# Mani A.Indian Statistical Institute | ISI · Machine Intelligence Unit (MIU)

Mani A.

Ph.d, M.Sc, B.Sc., PGD,

## About

124

Publications

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634

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Introduction

A. Mani is a leading researcher on the foundations of rough sets, algebra, logic, rough sets, AIML, vagueness, mereology and FOM. Her interests include algebraic semantics, granularity, clustering, other formal approaches to vagueness, education research and gender studies. She is a research scientist at ISI, Kolkata, a senior member (elected) of the International Rough Set Society and was a visiting faculty at HBCSE, TIFR Mumbai till recently. Her homepage is at https://www.logicamani.in

Additional affiliations

March 2012 - present

January 2001 - present

**Rough Sets, Algebra and Logic, Kolkata India**

Position

- Researcher

January 1996 - present

**Algebra and Ordered Structures**

Position

- Researcher

## Publications

Publications (124)

Antichain based semantics for general rough sets was introduced recently by the present author. In her paper two different semantics, one for general rough sets and another for general approximation spaces over quasi-equivalence relations, were developed. These semantics are improved and studied further from a lateral algebraic logic and an algebra...

In one perspective, the main theme of this research revolves around the inverse problem in the context of general rough sets that concerns the existence of rough basis for given approximations in a context. Granular operator spaces and variants were recently introduced by the present author as an optimal framework for anti-chain based algebraic sem...

In this research, a general theoretical framework for clustering is proposed over specific partial algebraic systems by the present author. Her theory helps in isolating minimal assumptions necessary for different concepts of clustering information in any form to be realized in a situation (and therefore in a semantics). \emph{It is well-known that...

This unique collection of research papers offers a comprehensive and
up-to-date guide to algebraic approaches to rough sets and reasoning
with vagueness. It bridges important gaps, outlines intriguing future
research directions, and connects algebraic approaches to rough sets
with those for other forms of approximate reasoning. In addition, the
boo...

Up-directed rough sets are introduced and studied by the present author in earlier papers. This is extended by her in two different granular directions in this research, with a surprising algebraic semantics. The granules are based on ideas of generalized closure under up-directedness that may be read as a form of weak consequence. This yields appr...

Rational approximations are introduced and studied in granular graded sets and generalizations thereof by the first author in recent research papers. The concept of rationality is determined by related ontologies and coherence between granularity, parthood perspective and approximations used in the context. In addition, a framework is introduced by...

Mereology is widely applied in STEAM and philosophy. However, serious applications tend to be
restricted to specialist groups or the nature of applications is too focused. In addition,
methodologies associated do not percolate to school or college-level classroom discourses in a
clear way. This is worrying because mereology can be used for effectiv...

Rational approximations are introduced and studied in granular graded sets and generalizations thereof by the first author in recent research papers. The concept of rationality is determined by related ontologies and coherence between granularity, parthood perspective and approximations used in the context. In addition, a framework is introduced by...

Compositionality is essential for reducing the complexity of AIML models. This is naturally related to knowledge representation and granularity. These, in turn, can be done in different ways. Also, approximate reasoning and decision-making essentially involve knowledge representation and granularity. In the talk, the following topics will be review...

The concept of rational discourse is typically determined by subjective, normative, and rule based constraints in the context under consideration. It is typically determined by related ontologies, and coherence between associated concepts employed in the discourse. Classical rough approximations, and variants of variable precision rough sets (VPRS)...

In this research, directed and parthood relations are studied in the context of general rough sets. This extends earlier work on directed approximation spaces. The relations are also specialized to representations of general parthood that are upper-directed, reflexive and anti-symmetric for a better behaved groupoidal semantics over the set of roug...

A number of numeric measures like rough inclusion functions (RIFs) are used in general rough sets and soft computing. But these are often intrusive by definition, and amount to making unjustified assumptions about the data. The contamination problem is also about recognizing the domains of discourses involved in this, specifying errors and reducing...

Of the many generalizations of rough sets in the literature, graded rough sets are among the most controversial. When approached from a pointwise perspective, these are closely related to graded modal logic. In this research, a few granular generalizations are proposed by the present author. Some mistakes in the literature are rectified, and defina...

In this research a general theoretical framework for clustering is proposed over specific partial algebraic systems by the present author. Her theory helps in isolating minimal assumptions necessary for different concepts of clustering information in any form to be realized in a situation (and therefore in a semantics). It is well-known that of the...

A number of numeric measures like rough inclusion functions (RIFs) are used in general rough sets and soft computing. But these are often intrusive by definition, and amount to making unjustified assumptions about the data. The contamination problem is also about recognizing the domains of discourses involved in this, specifying errors and reducing...

