Manuel Garcia-Heras

Manuel Garcia-Heras
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Instituto de Historia

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117
Publications
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
A set of beads made of glass, gastropod mollusk shell, and fishbone from a Swahili occupation level on Ibo Island (northern Mozambique) is dated to the eleventh and twelfth centuries AD. The chemical composition of the glass beads and their chromophores, and the shell and fishbone materials, are studied to understand the local and trading provenanc...
Article
La Arqueometría es una herramienta imprescindible en el estudio del vidrio antiguo, tanto desde una perspectiva arqueológica como en lo que respecta a la conservación de estos materiales. Para entender cómo afectan los procesos postdeposicionales al vidrio arqueológico y los tratamientos aplicados tras su descubrimiento, se seleccionó un conjunto d...
Article
The preservation of the integrity of artworks and cultural heritage items during characterization and conservation operations is of high priority, therefore, the application of non-invasive techniques is commonly suggested and recommended. Nonlinear optical microscopies (NLOM), based on the use of tightly focused pulsed femtosecond lasers, are emer...
Article
Outdoor and indoor pollutants can affect the conservation of natural history collections. As a first approach to this question, environmental acidity around specimens in the collections of the Natural Science Museum of Barcelona and Botanic Institute of Barcelona (MCNB‐IBB) was measured. Measurements were taken using optical sensors in a number of...
Article
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Esta contribución expone y discute algunas de las potencialidades de la disciplina arqueométrica en el estudio de los materiales cerámicos arqueológicos y su capacidad para generar y aportar conocimiento histórico sobre la tecnología de las comunidades del pasado. Entre los tres factores de variabilidad de un conjunto cerámico, como son el factor f...
Article
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With the aim to contrast existing historical documentation with information provided by the own materials, an archeometric study of a representative set of tiles from the Monastery of El Escorial was undertaken. The ensemble, composed of 19 ceramic fragments, covers examples from the 16th and 17th century, either from Talavera or Toledo provenances...
Poster
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Los sensores de acidez ambiental desarrollados por el Instituto de Historia CCHS-CSIC, son una herramienta que ofrece múltiples posibilidades en el campo de la conservación preventiva. En esta ocasión, el Laboratorio de Conservación Preventiva y Restauración del Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona, los utilizó para testar la idoneidad de una se...
Article
Se estudian las vidrieras de la Catedral de Astorga a partir de dos ejemplos representativos: la Aparición de Jesús resucitado a la Virgen María y el Apóstol San Simón (ss. XVI-XVIII). Se realizó su estudio histórico-artístico y el arqueométrico de una selección de fragmentos de vidrio, con el fin de obtener información sobre su tecnología de produ...
Article
Twenty five samples of Roman window glass of some archaeological sites situated in the Roman province Baetica: Acinipo (Ronda, Málaga), Carmo (Carmona, Seville), Herrera (Seville), Astigi (Écija, Seville), Cortalago (Minas de Riotinto, Huelva) and Torreparedones (Baena, Córdoba), were selected for Microprobe Analysis (EPMA). All of them are window...
Article
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Las trompetas cerámicas celtibéricas de finales de la Edad del Hierro (siglos III-I a. C.) se conocen desde que se hallaron a principios del siglo XX en las excavaciones arqueológicas de la antigua ciudad de Numancia. Se trata de aerófonos de boquilla (labrosones) ultracirculares que tradicionalmente se han interpretado como instrumentos de señaliz...
Chapter
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En este artículo se presenta un estado de la cuestión acerca de los trabajos realizados sobre materiales cerámicos utilizando técnicas químico-físicas. El objetivo principal del trabajo han sido las contribuciones centradas en época prehistórica y protohistórica, cuyo ámbito geográfico ha sido el norte peninsular. Se han consultado los trabajos de...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Una reciente intervención arqueológica preventiva en un vertedero de la antigua fábrica de loza de Sargadelos ha permitido recuperar un conjunto importante de materiales cerámicos compuesto por lozas vidriadas y sin vidriar, decoradas y no decoradas, principalmente de la segunda mitad del siglo xix. Los objetivos de la investigación consist...
