Manuel Llorca-Jaña

Manuel Llorca-Jaña
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez · Facultad de Artes Liberales

PhD Economic History, Leicester University (UK)
Full Professor (Profesor Titular), Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez

About

98
Publications
31,061
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Introduction
Manuel Llorca-Jaña (PhD Economic History, Leicester, UK). My research is in economic and business history, having published books with Cambridge University Press, Palgrave and Routledge, as well as over 50 articles in academic journals. I am currently member of the editorial board of Enterprise & Society and Economic History of Developing Regions.
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - December 2021
Universidad de Valparaíso (Chile)
Position
  • Full professor
March 2013 - February 2020
University of Santiago, Chile
Position
  • Head of Department
Education
September 2005 - March 2009
University of Leicester
Field of study
  • Economic History

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Full-text available
This article deals with the emergence of joint stock companies (JSC) in Chile during the third quarter of the nineteenth century. We have built the first database related to JSC for this period, providing useful information about its demography. We found that: JSC funded the emergence of new key industries fostering economic growth; there was a hig...
Article
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This article analyzes to what extent the technophysio evolution (i.e. the positive synergism between accelerated technological changes and improvements in human physiology) occurred in Chile, as well as its timing. Compared to developed countries, Chile experienced a delayed and incomplete technophysio evolution. General and infant mortality fell s...
Article
In this article we provide the first long-term series of Chile’s per capita consumption of a wide range of key foodstuffs: cereals, legumes, potatoes, meats and dairy products from 1930 to 2019, based on food balance sheets and complementary information from FAO, consumer price indexes and surveys of family budget. Based on this information, we exa...
Article
This article analyzes the process of creation of the Chilean balance of payments (BP) carried out by its Central Bank between 1942 and 1970, describing the international background on the studies and methodologies for the elaboration of this macroeconomic analytical instrument, the motivations and methodologies used, and the results and analysis ar...
Article
Based on census records (both of total population and commercial-industrial), and an extensive review and synthesis of the secondary literature, this article analyses the importance and impact of immigration on the economic development of Chile, in particular on entrepreneurship and the changing composition of the main business groups of the countr...
Article
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This paper provides the first comprehensive account of the development of the steel and iron industries in Chile during the 1940s-1970s, by focussing on CAP, which was created as a mixed company in 1946. Our main sources of information are the Annual and Financial Reports of the company. We show that CAP quickly became hegemonic in both industries,...
Article
This paper studies the evolution of numeracy in Chile for cohorts born from the 1780s to the 1970s, providing a new series of this important indicator of human capital, essential to promote economic growth. This is the longest series currently available of any human capital indicator for Chile. It shows that numeracy was very low until the early tw...
Article
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Following Salvatore and the WHO, in this article we provide the first long-term estimates of malnutrition rates for Chile per birth cohort, measured through stunting rates of adult males born from the 1870s to the 1990s. We used a large sample of military records, representative of the whole Chilean population, totalling over 38 thousand individual...
Article
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In this article we analyze the levels of interpersonal violence in the Magallanes Colonization Territory between the 1880s and 1910s, through the evolution of the homicide rate. Today, it is widely accepted that homicide rates are a good indicator of personal security and are a key indicator of well-being. The period covered by this research includ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we provide the first long-term series of Chile’s per capita consumption of a wide range of key foodstuffs: cereals, legumes, potatoes, meats and dairy products from 1930 to 2019, based on food balance sheets and complementary information from FAO, consumer price indexes and surveys of family budget. Based on this information, we exa...
Article
Full-text available
The article elaborates an analytical framework to explain the high adherence reached by “popular Capitalism” in Huachipato’s Steel Industry (SH), during the privatization of Compañía de Aceros del Pacífico (CAP), during the 1980s, to which Huachipato belonged to. It is argued that in the privatization cycle converged both the deterioration of real...
Article
This article provides the first series for Chilean adult female height, for cohorts born from the 1860s to the 1990s, using a sample of around 4.600 women. The height of adult females increased by about 5 cm during this period, primarily during the 1860s-1880s and the second half of the twentieth century. This is the greatest improvement in women’s...
Preprint
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Quantile regression and quantile treatment effect methods are powerful econometric tools for considering economic impacts of events or variables of interest beyond the mean. The use of quantile methods allows for an examination of impacts of some independent variable over the entire distribution of continuous dependent variables. Measurement in man...
