Malte Jochum

Malte Jochum
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig & Leipzig University · Institute of Biology

Dr. rer. nat.; Dipl.-Biol.

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63
Publications
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1,759
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Publications

Publications (63)
Preprint
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The relationship between species body masses and densities is strongly conserved around a three-quarter power law when pooling data across communities. However, studies of local within-community relationships have revealed major deviations from this general pattern, which has profound implications for their stability and functioning. Despite multip...
Article
Full-text available
Human-induced global environmental change is predicted to alter the stability and functioning of ecosystems worldwide. Most research in recent decades has focused on studying climate-change effects on aboveground systems, causing a poor understanding of belowground responses. However, gaining knowledge on environmental-change effects on soil biota...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the long-term absence of disturbance, ecosystems often enter a decline or retrogressive phase which leads to reductions in primary productivity, plant biomass, nutrient cycling and foliar quality. However, the consequences of ecosystem retrogression for higher trophic levels such as herbivores and predators, are less clear. Using a post-fire for...
Article
Full-text available
Declining arthropod communities have recently gained a lot of attention with climate and land-use change among the most-frequently discussed drivers. Here, we focus on a seemingly underrepresented driver of arthropod-community decline: biological invasions. For ~12,000 years, earthworms have been absent from wide parts of northern North America, bu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soil life supports the functioning and biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems. Springtails (Collembola) are among the most abundant soil animals regulating soil fertility and flow of energy through above- and belowground food webs. However, the global distribution of springtail diversity and density, and how these relate to energy fluxes remains un...
Preprint
Full-text available
Declining arthropod communities have recently gained a lot of attention with climate and land-use change among the most-frequently discussed drivers. Here, we focus on a seemingly underrepresented driver of arthropod-community decline: biological invasions. For ~12,000 years, earthworms have been absent from wide parts of northern North America, bu...
Article
Full-text available
Global change alters ecological communities with consequences for ecosystem processes. Such processes and functions are a central aspect of ecological research and vital to understanding and mitigating the consequences of global change, but also those of other drivers of change in organism communities. In this context, the concept of energy flux th...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation, plantation expansion, and other human activities in tropical ecosystems are often associated with biological invasions. These processes have been studied for above-ground organisms, but associated changes below the ground have received little attention. We surveyed rainforest and plantation systems in Jambi province, Sumatra, Indones...
Article
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Experiments showed that biodiversity increases grassland productivity and nutrient exploitation, potentially reducing fertiliser needs. Enhancing biodiversity could improve P-use efficiency of grasslands, which is beneficial given that rock-derived P fertilisers are expected to become scarce in the future. Here, we show in a biodiversity experiment...
Article
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Soil ecosystems are both particularly important to humans and vulnerable to human‐made global change. Here, we identify some key aspects of soil community and ecosystem research that need to be more‐widely studied to understand soil responses to global change and enable us to efficiently protect them. This perspective integrates across multiple tax...
Article
Global warming over the next century is likely to alter the energy demands of consumers and thus the strengths of their interactions with their resources. The subsequent cascading effects on population biomasses could have profound effects on food web stability. One key mechanism by which organisms can cope with a changing environment is phenotypic...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic pressures alter the biodiversity, structure and organization of biological communities with severe consequences for ecosystem processes. Species invasion is such a human‐induced ecosystem change with pronounced impacts on recipient ecosystems. Around the globe, earthworms invade habitats and impact abiotic soil conditions and a wide r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global change alters ecological communities with consequences for ecosystem processes. Such processes and functions are a central aspect of ecological research and vital to understanding and mitigating the consequences of global change, but also those of other drivers of change in organism communities. In this context, the concept of energy flux th...
Article
Full-text available
Soils harbour highly‐diverse invertebrate communities that play important roles for ecosystem services, including the mitigation of environmental pollution. Chemical stressors, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and metals, are being increasingly spread into ecosystems due to human activities. While it is crucial to predict the consequences of che...
Article
Full-text available
We all know earthworms as important friends in our garden: they help plants to grow better by providing nutrients, water, and air in the soil. However, in some cases, earthworms have more negative effects. This is because other organisms need to be used to the activities of earthworms to benefit from their presence. Some regions of the world have d...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Ecosystem services derive from ecosystem functions and rely on complex interactions among a diversity of organisms. By understanding the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and the services humans receive from nature, we can anticipate how changes in land use will affect ecosystems and human wellbeing. We show that...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning. However, much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity–ecosystem functioning experiments in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randomly assembling communities of varying species diversity, and ecosystem functions are measured. This r...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Deforestation and land-use change in tropical regions result in habitat loss and extinction of species that are unable to adapt. The effects of tropical land-use change on ground spiders, a major group of invertebrate predators, are poorly known. With two methods, we showed >50% decline in spider density, species richness, functional diversity, and...
Article
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Land-use transitions can enhance the livelihoods of smallholder farmers but potential economic-ecological trade-offs remain poorly understood. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the environmental, social and economic consequences of land-use transitions in a tropical smallholder landscape on Sumatra, Indonesia. We find widespread biodiv...
Article
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Synthesizing trait observations and knowledge across the Tree of Life remains a grand challenge for biodiversity science. Species traits are widely used in ecological and evolutionary science, and new data and methods have proliferated rapidly. Yet accessing and integrating disparate data sources remains a considerable challenge, slowing progress t...
Article
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Deforestation and land‐use change in tropical regions result in habitat loss and extinction of species that are unable to adapt to the conditions in agricultural landscapes. If the associated loss of functional diversity is not compensated by species colonizing the converted habitats, extinctions might be followed by a reduction or loss of ecosyste...
Article
