Manabu Nemoto

Manabu Nemoto
Equine Research Institute

DVM PhD

About

119
Publications
4,676
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844
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
Equine Research Institute
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Equine coronavirus (ECoV) causes pyrexia, anorexia, lethargy, and sometimes diarrhoea. Infected horses excrete the virus in their faeces, and ECoV is also detected in nasal samples from febrile horses. However, details about ECoV infection sites in the intestinal and respiratory tracts are lacking. To identify the ECoV infection sites in the intest...
Article
Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) causes fever, lethargy, anorexia and gastrointestinal signs in horses. There has been limited information about the prevalence and seasonality of ECoV among Thoroughbreds in Japan. Objectives: To understand the epidemiology and to evaluate the potential risk of ECoV infection to the horse industry in Japan....
Article
Updating vaccine strains is important to control equine influenza (EI). Previously, we reported that a monovalent inactivated EI vaccine derived from a virus generated by reverse genetics (RG) elicited immunogenicity in horses. In the present study, we compared antibody responses to a bivalent inactivated EI vaccine generated by RG and a commercial...
Article
From late 2018 to 2019, equine influenza virus (EIV) strains of Florida sublineage clade 1 (Fc1), which had until then been circulating mainly in the United States, suddenly spread across Europe causing many outbreaks, and Florida sublineage clade 2 (Fc2) strains, which had been circulating mainly in Europe, have not been detected in Europe since 2...
Article
In 2020, an outbreak of equine coronavirus (ECoV) infection occurred among 41 horses at a riding stable in Tokyo, Japan. This stable had 16 Thoroughbreds and 25 horses of other breeds, including Andalusians, ponies and miniature horses. Fifteen horses (37%) showed mild clinical signs such as fever, lethargy, anorexia and diarrhoea, and they recover...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of 12-hour transportation on immune responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4). Possible replication of EHV-1 and EHV-4 was monitored by real-time PCR of nasal swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and changes in systemic and mucosal antibodies were investigated. Six healthy Th...
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This review briefly describes the virus classification, clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, disinfection, and vaccines related equine group A rotavirus (RVA) infection. Equine RVA is one of the most important pathogens causing diarrhoea in foals. The main transmission route is faecal–oral, and the clinical signs are diarrhoea, fever, lethargy,...
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Background: Keeping vaccine strains up to date is the key to controlling equine influenza (EI). Viruses generated by reverse genetics (RG) are likely to be effective for quickly updating a vaccine strain. Objectives: To evaluate the growth properties of an RG virus in embryonated chicken eggs, and to evaluate antibody responses to a formalin-ina...
Article
Antibody response in horses after accelerated-schedule Getah virus vaccination was evaluated for its potential adoption during outbreaks. One-year-old Thoroughbred horses received two doses of priming vaccinations following an accelerated schedule (accelerated group: 14-day interval, n = 30) or the conventional schedule (control group: 28-day inter...
Article
The antibody response in horses inoculated with 2 doses of a live equine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine with different vaccination intervals (1 to 3 months) was evaluated with regard to the persistence of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies. The durations for which the geometric mean VN titers were maintained significantly higher than those before the f...
Article
A rapid and sensitive diagnostic method is needed to help prevent the spread of equine influenza virus. The cobas Influenza A/B & RSV test for the cobas Liat system (Roche Diagnostics) is based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and is designed to broadly detect influenza A virus RNA within 20 minutes. It detected a broad...
Article
An inactivated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a live equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) vaccine are usually administered concurrently to Thoroughbred racehorses in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether concurrent administration of an inactivated EIV vaccine and a live EHV-1 vaccine in Thoroughbred racehorses influences...
Article
A rare genotype G13P[18] group A rotavirus (RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/MK9/2019/G13P[18]) was isolated from a diarrhoeic foal for the first time in 28 years. The genotype constellation of the virus was assigned to G13-P[18]-I6-R9-C9-M6-A6-N9-T12-E14-H11 and was the same as that of the first isolated strain, RVA/Horse-tc/GBR/L338/1991/G13P[18]. Phylogenetic a...
Article
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To facilitate the temporary importation of horses for competition and racing purposes, with a minimum risk of transmitting equine influenza, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties, or OIE), formally engaged in a public–private partnership with the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI) and the International...
Article
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An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a synthetic peptide for the E2 glycoprotein was developed for the serodiagnosis of Getah virus infection in horses. To identify an immunogenic epitope, a series of 20-mer peptides (n = 22) for the E2 protein was screened with pooled sera from horses infected with Getah virus. Peptide P11 (PTEEEIDMH...
Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of equine coronavirus (ECoV) in clinical samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Ireland. A total of 424 clinical samples were examined from equids with enteric disease in 24 Irish counties between 2011 and 2015. A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used...
