Manuel Martín-Loeches

Manuel Martín-Loeches
Complutense University of Madrid | UCM · Department of Psychobiology

PhD, Professor

About

151
Publications
32,421
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3,118
Citations

Publications

Publications (151)
Article
Full-text available
Current research on self-identity suggests that the self is settled in a unique mental representation updated across the lifespan in autobiographical memory. Spatio-temporal brain dynamics of these cognitive processes are poorly understood. ERP studies revealed early (N170-N250) and late (P3-LPC) waveforms modulations tracking the temporal processi...
Article
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Evidence so far shows that status detection increases attentional resources, especially for high hierarchies. However, little is known about the effects of masked social status cues on cognition. Here, we explore the masked priming effects of social status cues during a categorization task. For this purpose, we use Event-Related brain Potentials (E...
Article
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For theoretical and practical reasons, it is of great interest to understand how accurate and persistent episodic memories of enjoyable experiences are formed and maintained, for example, in the context of gastronomy and other instances of experience design. Here, we investigated factors that might affect the quality (a measure of coherence) of imm...
Article
Although it has been scarcely investigated, personality might help shape language comprehension during social interaction. The aim is to investigate how differences in personality might affect morphosyntactic processing and whether it may be affected by social presence. In a correctness judgement task, participants read sentences that were correct...
Article
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The neural underpinnings of social emotions such as pride and shame are largely unknown. The present study aims to add evidence by exploiting the advantage of event-related brain electrical potentials (ERP) to examine the neural processes as they unfold over time. For this purpose, a dot-estimation task was adapted to explore these emotions as elic...
Article
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Syntactic processing has often been considered an utmost example of unconscious automatic processing. In this line, it has been demonstrated that masked words containing syntactic anomalies are processed by our brain triggering event related potential (ERP) components similar to the ones triggered by conscious syntactic anomalies, thus supporting t...
Article
In the present study, we investigate whether subliminal complex social cues have an impact on error monitoring processes. For this purpose, we presented two social status ranks (high and low) with three possible emotional expressions (happy, neutral, angry), using a backward masking paradigm. Participants were instructed to perform a flanker task w...
Article
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Natural use of language involves at least two individuals. Some studies have focused on the interaction between senders in communicative situations and how the knowledge about the speaker can bias language comprehension. However, the mere effect of a face as social context on language processing remains unknown. In the present study we used event-r...
Article
While self-identity recognition has been largely explored, less is known on how self-identity changes as a function of time. The present work aims to explore the influence of the temporal perspective on self-identity by studying event-related brain potentials (ERP) associated with face processing. To this purpose, participants had to perform a reco...
Article
Although, evolutionarily, language emerged predominantly for social purposes, much has yet to be uncovered regarding how language processing is affected by social context. Social presence research studies the ways in which the presence of a conspecific affects processing, but has yet to be thoroughly applied to language processes. The principal aim...
Article
Human sociality and prosociality rely on social and moral feelings of empathy, compassion, envy, schadenfreude, as well as on the preference for prosocial over antisocial others. We examined the neural underpinnings of the processing of lexical input designed to tap into these type of social feelings. Brainwave responses from 20 participants were m...
Article
In this study, we used a paradigm combining two different sequential motor tasks, namely linear vs. non-linear self-administration of sentences, with correctness judgment of the sentences (half of them could include a morphosyntactic violation) while recording event-related potentials, ERPs. The sentences could be of either three types: subject-rel...
Article
Embodied views of language support that facial sensorimotor information can modulate language comprehension. The aim of this study is to test whether the syntactic processing of simple sentences, as measured with event-related brain potentials (ERP), could be affected by reader’s facial expressions. Participants performed a correctness decision tas...
Article
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Across time, personal belongings incorporate semantic self-knowledge contributing to the subjective meaning of mineness and preference, whose access is prioritized. Although neuroimaging is starting to explore self-knowledge processes, more research is still necessary to better understand many aspects of these processes. One, the timing of the mech...
Article
Guilt is a social emotion that plays a central role in promoting prosocial behavior. Despite its relevance, it remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to fill this gap by verifying and characterizing a frontal negative fluctuation of the event-related brain potentials (ERP) emerging in conditions of interpersonal guilt. Paired participan...
Article
The present study investigates in how far morphosyntactic processing is affected by an additional non-verbal task and whether this effect differs between German and Spanish, two languages with differences in processing grammatical gender (lexical vs. cue-based processing). By manipulating task load and language we aimed at getting an insight into s...
Article
Emotional information significantly affects cognitive processes, as proved by research in the past decades. Recently, emotional effects on language comprehension and, particularly, syntactic processing, have been reported. However, more research is needed, as this is yet very scarce. The present paper focuses on the effects of emotion-laden linguis...
Article
