Malcolm Nicoll

Malcolm Nicoll
Zoological Society of London | IoZ · Institute of Zoology

PhD, BSc (Hons) Wildlife & Fisheries Management

About

41
Publications
19,650
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,091
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
561 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
My research and experience are centred on understanding the ecology and dynamics of threatened island species in a rapidly changing environment and the implementation and refinement of management techniques applied to remnant wild and reintroduced populations. The focus has primarily been on threatened endemic bird populations in the Western Indian Ocean. I am also interested in tropical seabird population and movement ecology focusing on Boobies and Petrels in the Indian Ocean.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Zoological Society of London
Position
  • Senior Researcher
May 2004 - August 2014
University of Reading
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Background Shearwaters (order Procellariiformes) are an excellent study system to investigate the genetic consequences of the co-called “seabird paradox”, as they are able to disperse long distances but many species exhibit natal and breeding philopatry. However, few microsatellite markers are currently available for these taxa, hampering genetic i...
Article
A wide range of biologging devices are now commonly deployed to study the movement ecology of birds, but deployment of these devices is not without its potential risks and negative impacts on the welfare, behaviour and fitness of tagged individuals. However, empirical evidence for the effects of tags is equivocal. Global location sensing (GLS) logg...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in phenology and distribution are being widely reported for many migratory species in response to shifting environmental conditions. Understanding these changes and the situations in which they occur can be aided by understanding consistent individual differences in phenology and distribution and the situations in which consistency varies i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In migratory species, the extent of within- and between-individual variation in migratory strategies can influence potential rates and directions of responses to environmental changes. Quantifying this variation requires tracking of many individuals on repeated migratory journeys. At temperate and higher latitudes, low levels of within-...
Article
Full-text available
1. Estimating the contribution of demographic parameters to changes in population growth is essential for understanding why populations fluctuate. Integrated Population Models (IPMs) offer a possibility to estimate contributions of additional demographic parameters, for which no data have been explicitly collected: typically immigration. Such param...
Article
Conservation translocations are commonly used in recovery programmes for threatened species from a wide range of taxa, but outcomes can vary considerably both within and between programmes, and the causes of success or failure are often unclear. Central to understanding translocation success is the implementation of an accompanying monitoring progr...
Article
Full-text available
On many Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, colonization by humans brought invasive species, native vegetation destruction and coconut plantations, leading to the decimation of seabird populations. The coconut industry on oceanic islands has since crashed, leaving the legacy of altered, impoverished ecosystems. Many island restoration projects eradic...
Article
Full-text available
Constraints on evolutionary adaptation and range shifts mean that phenotypic plasticity, which includes physiological, developmental or behavioural responses to environmental conditions, could be an important mode of adaptation to a changing climate for many species with small insular populations. While there is evidence to suggest adaptive plastic...
Article
Full-text available
Given the recent trend towards establishing very large marine protected areas (MPAs) and the high potential of these to contribute to global conservation targets, we review outcomes of the last decade of marine conservation research in the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), one of the largest MPAs in the world. The BIOT MPA consists of the atol...
Article
Full-text available
Seabirds are one of the most threatened avian taxa and are hence a high conservation priority. Managing seabirds is challenging, requiring conservation actions at sea (e.g. Marine Protected Areas - MPAs) and on land (e.g. protection of breeding sites). Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) have been successfully used to identify sites of glo...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation decision-making for threatened species in human-modified landscapes requires detailed knowledge about spatial ecology, but robust data derived from tracking individual animals are often unavailable, with management decisions potentially based on unreliable anecdotal data. Existing data are limited for Hispaniola's two threatened non-vo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The world is facing a biodiversity crisis. Nowhere is that more apparent than on oceanic islands where invasive species are a major threat for island biodiversity. Rats are one of the most detrimental of these and have been the target of numerous eradication programmes; a well-established conservation tool for island systems. For at-risk native spe...
Article
Full-text available
Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, par...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of demographic parameters affecting population dynamics is critical to the formulation of effective conservation strategies. Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is a little-studied, Near-threatened species; estimates of global population size and trend for this species are uncertain. They lay eggs during mid-summer and sometimes nest in colonies....