Article
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The incorporation of women into the public arena has increasingly attracted the attention of scholars in public administration. Yet there has been little analysis of this phenomenon from a long-term perspective. This article is an evaluation of the integration of women into the public sector in Chile from the mid-nineteenth century to the Great Dep...
Article
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Background: During the twentieth century, Chile experienced an important reduction in general mortality. Aim: To describe both general and infant mortality of Chile from 1909 to 2017. Material and Methods: Analysis of information about births and deaths published by the Chilean National Institute of Statistics for the period between 1909 and 2017...
Article
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This article traces inequality and numeracy development in the regions of Chile during the 19th and early 20th century. Inequality, measured with anthropometric methods, was associated with a lower speed of human capital formation. Not all talents received the necessary education to make full use of their talent for the regional economy, especially...
Article
This article traces inequality and numeracy development in the regions of Chile during the 19th and early 20th century. Inequality, measured with anthropometric methods, was associated with a lower speed of human capital formation. Not all talents received the necessary education to make full use of their talent for the regional economy, especially...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses both general and infant mortality of Chile from 1990 to 2017, making use of the demographic yearbooks and vital statistics of Chile for this period at a national and regional level. Our main results are that both general and infant mortality rates declined sharply from the 1930s to the late 1990s. However, during the last few...
Article
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Abstract: We analyze the evolution of homicide rates in Chile, as a proxy of interpersonal violence, from the 1880s to the 2010s. Homicides rates are the best measure of a country's personal security, and a key variable of well-being. We found that the homicides rates were high during the late nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentie...
Article
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We provide a new indicator of salary inequality for Chile: the ratio of the salary of the Finance Minister compared to that of the lowest paid worker in the Ministry of Finance (1845-2020). The ratio indicates the ideas that the political elite has about its own "worth", and that of those at the bottom, thus providing a new story about political vi...
Article
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This article deals with the policy of exchange rate controls enforced by Chile from 1931 to the mid-1950s, due to the balance of payments crisis triggered by the Great Depression. In particular, we analysed the role played by the Foreign Trade Council (CONDECOR), a state institution created in 1942 to implement foreign exchange controls, currency c...
Article
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This article provides the first account of the development of the casino industry in a developing country, focussing on Chile. For most of the 1930s-1980s, the industry remained stagnant and restricted to a few locations. From 1990 the industry grew, mainly due to the economic growth enjoyed by the country, which was further promoted following the...
Article
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This article deals with the creation and operations of the first agricultural development bank ever created in Chile, the Caja de Crédito Agrario (CCA), founded in 1926, in operations until 1953. The CCA was instrumental to provide subsidized long-term capital to small farmers in Chile to promote agricultural production, but also having a “social m...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comparison of the main demographic and human capital trends of two Nordic countries (Norway and Sweden) and three Andean countries (Bolivia, Chile and Peru) during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During this period, all countries experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition but at different paces and at d...
Book
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This is the first survey of Chile’s economic history to be published. All chapters are written by specialists in their periods and subjects. The first part provides a chronological survey of the evolution of the Chilean economy since the early nineteenth century. The second reviews the development of key sectors in the economy such as agriculture,...
Article
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This article provides the first series of Chilean adult male height for the whole of the twentieth century. The height of adult males increased by about 5.5 cm during the twentieth century, primarily during the second half of this period. This is the greatest improvement in biological welfare in Chilean history; Chilean males have never been as tal...
Article
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This article shows how Chile experienced a profound nutrition transition within a short period of time. Before the early 1990s, the diet of most Chileans was poor in animal proteins and calcium. Today, Chileans enjoy a diet characterized by high consumption of meat and dairy products. The rapid rise in consumption of these products can be attribute...
Article
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Este artículo proporciona un detallado análisis del proceso de electrificación de una economía atrasada. El caso analizado es Chile como evolucionó desde menos de 130kWh per habitante, con una base eléctrica dominada por centrales térmicas y un reducido desarrollo del sector público, a consumir por encima de 800 kWh, principalmente por centrales hi...
Article
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This article makes a contribution to the study of inequality in the biological welfare of Chile's adult population during the nitrate era, c.1880s-1930s, and in particular focuses on the impact of socioeconomic variables on height, making use of a sample of over 20,000 male inmates of the capital's main jail. It shows that inmates with a university...
Article
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This article provides a detailed account of electrification of a backward economy; how Chile developed from consuming less than 130 kWh per inhabitant, with an electricity matrix dominated by thermal power plants, and little involvement from the public sector, to consuming over 800 kWh per person, largely because of hydropower stations, which great...