Article
Baloxavir marboxil (BXM), an inhibitor of the cap-dependent endonuclease of the influenza virus polymerase acidic protein (PA), exerts an antiviral effect against influenza A virus. It has been available in Japan since March 2018. This study evaluated the antiviral efficacy of BXM against equine influenza A virus (EIV) by an experimental challenge...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is a major cause of pyrexias in winter among Japanese racehorses. In 2014-2015, the Japan Racing Association (JRA) changed the EHV-1 vaccine from an inactivated vaccine to a live vaccine (both produced by Nisseiken). To evaluate the effect of changing the vaccines, the capacities of these vac...
Article
Equine influenza virus is an important pathogen for the horse industry because of its economic impact, and vaccination is a key control measure. Our previous work suggested that a mutation at position 144 in the hemagglutinin of Florida sublineage clade 2 viruses reduces the cross-neutralizing activity of antiserum against a former vaccine strain....
Article
We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-fluorescent loop primer (FLP) assay for genotyping the A/G2254 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the viral DNA polymerase gene of species Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), which is associated with the neuropathogenic potential of this virus. In addition to the use of regular LAMP pr...
Article
Getah virus causes fever, skin eruptions, and limb edema in horses. For a high-throughput and time-saving method for serodiagnosis, we explored immunogenic antigens of Getah virus, and established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a recombinant protein. Western blot analysis using sera from infected horses showed strong reaction wi...
Article
Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhoea in foals. We investigated the G genotypes of 360 RVA-positive samples obtained from diarrhoeic foals between 2012 and 2018 in the Hidaka district of Hokkaido, Japan, through sequence analysis of VP7. All samples were classified into genotypes G3A, G3B and G14. G3B RVAs were detected until 2016, and...
Article
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Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus type 1 (EEHV1) is the most important causative agent of an acute fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We employed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to develop a rapid and simple detection method for EEHV1 in blood. When used to test 21 clinical samples collected in Japan,...
Article
Sialoglyco-particulates carrying a N-glycolylneuraminyl-α-(2→3)-N-acetyllactosamine (Neu5Gcα2,3LacNAc) residue that displays a high level of affinity for equine influenza virus (EIV) were generated using sialoglycopolypeptide and hexyl-containing hybrid silica particulates. The particulates were spherical with a diameter of approximately 950 nm and...
Article
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In order to establish an efficient system for serological diagnosis of equine viral arteritis in Japan, we compared enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) provided by two manufacturers (Nisseiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, and VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA, U.S.A.) by testing a series of horse sera. The results revealed that 159 of 160 virus-neutralizi...
Article
Background: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhea in suckling foals. The dominant RVAs circulating among horses worldwide, including Japan, are G3P[12] and/or G14P[12] genotypes. Inactivated vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are commercially available in some countries for prevention of diarrhea caused by equine RVAs. However, there is...
Article
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This study compared agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) protocols for diagnosing equine infectious anemia. Two commercial testing kits were used: one following the Japanese Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control and one following the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual. From 651 samples tested, both protocols gave identical re...
Article
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In 2014, an outbreak of Getah virus (GETV) infection occurred in Japan in a horse population that was inoculated with a vaccine against GETV. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of GETV infection among wild boars in Japan. Interestingly, the highest rate of anti-GETV-positive wild boars was observed in 2013, which gradually decreased...
Article
Immune responses were compared after intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) vaccination of horses with a modified live equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) vaccine, and the protective effect after EHV-1 challenge was evaluated. IN- and IM-vaccinated groups (n = 5 each) showed significant rises in serum virus-neutralizing titers with increased levels o...
Article
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We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)...
Article
Full-text available
Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Flo...
Article
Full-text available
A vaccine for equine coronavirus (ECoV) is so far unavailable. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is antigenically related to ECoV; it is therefore possible that BCoV vaccine will induce antibodies against ECoV in horses. This study investigated antibody response to ECoV in horses inoculated with BCoV vaccine. Virus neutralization tests showed that antibody...
Article
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Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan.
Article
Full-text available
Background We studied a recent epizootic of Getah virus infection among pigs in the southern part of Ibaraki Prefecture and the northern part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, focusing on its possible association with outbreaks in racehorses in 2014 and 2015. The genomic sequence of a Getah virus strain from an infected pig was analyzed to evaluate the d...
Article
Full-text available
Equine influenza (EI) is a respiratory disease caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV, H3N8) infection. Rapid diagnosis is essential to limit the disease spread. We previously reported that some rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests are fit for diagnosing EI although their sensitivity is not optimal. Here, we evaluated the performance of the newly dev...
Article
The molecular epidemiology of equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) in Ireland from 2011 to 2015 was investigated. Of 438 diagnostic specimens submitted from foals with enteric disease, 102 (23.3%) were positive for RVA using an immunochromatographic assay. G genotypes were determined for 76 equine RVAs, of which 68 (89.5%) were G3 and eight (10.5%) we...
Article
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We previously reported that horse antiserum against the Japanese equine influenza vaccine virus, A/equine/La Plata/1993 (LP93) exhibited reduced cross-neutralization against some Florida sublineage Clade (Fc) 2 viruses, e.g. A/equine/Carlow/2011 (CL11). As a result Japanese vaccine manufacturers will replace LP93 with A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y...