Diversity-friendly and inclusive practices, in the Indian context, are hindered by a spectrum of issues ranging from machinations of the patriarchy sustained by systems of microaggressions, policies disconnected from stakeholders, missing support systems, unscientific colonial mindset of people, hubris of societal norms, and ineffective policies am...

This is the much extended version of my IFSA-EUSFLAT'2021 paper.

It is well-known (at least in the education research literature) that primary school students face considerable difficulties in the understanding of negative integers (and numbers), related operations and their visualizations. In the present research, a proposal based on mereological principles is advanced towards solving aspects of the problem by...

It is well-known (at least in the education research literature) that primary school students face considerable difficulties in the understanding of negative integers (and numbers), related operations and their visualizations. In the present research, a proposal based on mereological principles is advanced towards solving aspects of the problem by...

In this research, a general theoretical framework for clustering is proposed over specific partial algebraic systems by the present author. Her theory helps in isolating minimal assumptions necessary for different concepts of clustering information in any form to be realized in a situation (and therefore in a semantics). \emph{It is well-known that...

Tabular representation of information can be traced to ancient times. They were and are used in a wide variety of ways. While every table is essentially a list, their interpretation varies from the simpler to the very complex. This aspect is explored in some detail by the present author. Based on the considerations, she suggests a number of ways of...

Concepts of granules and granular computing have evolved from a number of
perspectives over the last few decades. In this short expository paper, the present
author discusses aspects of Zadeh’s contributions to a specific form of granular
computing especially in the contexts of fuzzy sets, computing with words, and AI.
Further she mentions new area...

Education research is a relatively young field with a history that goes back to about 100 years or so. Work done in various parts of the world has contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of associated problems, and their related social context. But most teachers and academics are not aware of methodologies and issues in teaching, an...

It is well-known that concepts of cluster validity and associated rationale are far from being satisfactory from multiple perspectives. Indices are usually controversial. The scope of a model based approach from a statistical, mereo-topological, graph-theoretical, neural network or soft perspective, for example, is apparently limited by methodologi...

In this research a general theoretical framework for abstract clustering is proposed from a philosophical perspective of increasing semantic assumptions over specific partial algebraic systems by the present author. Her theory helps in isolating minimal assumptions necessary for different concepts of clustering information in any form to be realize...

Post publication review of the following papers:
1. MR3958325 03G27 03C05 03D15 08B05
Moraschini, Tommaso (CZ-AOS-IC)
On the complexity of the Leibniz hierarchy. (English summary)
Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 170 (2019), no. 7, 805–824.
2. MR4027123 03E72
Wu, Hsien-Chung (RC-NKNU-M)
Generalized extension principle for non-normal fuzzy sets. (English summ...

The book is intended to introduce general rough methods from a relatively philosophical perspective to researchers in the field of education.

The purpose of this book is to serve as an advanced introduction to issues of gender diversity in STEM education, pedagogical practices, and related research areas.

In the context of education research, a concept inventory is an instrument (that consists of a number of multiple-choice questions) designed to test the understanding of concepts (and possibly the reasons for failure to understand) by learners. Subject to a few caveats they are known to be somewhat effective in non student centric learning environm...

A number of low and high-level models of general rough sets can be used to represent knowledge. Often binary relations between attributes or collections thereof have deeper properties related to decisions, inference or vision that can be expressed in ternary functional relationships (or groupoid operations) – this is investigated from a minimalist...

A number of nonequivalent perspectives on granular computing are known in the literature, and many are in states of continuous development. Further, related concepts of granules and granulations may be incompatible in many senses. This expository paper is intended to explain basic aspects of these from a critical perspective, their range of applica...

In relational approach to general rough sets, ideas of directed relations are supplemented with additional conditions for multiple algebraic approaches in this research paper. The relations are also specialized to representations of general parthood that are upper-directed, reflexive and antisymmetric for a better behaved groupoidal semantics over...

A number of low and high-level models of general rough sets can be used to represent knowledge. Often binary relations between attributes or collections thereof have deeper properties related to decisions, inference or vision that can be expressed in ternary functional relationships (or groupoid operations)-- this is investigated from a minimalist...

In the context of education research, a concept inventory is an instrument (that consists of a number of multiple-choice questions) designed to test the understanding of concepts (and possibly the reasons for failure to understand) by learners. Subject to a few caveats they are known to be somewhat effective in non student centric learning environm...

Microaggressions are small, subtle, often subconscious actions that marginalize people in oppressed groups including women. Sue (1973) defined it as brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults. It can...