Article
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We provide the first estimates of gender income and land inequality in Chile during the first decades after independence, when Chile was a predominantly agrarian society. We have used a new source: the records of the first agricultural censuses ever made for any Latin American republic. We found that there were over six times more male landowners t...
Article
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Este artículo estudia la posición de Chile dentro de las redes mundiales de cobre entre 1700 y la década de 1840. Durante este periodo, los niveles de producción eran bajos, si se los compara con los de 1850-1870 y el siglo XX, debido tanto a las pobres técnicas de extracción y refinado como a los altos costos de transporte. Sin embargo, el cobre c...
Article
Este artículo trata de la política comercial y las principales tendencias de las exportaciones chilenas después del retorno de la democracia en 1990. Durante este período, las exportaciones y las importaciones se expandieron significativamente en Chile. En lo que respecta a las exportaciones este boom se debe principalmente a una política comercial...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides the first series of Chilean adult male height for the whole of the twentieth century. The height of adult males increased by about 5.5 cm during the twentieth century, primarily during the second half of this period. This is the greatest improvement in biological welfare in Chilean history; Chilean males have never been as tal...
Article
Full-text available
This article shows that Chile experienced a profound nutrition transition within a short period of time. Before the early 1990s the diet of most Chileans was poor in animal proteins and calcium. Yet today Chileans enjoy a diet characterized by a high consumption of meat and dairy products. The sudden rise in consumption of meat and dairy products c...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the process of succession in three large Chilean family businesses between c.1860s-1940s, whose combined wealth was 10% of Chilean GDP. Although there is no general theory of succession planning in family firms, the most common reasons for why succession fails or succeeds have been identified in the specialised literature. We...
Article
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This article analyses the process of succession in three large Chilean family businesses between c.1860s-1940s, whose combined wealth was 10% of Chilean GDP. Although there is no general theory of succession planning in family firms, the most common reasons for why succession fails or succeeds have been identified in the specialised literature. We...
Article
A sample of over 44 thousand Chilean marines was used to estimate the trend of mean heights from the 1820s to the 1890s. We confirm that there was height stagnation in the last decades of the nineteenth-century Chile despite sizeable per capita GDP growth; there were hidden nutritional costs to this economic growth. This situation resembles a simil...
Article
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This article deals with the demographic consequences of the end of Chile's nitrate boom following the 1929 crisis. The traditional economic historiography has maintained that this crisis impacted heavily on nitrate production, and that in turn the crisis triggered a permanent exodus from the nitrate districts to other geographical zones. Contrary t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the demographic consequences of the end of Chile's nitrate boom following the 1929 crisis. The traditional economic historiography has maintained that this crisis impacted heavily on nitrate production, and that in turn the crisis triggered a permanent exodus from the nitrate districts to other geographical zones. Contrary to...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides the first series of adult male height for nineteenth century Chile. Our aim was to assess the trends indicated by height during this period, but also the relationship between stature and both GDP per capita and exports. Having analysed our data, our primary conclusions are that: there was a reduction in heights for cohorts bor...
Book
Full-text available
Throughout the twentieth century, the Chilean business elite has played a central role in the country, not just as entrepreneurs but also as political and social actors. The chapters in this book, the first in English on the history of Chilean business, focus on the importance of diversified family business groups in twentieth-century Chile, their...
Chapter
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This chapter surveys the state of business history in Chile, drawing attention to the relative lack of research on the topic compared with other Latin American countries until very recently. Explanations for this lie in the antagonism that many academics felt towards the business elite, due partly to the influence of dependency theories and the rol...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides the first series of adult male height for 19 th -century Chile. Our aim was not only to assess the trends indicated by height during this period, but also the relationship between stature and both GDP per capita and exports. Having analysed our data, our primary conclusion is that there was a reduction in height for cohorts bo...
Article
Full-text available
The average height of a population has been recently taken as a good indicator of biological welfare, and therefore of standards of living and economic development. This article provides the first available series for Chile, providing the evolution of the average height of Chilean soldiers (male) born from the 1730s to the 1980s, using a sample of...
Article
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This article assesses agricultural market income inequality by examining three untapped comprehensive agricultural censuses of all of Chile, undertaken in 1834, 1838 and 1852. Since there had been no Chilean income inequality measurements prior to 1860, this is a novel contribution. Given Chile's great dependence on the agricultural sector during t...
Article
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This article assesses both agricultural income distribution and land distribution in Chiloé during the 1830s-1850s, comparing both variables with the rest of the Chilean provinces at that time, in a rather unexplored period in Chile’s agrarian historiography. We have used several untapped sources such as the Catastro (agricultural census). From thi...