Chapter
The state of the art of optical sol-gel sensors applied in the scope of cultural heritage conservation (preventive conservation) is reviewed. Since degradation and corrosion of materials of cultural items take place when neutrality deviations occur, the preparation of thin coatings doped with a pH-sensitive dye arises as a strategy to attain sensor...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo mostramos cuál puede ser el potencial de estudio y algunas de las limitaciones que tienen los métodos más comúnmente empleados en los análisis de caracterización de cerámicas arqueológicas. Tras realizar un repaso por la bibliografía que se ha producido hasta el momento en nuestro país sobre este tema, comprobamos que este tipo de t...
Article
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Museum objects made from metals face the challenge of delaying corrosion in exhibition rooms, showcases and holdings. This study examined some innovative solutions used to protect such items based on sol-gel coatings doped with lanthanum. These coatings were prepared from sols based on TEOS as a precursor. Lanthanum acetate/nitrate was added as a d...
Article
Biodeterioration damage is an important issue in conservation and restoration of built heritage, especially when ceramic materials are used. Biological colonization of ceramic roofing tiles by lichens is a common phenomenon. However, there are no reports to date of lichens removal from unglazed roofing tiles for conservation purposes. This paper fo...
Article
The subject of teaching Historic and Cultural Heritage in primary and secondary schools has been widely covered in the last few years. However, the specific topic on Heritage conservation has been barely developed despite its transcendence from the point of view of future preservation of Heritage items. This paper presents the theoretical and pract...
Article
La enseñanza del Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural en los colegios de primaria y secundaria se ha cubierto ampliamente en los últimos años. Sin embargo, el tema específico de la conservación del Patrimonio apenas se ha desarrollado a pesar de su trascendencia desde el punto de vista de la preservación futura de los distintos elementos que conforman e...
Article
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Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemi...
Article
Full-text available
Un importante conjunto de vidrios se ha hallado recientemente en la necrópolis de la Edad del Hierro de Palomar de Pintado (Toledo, España). Los vidrios se asocian a tres de las cinco fases cronológicas y se fechan principalmente entre los siglos V y III a.C. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio arqueométrico cuyos objetivos consistieron en de...
Article
Full-text available
La evaluación de las condiciones ambientales, tanto en sala como en vitrinas, realizada en el Museo Naval de Madrid a partir de un protocolo de seguimiento de la acidez ambiental que utiliza sensores ópticos basados en la tecnología sol-gel, sirvió para constatar que las condiciones de conservación eran adecuadas en la mayoría de los espacios expos...
Article
The appearance and main decay forms in the fair-faced brick façades on the University Campus of Madrid's Faculty of Medicine were taken as a starting point to analyse certain building's construction characteristics and the clay and technology used in brick manufacture. The raw materials consisted in a mix of Miocene marl and red Triassic clays from...
Book
Full-text available
Ceramic material is certainly a key element in the cultural heritage, particularly in historical buildings, from antiquity to the present. Ceramics applied to architecture involves specific problems when addressing preservation, as well as conservation and restoration interventions. Knowledge about the origin and selection of suitable raw materials...
Chapter
The state of the art of optical sol-gel sensors applied in the scope of cultural heritage conservation (preventive conservation) is reviewed. Since degradation and corrosion of materials of cultural items take place when neutrality deviations occur, the preparation of thin coatings doped with a pH-sensitive dye arises as a strategy to attain sensor...
Article
En este trabajo se ha realizado la valoración ambiental, tanto en salas como en el interior de vitrinas, en la exposición temporal El último viaje de la fragata Mercedes. La razón frente al expolio, celebrada en el Museo Naval de Madrid. El estudio se realizó mediante un protocolo de seguimiento de la acidez ambiental que utiliza sensores ópticos....
Article
In the present study, a historical set of Late Roman glasses coming from a recently unearthed graveyard located in the small city of Cubas de la Sagra, within the Madrid region (Spain) was compositionally analysed using different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopies, X-ray fluorescence...