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1.Trait‐based approaches are widespread throughout ecological research as they offer great potential to achieve a general understanding of a wide range of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. Accordingly, a wealth of trait data is available for many organism groups, but this data is underexploited due to a lack of standardisation and heterogenei...
Preprint
Full-text available
A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning, thus providing support for the conservation of biological diversity. Much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments (hereafter: biodiversity experiments), in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randoml...
Chapter
Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research grew rapidly following concerns that biodiversity loss would negatively affect ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services they underpin. However, despite evidence that biodiversity strongly affects ecosystem functioning, the influence of BEF research upon policy and the management of ‘real-world...
Article
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1.Global warming is one of the greatest threats to the persistence of populations: increased metabolic demands should strengthen pairwise species interactions, which could destabilise food webs at the higher organisational levels. Quantifying the temperature dependence of consumer‐resource interactions is thus essential for predicting ecological re...
Article
Full-text available
Trait-based research spans from evolutionary studies of individual-level properties to global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An increasing number of trait data is available for many different organism groups, published as open access data on a variety of file hosting services. Thus, standardization between datasets is generally...
Article
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Predator–prey interactions in natural ecosystems generate complex food webs that have a simple universal body-size architecture where predators are systematically larger than their prey. Food-web theory shows that the highest predator–prey body-mass ratios found in natural food webs may be especially important because they create weak interactions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Synthesising trait observations and knowledge across the Tree of Life remains a grand challenge for biodiversity science. Despite the well-recognised importance of traits for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions, trait-based approaches still struggle with several basic data requirements to deliver openly accessible, reproducible, and tr...
Article
Full-text available
Earth is experiencing a substantial loss of biodiversity at the global scale, while both species gains and losses are occurring at local and regional scales. The influence of these nonrandom changes in species distributions could profoundly affect the functioning of ecosystems and the essential services that they provide. However, few experimental...
Chapter
Full-text available
Concern about the functional consequences of unprecedented loss in biodiversity has prompted biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research to become one of the most active fields of ecological research in the past 25 years. Hundreds of experiments have manipulated biodiversity as an independent variable and found compelling support that the fun...
Article
Full-text available
The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem-level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardized sets of scaling relationships covering...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how changes in biodiversity will impact the stability and functioning of ecosystems is a central challenge in ecology. Food‐web approaches have been advocated to link community composition with ecosystem functioning by describing the fluxes of energy among species or trophic groups. However, estimating such fluxes remains problematic...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Trait-based approaches are widespread throughout ecological research, offering great potential for trait data to deliver general and mechanistic conclusions. Accordingly, a wealth of trait data is available for many organism groups, but, due to a lack of standardisation, these data come in heterogeneous formats. 2. We review current initiatives...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem-level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardised sets of scaling relationships cover...
Article
Relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural communities has become a paramount challenge as links between trophic complexity and multiple ecosystem functions become increasingly apparent. Yet, there is still no generalised approach to address such complexity in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) studies. Energy flux dynamics in...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how changes in biodiversity will impact the stability and functioning of ecosystems is a central challenge in ecology. Food-web approaches have been advocated to link community composition with ecosystem functioning by describing the fluxes of energy among species or trophic groups. However, estimating such fluxes remains problematic...
Article
Full-text available
Warming can lead to increased growth of plants or algae at the base of the food web, which may increase the overall complexity of habitat available for other organisms. Temperature and habitat complexity have both been shown to alter the structure and functioning of communities, but they may also have interactive effects, for example, if the shade...
Article
Full-text available
The conversion of tropical rainforest to agricultural systems such as oil palm alters biodiversity across a large range of inter- acting taxa and trophic levels. Yet, it remains unclear how direct and cascading effects of land-use change simultaneously drive ecological shifts. Combining data from a multi-taxon research initiative in Sumatra, Indone...
Article
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1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on sp...
Data
Table S1. Observed number of species and individuals per consumer group. Table S2. Sample cover and correlation between observed and extrapolated richness. Table S3. Correlation table for the predictors from the statistical analysis. Table S4. Model averaging results for consumer species richness. Table S5. Model averaging results for consumer biom...
Article
Full-text available
Living organisms are constrained by both resource quantity and quality. Ecological stoichiometry offers important insights into how the elemental composition of resources affects their consumers. If resource quality decreases, consumers can respond by shifting their body stoichiometry, avoiding low-quality resources, or up-regulating feeding rates...
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quan-tification of land-use change and associated bundles of ec...
Data
Primer pair sequences for plants, bacteria, and archaea
Data
Supplementary Figures 1 - 9, Supplementary Tables 1 - 5, Supplementary Note 1 and Supplementary References
Article
Predicting ecosystem functioning at large spatial scales rests on our ability to scale up from local plots to landscapes, but this is highly contingent on our understanding of how functioning varies through space. Such an understanding has been hampered by a strong experimental focus of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research restricted to smal...
Article
Full-text available
The role of body size as a key feature determining the biology and ecology of individual animals, and thus the structure and dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems, has long been acknowledged. Body size provides a functional link between individual-level processes, such as physiology and behavior, with higher-level ecological processe...
Article
Full-text available
Our knowledge about land-use impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is mostly limited to single trophic levels, leaving us uncertain about whole-community biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. We analyse consequences of the globally important land-use transformation from tropical forests to oil palm plantations. Species diver...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has complex structural impacts on coastal ecosystems. Global warming is linked to a widespread decline in body size, whereas increased flood frequency can amplify nutrient enrichment through enhanced run-off. Altered population body-size structure represents a disruption in top-down control, whereas eutrophication embodies a change i...