Book
Full-text available
1. Llorca-Jaña, Manuel y Barría, Diego. “Introducción: historia empresarial de Chile en el siglo XXI”. 2. Bucheli, Marcelo. ‘Política económica, capital extranjero y la creación de COPEC’. 3. Salvaj, Erica; Andrea Lluch y Constanza Gómez. ‘La red empresarial chilena en 1939: entre la crisis global y la adaptación a la etapa de la industrialización...
Article
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This articles makes a contribution to the study of family groups in developing economies by analysing the case of the Cousiño-Goyenechea business, one of the most important business groups in nineteenth century Chile. We provide evidence of how the original Cousiño's fortune was built, and how after being highly concentrated in copper and silver mi...
Article
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This article assesses the state of the agrarian sector and the composition of the Chilean agrarian elite during the first half of the nineteenth century, a rather unexplored period in Chile’s agrarian historiography. We have used several untapped sources such as the Catastro (agricultural census) and El Agricultor. From the former we have built and...
Article
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In this special issue of Contribuciones we have chosen some of the best papers delivered at the Third Chilean Economic History Congress, held at the Faculty of Management and Economics of Universidad de Santiago de Chile, during August 2016. Over 80 papers were presented in the conference, authored by colleagues from Chile, Argentina, Spain, Urugua...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to bring more statistical precision to assess the impact of Chilean copper exports to Wales on both the Chilean and the Welsh economies during the nineteenth century. Despite the previous and important contributions of other scholars, there were still some blurred areas which called for clarification. My main conclusion...
Article
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Adrian Finucane , The Temptations of Trade: Britain, Spain and the Struggle for Empire (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), pp. 212, $45.00, $29.50, pb. - Volume 49 Issue 2 - MANUEL LLORCA-JAÑA
Article
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This article discusses Chile's entry into the international economy, the performance of the national economy and institutional change during the 1810–1830s. It argues that the country consolidated a successful process of entry into the expanding world economy. GDP per capita was poor, but alternative indicators suggest a more optimistic picture (e....
Article
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This paper provides the first survey of slave prices for Santiago de Chile, c . 1773-1822. It also establishes the main determinants of slave prices during this period. We gathered and analysed over 3,800 sale operations. Our series confirm the usual inverted U-shape when prices are plotted against age, and that age was a very important determinant...
Article
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The pivotal role played by non-banking institutions in supporting the expansion of international trade after the Napoleonic Wars and before first globalization c. 1870-1913 has long been recognised. Merchant-bankers in particular played a crucial role by advancing monies to consignors of products all over the world. Without this form of credit, man...
Article
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This article argues that entrepreneurs, not governments or markets, shaped globalization during the early nineteenth century. The article concentrates on the trading and financial activities of London merchant bankers, and in particular on the different diversification strategies they followed. Although most London merchant bankers remained cautiou...
Article
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JeremyBaskes, Staying Afloat: Risk and Uncertainty in Spanish Atlantic World Trade, 1760–1820 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013), pp. xiv+393, £42.00; $70.00, hb. - Volume 46 Issue 3 - MANUEL LLORCA JAÑA
Article
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El principal propósito de este artículo es determinar salarios reales y condiciones de vida de trabajadores de la construcción en Santiago de Chile al final del período colonial (c. 1788–1808). Con este objetivo en mente, hemos usado la metodología propuesta por Allen para calcular salarios reales en términos de ratios de bienestar. Nuestras princi...
Article
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This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independence, this article provides new and stronger evidenc...
Article
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In 1808, after the Portuguese royal family was forced to leave Portugal and move to Brazil, Brazilian ports were opened to British merchant houses, which were quick to open offices in the likes of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. By 1810 there were probably over 200 British merchant houses operating in Brazil, but we know very little about them because mo...
Article
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This textbook is a wonderful addition to the works already available on Latin American economic history. In particular, it complements in a particularly useful way the major work of Bulmer-Thomas and the edited collections of Cárdenas, Ocampo, and Thorp, as well as the Cambridge Economic History of Latin America. It will be especially welcomed by u...
Article
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This paper deals with Anglo-Spanish trade and finances for the period c. 1810-1850. It concentrates on the business activities of a London merchant bank (Huth & Co. or Huth) with Spain during this period by paying special attention to the support given by Huth to the many bilateral trades between Spain and Britain in which the company participated....
Article
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This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined u...