Article
Full-text available
Se ha caracterizado un conjunto de vidrios tardorromanos hallado en las necrópolis de Cubas de la Sagra y depositado actualmente en el Museo Arqueológico Regional de Alcalá de Henares (Madrid). Dicho conjunto procede del yacimiento de Camino de Santa Juana, localizado en el Sur de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los objetivos consistieron en determinar, po...
Article
In this work an environmental valuation, either in exhibition rooms or inside showcases, has been undertaken in the temporary exhibition The last trip of the Mercedes frigate. The reason against the expolio, held in the Navy Museum of Madrid. The study was accomplished through a protocol for monitoring environmental acidity which uses optical senso...
Article
The set of ceramic materials and adobes (sun dried bricks) from the hillfort of Basagain has been integrally studied, using a morphotypological, archaeometric, and functional approach. Such a study has been undertaken with the aim of shedding new light on pottery production patterns of communities settled in this site. The archaeometric characteriz...
Article
Mineralogical and geochemical results derived from analyses of the pottery ensemble documented in the Cave of Los Gitanos (Castro Urdiales, Spain) are presented in this paper. This site contains an archaeological deposit formed in the mid-fifth millennium cal bc, which has yielded one of the oldest pottery assemblages in northern Spain. The analysi...
Article
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Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Mauméjean’s stained glass windows (c 1940) of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperat...
Article
The feasibility and possibilities of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the full study of non-destructible historic glasses have been explored in the present work. Thirteen Roman glass samples, including seven entire glass beads, from the ancient town of Augusta Emerita (SW Spain) were characterized by LIBS in combination with other con...
Article
Environmental acidity is a key parameter in Cultural Heritage conservation issues since it has a direct impact on degradation of both exposed and stored materials. Unfortunately, most of the acidity sensors now available are electrodes, which are not able to measure pH in gaseous phases and, therefore, are not suitable for measuring the environment...
Article
Full-text available
The technological study of ceramic materials requires the application of archaeometric analytical techniques to approach both their mineralogy and chemical composition, with the aim of identifying steps in their production sequence. This paper presents the technological analysis of the Neolithic pottery documented in the lower levels of the Kobaede...
Article
The technological study of ceramic materials requires the application of archaeometric analytical techniques to approach both their mineralogy and chemical composition, with the aim of identifying steps in their production sequence. This paper presents the technological analysis of the Neolithic pottery documented in the lower levels of the Kobaede...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results derived from an archaeometric study undertaken on glass samples from the Roman town of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). The main goal of the research was to provide for the first time some compositional and technological insights into the glass finds unearthed in this town. Glass samples from different sites and chro...
Article
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This work reports on the characterization of Roman mosaic samples from Carmona and Italica (Spain). A physico-chemical study of both glass tesserae and mortar fragments to determine their composition, to evaluate their state of conservation and to study their production technology was carried out. Samples were characterized by means of a binocular...
Article
Three sets of glass samples from 18th century leaded windows from the Girona Cathedral, Reus Priory Church and the Vitoria Cathedral (Spain) have been studied. Chemical analyses and archaeometry of these glasses are of special interest due to both the scarcity of 18th century stained glass window production and to the particular orange colour of se...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental evaluation arises as an innovative procedure to carry out preventive conservation of Cultural Heritage items. Parameters contributing to the proper conservation of such items can be monitored and assessed. Chemical sensors with optical response synthesised by the sol-gel method are useful for a complete and accurate environmental eval...
Article
Full-text available
acido 2[4-(dimetil-amino) fenilazo] benzoico son capaces de cambiar su absorcion optica cuando se someten a distintas concentraciones de iones H3O+ y OH-. La respuesta de los sensores en ensayos de campo se estudio en Cracovia (Polonia) variando el procedimiento normal de uso, con el fin de mejorar su respuesta. Se midieron tanto los parametros opt...
Article
Full-text available
Ceramic is the oldest synthetic material created by the mankind and has been present in human societies from around ten thousand years ago. During the last few decades, within the research field of Archaeometry, the study of archaeological and historical ceramic materials has experienced a significant increase in the application of chemical-physica...