It is well-known that the participation of women in STEM disciplines at higher levels has been relatively bad across multiple demographics. The situation is due to systemic discrimination that has been and is couched in different ways in and outside the academia. The proof of systemic discrimination is in actualizations that span cultural practices...

Call for Participation
https://www.fedcsis.org/2020/fvrm

It is well-known that lesbians, trans and queer women face considerable discrimination, exclusion, stigmatization, and abuse in India. That is over and above the misogyny and discrimination faced by women in the patriarchal country. LGBTQIA people were also criminalized by law till recently. In spite of all the oppression and discrimination, lesbia...

This is an extended version of https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329043829_Granularity_and_Generalized_Inclusion_Functions_-_Their_Variants_and_Contamination

Theories of rough mereology have originated from diverse semantic considerations from contexts relating to study of databases, to human reasoning. These ideas of origin, especially in the latter context, are intensely complex. In this research, the semantics of rough contact relations are studied in detail. Rough mereologies are also situated in re...

[See ArXiv for newer version http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.06560 ]
Granular operator spaces and variants had been introduced and used
in theoretical investigations on the foundations of general rough sets by the present author over the last few years. In this research, higher order versions of these are presented uniformly as partial algebraic systems....

Theories of rough mereology have originated from diverse semantic considerations from contexts relating to study of databases, to human reasoning. These ideas of origin, especially in the latter context, are intensely complex. In this research, concepts of rough contact relations are introduced and rough mereologies are situated in relation to gene...

It is well-known that lesbians, trans and queer women face considerable discrimination, exclusion, stigmatization, and abuse in India. That is over and above the misogyny and discrimination faced by women in the patriarchal country. LGBTQIA people were also criminalized by law till recently. In spite of all the oppression and discrimination, lesbia...

Theories of rough mereology have originated from diverse semantic considerations from contexts relating to study of databases, to human reasoning. These ideas of origin, especially in the latter context, are intensely complex. In this research, concepts of rough contact relations are introduced and rough mereologies are situated in relation to gene...

Exclusion definitely affects a women’s mathematics. Some classification of the factors that shape the unique features associated can definitely be specified. On the basis of these considerations I propose a new partial theoretical model for accessing the connection between a woman's attitude towards and practice of research in mathematics, and the...

Special Session cum Workshop on "Generalized Rough Inclusion, Graded Inclusion, Granularity and Related Topics" at IJCRS'2019, Debrecen, Hungary

Study of concepts of dependence in general rough sets had been initiated by the present author in some of her recent papers. These have been compared with possible concepts of dependence in generalized probability theory and a new deviant probability framework has also been the result of such an approach. In this research, the mereological content...

The problem of comparing concepts of dependence in general rough sets with those in probability theory had been initiated by the present author in some of her recent papers. This problem relates to the identification of the limitations of translating between the methodologies and possibilities in the identification of concepts. Comparison of ideas...

In one perspective, the main theme of this research revolves around the inverse problem in the context of general rough sets that concerns the existence of rough basis for given approximations in a context. Granular operator spaces and variants were recently introduced by the present author as an optimal framework for anti-chain based algebraic sem...

Rough inclusion functions (RIFs) are known by many other names in formal approaches to vagueness, belief, and uncertainty. Their use is often poorly grounded in factual knowledge or involve wild statistical assumptions. The concept of contamination introduced and studied by the present author across a number of her papers, concerns mixing up of inf...

Rough inclusion functions (RIFs) are known by many other names in formal approaches to vagueness, belief, and uncertainty. Their use is often poorly grounded in factual knowledge or involve wild statistical assumptions. The concept of contamination introduced and studied by the present author across a number of her papers, concerns mixing up of inf...

The problem of comparing concepts of dependence in general rough sets with
those in probability theory had been initiated by the present author in some of
her recent papers. This problem relates to the identification of the
limitations of translating between the methodologies and possibilities in the
identification of concepts. Comparison of ideas...

Granules are the building blocks of concepts of different types in soft computing and rough sets in particular. These granules can be defined in ways that are related to computing or reasoning strategies associated. In this broad perspective, at least three concepts of granular computing have been studied in the literature. The axiomatic approach i...

In this research chapter, dualities and representations of various kinds associated with the semantics of rough sets are explained, critically reviewed, new proofs have been proposed, open problems are specified and new directions are suggested. Some recent duality results in the literature are also adapted for use in rough contexts. New results ar...

The problem of formalizing rationality of reasoning in AI is mostly handled from the perspective of formal epistemology and modal logics associated with multi agent systems that refer concepts of common knowledge. These differ significantly from ideas of instrumental rationality that is concerned with rationality for a purpose. Many approaches in A...