Article
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Background: As we reported previously, Getah virus infection occurred in horses at the Miho training center of the Japan Racing Association in 2014. This was the first outbreak after a 31-year absence in Japan. Here, we report a recurrent outbreak of Getah virus infection in 2015, sequential to the 2014 one at the same site, and we summarize its e...
Article
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Mucosal immunity in the nasal cavity is considered to play an essential role in protecting horses from disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody in the nasal secretions is a key component of this mucosal immunity. Although intranasal administration of live or killed EHV-1 vaccines has been attempted wi...
Article
A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) was compared with the vaccine strain isolated in 1978 (MI-110). A comparison of the genome sequences of these strains revealed seven amino acid substitutions in non-structural protein 3, and one or two substitutions in each of other non-structural proteins. I...
Article
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Background Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease caused by viruses of the H3N8 subtype. The rapid diagnosis of EI is essential to reduce the disease spread. Many rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests for diagnosing human influenza are available, but their ability to diagnose EI has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives The aim...
Article
Full-text available
To increase the sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) that uses a 12-mer peptide of glycoprotein G (gG4-12-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSL) [4], we used a longer peptide consisting of a 24-mer repeat sequence (gG4-24-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSLMLNVQHDDSIHT) as an antigen. Sera of horses experimentally infected wi...
Article
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Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered to be a diarrheic pathogen in foals. In central Kentucky in the United States, it has been shown that approximately 30 % of thoroughbred foals are infected with ECoV and thus it is considered widely prevalent. In contrast, the epidemiology of ECoV and its relationship to diarrhea in foals are poo...
Article
Equine coronavirus has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in the United States and Japan. Only one complete genome sequence (NC99 isolated in the US) had been reported for this pathogenic RNA virus. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three equine coronaviruses isolated in 2009 and 2012 in Japan. The genome sequences of...
Article
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We investigated the influences of various reaction conditions on equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) disinfection by 5 commercial disinfectants (3 quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs] and 2 chlorine-based disinfectants) and 1 anionic surfactant. QACs at their highest recommended concentrations had no virucidal effect on EHV-1 with a 10-min reaction t...
Article
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To clarify the factors causing an outbreak in 2014 of Getah virus infection among racehorses at the Miho training center, Japan, we isolated virus strains and performed an epizootiological investigation of affected horses and related horse populations. Three Getah virus isolates were recovered from clinical samples, and one of them (14-I-605) was u...
Article
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An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978.
Article
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of equine coronavirus (ECoV). This assay was conducted at 60°C for 40min. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed using several equine intestinal and respiratory pathogens in addition to ECoV. The novel assay failed to cross-r...
Article
Full-text available
Equine group A rotavirus (RVA) G3P[12] and G14P[12] strains cause gastroenteritis in foals worldwide. Both of these strains have been co-circulating in Japan since G14P[12] strains emerged in the late 1990s. Although it is important to comprehensively understand the evolution of RVA strains, whole-genome sequence data on recent equine RVA strains i...
Article
Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrh...
Article
Full-text available
Equine herpesviruses type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only those of the 3-year-old susceptible horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because prot...
Article
Reasons for performing studyThe protection induced by an equine influenza (EI) vaccine strain depends on its antigenic relatedness to the challenge virus. Although the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommend that both Florida sublineage clade 1 (Fc1) and clade 2 (Fc2) viruses should be included in EI vaccines, Japanese EI vaccines have...
Article
Full-text available
Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these...
Article
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Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific h...
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In vitro cell studies might be a useful tool for studying tendon pathology, but no suitable in vitro models exist for tendon disorders. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether cell scratch culture using tendon-derived fibroblasts can provide a suitable in vitro tendon disorder model. Extracellular matrix components were examined immunohist...
Article
Equine coronavirus (ECoV) outbreaks have occurred three times at Obihiro Racecourse in Hokkaido, Japan. The third ECoV outbreak occurred between late February and early April 2012. The main clinical signs of affected horses were anorexia, pyrexia and leucopenia; gastrointestinal disease was observed in about 10% of affected horses. Two ECoV strains...
Article
Virus-neutralizing (VN) testing is essential for evaluating virus-specific immunity in equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) infection. We developed a focus-reduction neutralization test (FRNT) for EHV-1 using 96-well plates for faster large-scale testing with sufficient sensitivity. We used an overlay medium containing Avicel (FMC Biopolymer), a micro...
Article
Disinfection is one of the most important biosecurity measures to minimize disease spread during outbreaks of equine influenza. Although many disinfectants are commercially available, information about their effects against equine influenza A virus (EIV) is limited. This report describes an evaluation of the effects of six disinfectants against EIV...
Article
Full-text available
Background Both the G3P[12] and the G14P[12] type of equine group A rotavirus (RVA) have recently become predominant in many countries, including Japan. G3 types are classified further into G3A and G3B. The G3A viruses have been circulating in Europe, Australia, and Argentina, and the G3B viruses have been circulating in Japan. However, only an ina...