2 to 59.0 percent between 1983 and 2003, whereas the male employment rate decreased from 77.7 to 73.6 percent....
Article
Full-text available
Employment patterns are gender-driven, yet analyses of women’s employment often fail to recognize the heterogeneous patterns evident within women’s labour market participation itself. This article examines the variation in women’s labour market participation in light of Hakim’s heterogeneity argument. It focuses on the effects of individual differe...
Article
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This paper focuses on the effect of women’s individual working preferences on female employment patterns in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK for the period 1992-2002. Female patterns of labour market participation vary not only within these countries but between them as well. Is this variation due to individual socio-economic differences, or cou...
Article
Full-text available
Within sociological and economic analyses of working time, important questions remain regarding women’s ability to combine paid and domestic work. While there is a growing body of research in this area, our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between working, social and private time, often remains limited, in particular regarding the fo...
Article
Full-text available
Within sociological and economic analyses of working time, important questions remain regarding women’s ability to combine paid and domestic work. While there is a growing body of research in this area, our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between working, social and private time, often remains limited, in particular regarding the fo...
Article
This paper discusses contemporary labour market changes, specifically flexibilisation and feminisation, in light of the emergence of new social risks in the Netherlands. First, we discuss the development of flexibilisation and the associated risks for employees together with the process of feminisation of the labour market and its consequences. Sec...
Article
Full-text available
This report is a summary and analysis of the Ph.D. trajectories and employment outcomes of recent Dutch Ph.D. recipients at four universities in the Netherlands in 2008-2009. The study provides detailed information on the background of Ph.D. candidates, their Ph.D. trajectory, including supervision and the performance of Ph.D. candidates, as well a...

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
This Edward Elgar Handbook features contributions from leading leave policy and social policy scholars, providing a comprehensive overview of conceptual and methodological trends and challenges in leave policy research, state-of-the-art findings on leave policy determinants and outcomes, as well as up-to-date knowledge on leave policy developments in different regions around the world. The Handbook is divided into five main sections: 1) conceptual and analytical challenges in leave policy research; 2) the politics and ideas of leave policies; 3) outcomes of leave policies; 4) leave policies in comparative perspective; 5) gaps and the future of leave policy research and development. It provides both a comprehensive overview of the field of leave policy research and in-depth analyses of particular countries around the globe. Chapters engage with both past and future leave policy developments across the world, and most importantly, encourage a critical debate on how leave policies should respond to the challenges posed by permanent (politics of) austerity, the rise of right-wing populism, a new economy marked by increasingly precarious, underinsured and nonstandard employment, migration flows, the social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, growing financial strains on parents and widening global inequalities in general. The Handbook aims to initiate a global debate and broader thinking about the inter-connection of leave policy design and inequalities, and to ask whether there is a case to re-configure leave policy as a social right.
Project
This open access handbook provides a multilevel view on family policies, combining insights on family policy outcomes at different levels of policymaking: supra-national organizations, national states, sub-national or regional levels, and finally smaller organizations and employers. At each of these levels, a multidisciplinary group of expert scholars assess policies and their implementation, such as child income support, childcare services, parental leave, and leave to provide care to frail and elderly family members. The chapters evaluate their impact in improving children’s development and equal opportunities, promoting gender equality, regulating fertility, productivity and economic inequality, and take an intersectional perspective related to gender, class, and family diversity. The editors conclude by presenting a new research agenda based on five major challenges pertaining to the levels of policy implementation (in particular globalization and decentralization), austerity and marketization, inequality, changing family relations, and welfare states adapting to women’s empowered roles.