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Si, como parecen indicar los estudios más autorizados al res-pecto, el origen de nuestra especie debe situarse en África y se remonta a hace unos 200.000 años, la búsqueda de las manifestaciones de lo que se ha venido en llamar «una mente plenamente moderna» se está convirtiendo en la clave para conocer la dispersión de nuestros antepasados por los...
Article
Meals, especially when taken in company, may affect the diner’s mood. In line with findings that mood may alter cognitive control, a previous study by the authors found that after solitary meals, the Simon effect was diminished as compared to a premeal condition, whereas a social meal did not reduce the Simon effect. Here, we investigated whether t...
Article
Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant v...
Article
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This study aims to extend the embodied cognition approach to syntactic processing. The hypothesis is that the brain resources to plan and perform motor sequences are also involved in syntactic processing. To test this hypothesis, Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with embedded relative clauses, ju...
Poster
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Decades of research demonstrate that facial expression by itself can induce emotional states and influence affective information processing. Facial expression has usually been manipulated by asking subjects to hold a pen between the lips to inhibit smiling, or else hold the pen between the teeth to facilitate smiling. To induce negative emotions, r...
Article
The N400 component of the event-related potential is considered an index of semantic processing and therefore may be an ideal biomarker of semantic system disorders or individual differences. To this purpose, it is necessary to assess its test–retest reliability. Only one previous study has addressed this question, reporting good test–retest reliab...
Article
Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP) study, positive, neutral and...
Article
Full-text available
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a ‘symbolic’ mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor sys...
Article
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Unlabelled: According to the literature, negations such as "not" or "don't" reduce the accessibility in memory of the concepts under their scope. Moreover, negations applied to action contents (e.g., "don't write the letter") impede the activation of motor processes in the brain, inducing "disembodied" representations. These facts provide importan...
Article
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In reading tasks, words that convey a false statement elicit an enhanced N400 brainwave response, relative to words that convey a true statement. N400 amplitude reductions are generally linked to the online expectancy of upcoming words in discourse. White lies, contrary to false statements, may not be unexpected in social scenarios. We used the eve...
Article
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The present study aimed at exploring how two main primarily semantic factors of discourse comprehension, namely global coherence and amount of information cumulated across a passage, may impact on the sentential syntactic processing. This was measured in two event-related brain potentials (ERP) to grammatical (morphosyntactic) violations: anterior...
Article
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The aim of this contribution is to introduce the present Special Issue on Neuroscience and Education of the Revista de Psicología Educativa/Educational Psychology. After a brief introduction to current advances in general cognitive neuroscience that are being possible by means of brain imaging techniques available only during the most recent decade...
Article
It has been shown that counterintuitive ideas from mythological and religious texts are more acceptable than other (non-religious) world knowledge violations. In the present experiment we explored whether this relates to the way they are interpreted (literal vs. metaphorical). Participants were presented with verification questions that referred to...
Article
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The present study contributes to the discussion on the automaticity of semantic processing. Whereas most previous research investigated semantic processing at word level, the present study addressed semantic processing during sentence reading. A dual task paradigm was combined with the recording of event-related brain potentials. Previous research...
Article
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The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the...
Article
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Models of language comprehension assume that syntactic processing is automatic, at least at early stages. However, the degree of automaticity of syntactic processing is still controversial. Evidence of automaticity is either indirect or has been observed for pairs of words, which might provide a poor syntactic context in comparison to sentences. Th...
Article
Whether beauty and ugliness represent two independent judgement categories or, instead, opposite extremes of a single dimension is a matter of debate. In the present 3T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, 20 participants were scanned while judging faces and nude bodies of people classified as extremely ugly, extremely beautiful, or indiffe...
Article
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Background: Gamma oscillations are essential for functional neural assembly formation underlying higher cerebral functions. Previous studies concerning gamma band power in schizophrenia have yielded diverse results. Methods: In this study, we assessed gamma band power in minimally treated patients with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives...
Article
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Syntactic violations in sentences elicit a P600 component in the event-related potential, which is frequently interpreted as signaling reanalysis or repair of the sentence structure. However, P600 components have been reported also for semantic and combined semantic and syntactic violations, giving rise to still other interpretations. In many of th...
Article
En: Estudios de Psicología Madrid 1999, n. 63-64 ; p. 175-188 Se pretende dar cuenta de los últimos adelantos en el campo de los procesos relacionados con la comprensión del lenguaje y los potenciales evocados. éstos han mostrado ser herramientas útiles para el estudio de dichos procesos. Para ello se revisan una serie de estudios relacionados con...
Article