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Project (1)
Project
Earth is experiencing substantial biodiversity losses at the global scale, while both species gains and losses are occurring locally and regionally. Nonrandom changes in species distributions could profoundly influence ecosystem functions and services. However, few experimental tests have examined the influences of invasive ecosystem engineers, which can have disproportionally strong impacts on native ecosystems. Invasive earthworms are a prime example of ecosystem engineers that influence many ecosystems around the world. In particular, European earthworms invading northern North American forests may cause simultaneous species gains and losses with significant consequences for essential ecosystem processes like nutrient cycling and crucial services like carbon sequestration. Using a synthetic combination of field observations, field experiments, lab experiments, and meta-analyses, the work in the framework of the ECOWORM project will be the first systematic examination of earthworm effects on relationships between plant communities, soil food webs, and ecosystem processes. Further, effects of a changing climate on the spread and consequences of earthworm invasion will be investigated. Meta-analyses will be used to test if earthworms cause invasion waves, invasion meltdowns, habitat homogenization, and ecosystem state shifts. Global data will be synthesized to test if the relative magnitude of effects differ from place to place depending on the functional dissimilarity between native soil fauna and exotic earthworms. Moving from local to global scale, the present proposal examines the influence of earthworm invasions on biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships from an aboveground–belowground perspective.