Article
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The results derived from an archaeometric characterization study undertaken on a representative ensemble of Late Classic ceramic figurines coming from the archaeological field work carried out in the Mayan town of Calakmul (Campeche, México) are reported and discussed in this paper. The main goals of the research were to gather some information on...
Article
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The archaeometric characterization of a set of potsherds from six Neolithic sites from the Madrid region has allowed the identification of a new and time-persisting regional technological tradition, based on the deliberated addition of crushed bone as temper in most pottery containers. This is the first known case in Iberia, and is outstanding beca...
Article
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The most innovative procedure for preventive conservation of library holdings, especially those of historical interest, lies in the evaluation of environmental parameters witch have a negative effect on the conservation of such materials. The application of sensors permits for full, accurate and secure monitoring of environmental conditions and all...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation state of metallic structures (shelters) of platforms and travellers building of the railway station of Aranjuez has been evaluated. The objectives include the diagnosis of processes and mechanisms of deterioration, degradation and corrosion occurred, as well as the best intervention and preventive conservation criteria for correct...
Article
Full-text available
A new method for lead oxide (PbO) analysis in glasses, using a carbon screen printed electrode (SPE) is proposed. A suspension of the powdered glass sample in nitric acid is prepared using an ultrasonic probe, 100 µL of slurry are deposited on the SPE and the voltammetric measurement is carried out. Structural information of PbO in the glass matrix...
Article
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A sample set of metallic elements of steel (supporting rods) and lead (H-shaped cames and that used to fix other elements to walls) from stained glass windows of the Cathedral of Leon (Spain) has been studied in this paper. The main objective was to assess the state of conservation of these materials by diagnosing degradation and corrosion processe...
Article
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The application of experimental scientific methods to the study, contextualization, and conservation of ancient glass materials has not yet made much impact on research issues. This paper focuses on the relevance of glass throughout history, showing current available analytical techniques for the systematic study of either the physico-chemical char...
Article
Rescue archaeological excavations at an urban glass workshop of the 12th century AD in the city of Murcia (Spain) have provided one of the few evidences of glass production in the ancient Islamic territory of Al-Andalus. This paper reports the results derived from a chemical–physical characterisation study carried out on a representative sample set...
Article
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Glass is one of the materials more widely developed throughout History. In the last decades, it has been stated a growing demand in the application of chemical-physical techniques to obtain more detailed information on technology and production of glasses in past societies. This research field lies within the domain of archaeometry. Results of a bi...
Article
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El vidrio es uno de los materiales que más se ha utilizado a lo largo de la historia. En las últimas décadas se ha producido un aumento en la aplicación de técnicas químico-físicas para estudiar de forma más detallada la tecnología y producción de vidrio en las sociedades del pasado. Este tipo de investigación se encuadra en la disciplina conocida...
Article
This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminat...
Article
Full-text available
The recent discovery and excavation of 12th century AD urban glass workshops in the city of Murcia (Spain) have provided good evidences of glass production in the ancient Islamic territory of Al-Andalus. Among other findings, an important amount of bulk coloured and colourless glass fragments were unearthed during the archaeological works undertake...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Se ha estudiado un conjunto de 23 perfiles de emplomados (ss. XIII/XIV- XX), procedentes de diferentes lugares europeos. Los perfiles se han estudiado mediante FRX en superficie, previamente eliminada la capa de pasivación y/o la pátina, así como en sección transversal mediante MEBEC. Para contrastar los resultados de FRX, se ha analizado una serie...
Article
Full-text available
Sensors based on sol-gel glassy coatings doped with 2[4-(dimethyl-amino) phenylazo] benzoic acid are able to change their optical absorption when they are submitted to different concentration of H3O+ and OH-. The sensors behaviour in field tests was studied in Cracow (Poland), varying the normal procedure of operation to improve their response. Bot...
Article
span style="font-size: 9.5pt; font-family: Times,Italic">This paper looks through the definition of the term Archaeometry and its different meanings since the first use of the term in the1950s to the present. It is also concerned with the historical background of Archaeometry, its evolution throughout recent decades and the fields currently covered...