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Recent analyses indicate that the precuneus is one of the main centres of integration in terms of functional and structural processes within the human brain. This neuroanatomical element is formed by different subregions, involved in visuo-spatial integration, memory and self-awareness. We analysed the midsagittal brain shape in a sample of adult h...
Data
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a b s t r a c t The cognitive deficit profile is different among individuals with schizophrenia. We quantified the amount of electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli onset (noise power) over frontal regions regarding deficit in cognitive domains. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical, cognitive...
Article
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The present article reviews the scientific literature on a component of brain electrical activity named Recognition Potential, or RP, of great interest in the study and exploration of one of the main processes involved in reading. The PR is an electrical fluctuation peaking at about 200 to 250 ms after the onset of a visually presented word. Its ne...
Article
The reasons behind the cultural persistence of religious beliefs throughout human history and prehistory still generate unanswered questions requiring scientific explanations. Within the framework of the cognitive science of religion, this article reviews experimental evidence supporting human predisposition for religious thinking and focuses on th...
Article
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Although research addresses the effects of a meal's context on food preference, the psychological consequences of meal situations are largely unexplored. We compared the cognitive and emotional effects of a restaurant meal eaten in the company of others to a solitary meal consumed in a plain office using pre- and post-tests analysis and controlling...
Article
P300 is considered to be a potential biological marker for schizophrenia. Most of the studies on P300 and patients with First Early Psychosis (FEP) are focused on P3b subcomponent, whereas few studies assess P3a impairments, despite the existence of differences between both P300 subcomponents. Furthermore, they are associated with different cogniti...
Article
Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives t...
Article
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Background: Brain activity is less organized in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy controls (HC). Noise power (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) may be of use for studying this disorganization. Method Fifty-four patients with schizophrenia (29 minimally treated and 25 stable treated), 23 first-degree rel...
Article
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In this response to Demestre's comment, we first discuss the terms “legal” and “prohibited,” applied to syntactic structures, stressing that there are boundaries in which the legality of certain constructions appears imprecise and is a matter of discussion. This coalesces with actual and daily use by native speakers of a language, who can normally...
Article
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Corpus callosum (CC) might be related to cognitive performance because of its role in interhemispheric communication. Previous research has focused mainly on volumetric analyses of the CC, yielding contradictory results to some extent. Shape is an approach that integrates and extends the data obtained with the volumetric methodology. Here, we analy...
Article
There is an increasing consideration for a disorganized cerebral activity in schizophrenia, perhaps relating to a synaptic inhibitory deficit in the illness. Noise power (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) may offer a non-invasive window to assess this possibility. 29 minimally-treated patients with schizophrenia (...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion effects on cognition have often been reported. However, only few studies investigated emotional effects on subsequent language processing, and in most cases these effects were induced by non-linguistic stimuli such as films, faces, or pictures. Here, we investigated how a paragraph of positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence affects...
Data
Examples of preceding positive, negative, and neutral paragraphs and the subsequent neutral sentences containing either semantic or syntactic violations used for both the first and the second experiments, respectively. (DOC)
Article
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The corpus callosum displays considerable morphological variability between individuals. Although some characteristics are thought to differ between male and female brains, there is no agreement regarding the source of this variation. Biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics have provided tools to investigate shape and size variation in terms...
Article
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Religious beliefs are both catchy and durable: they exhibit a high degree of adherence to our cognitive system, given their success of transmission and spreading throughout history. A prominent explanation for religion's cultural success comes from the "MCI hypothesis," according to which religious beliefs are both easy to recall and desirable to t...
Article
This article presents an overview of the contribution of brain imaging techniques to the study of human language by first reviewing previous historical approaches to the study of the relationships between language and the brain. A brief introduction to modern brain imaging techniques follows, thereafter describing several concrete examples of contr...
Article
Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult h...
Article
En una primera fase se comparan un grupo con enfermedad de alzheimer (ea), otro con demencia multi-infarto (dmi) y un grupo control en ciertos parámetros electroencefalograficos. En una segunda fase se estudian un grupo con ea y un grupo control, y se analizan numerosos parámetros electroencefalograficos (potencias de las bandas clásicas y de banda...
Article
Full-text available
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed to compare word category and verb inflection violations in Spanish. A similar frontal negativity was found between 250-400 ms for both violation types, suggesting that they equally disrupt initial syntactic analyses. Also, word category violations elicited a negativity at posterior electrodes larger tha...
Article
Evidence is reviewed here that is contrary to the idea that a small enhancement in working‐memory capacity determined the emergence of the modern human mind as something radically different from previous human minds and materialized only in figurative art, particularly therianthropes. When reviewing the neurological and psychological literature on...