Not all approximations arise from information systems. The problem of fitting approximations, subjected to some rules (and related data), to information systems in a rough scheme of things is known as the inverse problem. The inverse problem is more general than the duality (or abstract representation) problems and was introduced by the present aut...

Not all approximations arise from information systems. The problem of fitting approximations, subjected to some rules (and related data), to information systems in a rough scheme of things is known as the inverse problem. The inverse problem is more general than the duality (or abstract representation) problems and was introduced by the present aut...

Beamer Slides of my paper in Special Session on Foundations of Rough Sets, Vagueness and Mereology at IJCRS’2017

Slides of my talk at IJCRS’2017 in Special session on foundations of vagueness, rough sets and mereology.

Lattice-theoretic ideals have been used to define and generate non granular rough approximations over general approximation spaces over the last few years by few authors. The goal of these studies, in relation based rough sets, have been to obtain nice properties comparable to those of classical rough approximations. In this research paper, these i...

In one perspective, the central problem pursued in this research is that of the inverse problem in the context of general rough sets. The problem is about the existence of rough basis for given approximations in a context. Granular operator spaces were recently introduced by the present author as an optimal framework for anti-chain based algebraic...

Lattice-theoretic ideals have been used to define and generate non granular rough approximations over general approximation spaces over the last few years by few authors. The goal of these studies, in relation based rough sets, have been to obtain nice properties comparable to those of classical rough approximations. In this research paper, these i...

Antichain based semantics for general rough sets was introduced recently by the present author. In her paper two different semantics, one for general rough sets and another for general approximation spaces over quasi-equivalence relations, were developed. These semantics are improved and studied further from a lateral algebraic logic and an algebra...

The study of mereology (parts and wholes) in the context of formal approaches to vagueness can be approached in a number of ways. In the context of rough sets, mereological concepts with a set-theoretic or valuation based ontology acquire complex and diverse behavior. In this research a general rough set framework called granular operator spaces is...

FOSS is an acronym for Free and Open Source Software. The FOSS 2013 survey primarily targets FOSS contributors and relevant anonymized dataset is publicly available under CC by SA license. In this study, the dataset is analyzed from a critical perspective using statistical and clustering techniques (especially multiple correspondence analysis) with...

Abstrct: ”In this talk, I will briefly review basic concepts of gender diversity and sexualities with special reference to the Indian context, try to explain the nature and dynamics of exclusion of gender diverse and non hetero-normative women and reflect at some depth on inclusion strategies at policy level and praxis. The entire talk will have a...

Slides of Paper Presentation with same title. Abstract: The study of mereology (parts and wholes) in the context of formal approaches to vagueness can be approached in a number of ways. In the context of rough sets, mereological concepts with a set-theoretic or valuation based ontology acquire complex and diverse behavior. In this research a genera...

FOSS is an acronym for Free and Open Source Software. The FOSS 2013 survey primarily targets FOSS contributors and relevant anonymized dataset is publicly available under CC by SA license. In this study, the dataset is analyzed from a critical perspective using statistical and clustering techniques (especially multiple correspondence analysis) with...

The study of mereology (parts and wholes) in the context of formal approaches to vagueness can be approached in a number of ways. In the context of rough sets, mereological concepts with a set-theoretic or valuation based ontology acquire complex and diverse behaviour. In this research a general rough set framework called granular operator spaces i...

FOSS is an acronym for Free and Open Source Software. The FOSS 2013 survey primarily targets FOSS contributors and relevant anonymized dataset is publicly available under CC by SA license. In this study, the dataset is analyzed from a critical perspective using statistical and clustering techniques (especially multiple correspondence analysis) with...

Antichain based semantics for general rough sets were introduced recently by the present author. In her paper two different semantics, one for general rough sets and another for general approximation spaces over quasi-equivalence relations, were developed. These semantics are improved and studied further from a lateral algebraic logic perspective i...

Rough Sets over generalized transitive relations like proto-transitive ones have been initiated recently by the present author. In a recent paper, approximation of proto-transitive relations by other relations was investigated and the relation with rough approximations was developed towards constructing semantics that can handle fragments of struct...

Talk on Rough Sets and Mereology at the Indian School of Logic and Applications Part-2

LaTeX is a an advanced document preparation and typesetting system. I will introduce basics of LaTeX and publishing with it in this talk.

This talk is about the basics of free software, practical issues relating to software that need to be pro-actively confronted, the nature of the free software ecosystem, involvement of women in the ecosystem, discrimination, sexism and possible ways of improving the situation.

In this talk aspects of typical GNU/Linux distributions will be reviewed from a functional perspective. Recent developments and more involved tasks will also be considered from a comparative point of view. For implementation of recent developments, the distro of choice will be Ubuntu.

The inverse problem of general rough sets, considered by the present author in some of her earlier papers, in one of its manifestations is essentially the question of when an agent's view about crisp and non crisp objects over a set of objects has a rough evolution. In this research the nature of the problem is examined from number-theoretic and co...

The goal of this research is to study the reflection of probability theories through rough membership functions (RMF) in rough sets. Towards this, philosophy and variants of probability theories and their theorized connections with RMFs are critically analyzed. The concept of RMFs functions and rough dependence are also generalized to granular oper...

Rough set theory is a formal approach to vagueness and imprecision that was introduced in the mid eighties of the previous century by Zdislaw Pawlak. The subject has grown tremendously since, in pure and applied directions from mathematical, algebraic logical, logical, philosophical and computational perspectives. The present author has been workin...

It is well known that a large percentage of trans women experience social
exclusion, isolation, loneliness and suicidal tendencies at various stages of their life. An
alarmingly large percentage actually attempt suicide at some stage of their life. For details of
the situation in the US and EU, one can refer to the surveys indicated in the referenc...

A talk on aspects of rough sets and some of my areas of work at Kolkata Systers Meet on 9th Jan’2016 at TCS, Kolkata.

In this research paper, connections between various meta theories of probability and rough membership functions are critically reviewed and variants are proposed by the present author. These are relevant for rethinking the various \emph{probabilistic rough theories} and related methodologies. The problem of contamination reduction was proposed in \...

The intent of this research is to critically analyze probabilistic rough sets (PSTs) and methods and propose new approaches. Towards this objective connections between meta theoretical approaches to probability and rough membership functions are reviewed and variants are proposed in this research. The contamination problem has been proposed and stu...

The idea of using antichains of rough objects was suggested by the present author in her earlier papers. In this research basic aspects of such semantics are considered over general rough sets and general approximation spaces over quasi-equivalence relations. Most of the considerations are restricted to semantics associated with maximal antichains...

It is well known that a large percentage of trans women experience social exclusion, isolation, loneliness and suicidal tendencies at various stages of their life. An alarmingly large percentage actually attempt suicide at some stage of their life. For details of the situation in the US and EU, one can refer to the surveys indicated in the referenc...

In this research paper, a concept of dreamy fuzzy sets is introduced as a controversy-free generalization of L-fuzzy sets. A practical application to processing psychological data is also considered in detail. Connections with generalized rough sets are also proved by the present author. This extends her earlier results on representing fuzzy sets a...

Rough Sets over generalized transitive relations like proto-transitive ones have been initiated by the present author in \cite{AM270} and detailed semantics have been developed in forthcoming papers. In this research paper, approximation of proto-transitive relations by other relations is investigated and the relation with rough approximations is d...

A number of results on the connections between rough and fuzzy sets in different perspectives are known. We concentrate on three classes of results from the perspective of the contamination problem and axiomatic approach to granularity. Important results on topology, definable operations and direct sum decompositions of $L$-fuzzy set are proved fir...

Rough sets over generalized transitive relations like proto-transitive ones
had been initiated by the present author in the year 2012. Subsequently,
approximation of proto-transitive relations by other relations was investigated
and the relation with rough approximations was developed towards constructing
semantics that can handle fragments of stru...

(Full text is available at http://www.tmrfindia.org/ijcsa/v11i29.pdf )
In this research paper, we explore the philosophical connections between Rough Y-Systems RYS, mereology and concepts in applied ontology, introduce the concept of contamination-free rough dependence and compare this to possible concepts of probabilistic dependence. The nature o...

An open concept of rough evolution and an axiomatic approach to granules was
also developed recently by the present author. Subsequently the concepts were
used in the formal framework of rough Y-systems (RYS) for developing on
granular correspondences by her. These have since been used for a new approach
towards comparison of rough algebraic semant...

The concepts of rough and definite objects are relatively more determinate
than those of granules and granulation in general rough set theory (RST) [1].
Representation of rough objects can however depend on the dialectical relation
between granulation and definiteness. In this research, we make this exact in
the context of RST over proto-transitive...

## Questions

Questions (6)

Recently it has been observed that people without 90% of their brain can still be conscious and pretty normal.

Reference paper : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110382/

This suggests the brain is continually learning to update itself about its own activities even when neurons are being lost

## Projects

Projects (20)

The goal is to improve knowledge representation, and algorithms using feminist theories and general rough sets. Synthetic data sets will also be built for enabling AIML applications.