Article
Tropical cyclones are renowned for their destructive nature and are an important feature of marine and coastal tropical ecosystems. Over the last 40 years, their intensity, frequency and tracks have changed, partly in response to ocean warming, and future predictions indicate that these trends are likely to continue with potential consequences for...
Article
Invasive species are a major threat for island biodiversity, causing species decline and extinction globally. Of all invasive mammals rats are one of the most detrimental and have been the target of numerous control and eradication programmes. In Mauritius rats have contributed to the extinction of 50% of the island's fauna and are thought to be th...
Data
Full-text available
Fig. S1.Variation in Mauritius kestrel timing of breeding. Table S1. Models of breeding success with additional random effect structures. Table S2. Additional models of nest-scale success. Table S3. Additional models of breeding success (excluding failed breeding attempts). Table S4. Model of breeding success with site-specific gecko probability.
Article
Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work suggests that the environment experienced in early life can alter life histories in wild populations [1-5], but our understanding of the processes involved remains limited [6, 7]. Since anthropogenic environmental change is currently having a major impact on wild populations [8], this raises the possibility that life histories may be in...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A major question in ecology is how age-specific variation in demographic parameters influences population dynamics. Based on long-term studies of growing populations of birds and mammals, we analyze population dynamics by using fluctuations in the total reproductive value of the population. This enables us to account for random fluctuation...
Article
Dispersal is a key process in population and evolutionary ecology. Individual decisions are affected by fitness consequences of dispersal, but these are difficult to measure in wild populations. A long-term dataset on a geographically closed bird population, the Mauritius kestrel, offers a rare opportunity to explore fitness consequences. Females d...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial patterns of site occupancy are commonly driven by habitat heterogeneity and are thought to shape population dynamics through a site-dependent regulatory mechanism. When examining this, however, most studies have only focused on a single vital rate (reproduction), and little is known about how space effectively contributes to the regulation...
Article
Full-text available
1. Spatial variation in habitat quality and its demographic consequences have important implications for the regulation of animal populations. Theoretically, habitat quality is typically viewed as a single gradient from ‘poor’ to ‘good’, but in wild populations it is possible that there are multiple environmental gradients that determine spatial va...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence of changes in the timing of important ecological events, such as flowering in plants and reproduction in animals, in response to climate change, with implications for population decline and biodiversity loss. Recent work has shown that the timing of breeding in wild birds is changing in response to climate change partly be...
Article
1. In recent decades there have been population declines of many UK bird species, which have become the focus of intense research and debate. Recently, as the populations of potential predators have increased there is concern that increased rates of predation may be contributing to the declines. In this review, we assess the methodologies behind th...
Article
Little is known about the ecology of the Grey-headed Fish-Eagle (GHFE; Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) despite it being a globally near-threatened species in apparent decline. We here present the first quantitative information on nesting ecology of this species, in a regionally significant population at Prek Toal, part of the seasonally flooded swamp for...
Article
Se cree que la población regional de Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus en el sureste de Asia ha disminuido recientemente, y que se encuentra bajo amenaza en términos de conservación. Realizamos un muestreo sistemático en un bosque pantanoso inundado en el lago Tonle Sap, Camboya, y registramos 32 parejas de águilas en un área de aproximadamente 80 km2. Se i...
Article
Global climate change and its impacts are being increasingly studied and precipitation trends are one of the measures of quantifying climate change especially in the tropics. This study uses daily rainfall data to determine if there are changes in the long-term trends in rainfall variability in the East Coast Mountains of Mauritius during the last...
Article
Full-text available
Variations in demographic rates due to differential resource allocation between individuals are important considerations in the development of accurate population dynamic models. Systematic harvesting can alter age structure and/or reduce population density, conferring indirect positive benefits on the source population as a result of a consequent...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of tropical raptor habitat use is limited and yet a thorough understanding is vital when trying to conserve endangered species. We used a well studied, reintroduced population of the vulnerable Mauritius Kestrel Falco punctatus to investigate habitat preferences in a modified landscape. We constructed a high resolution digital habitat map...
Article
Comparative analyses of survival senescence by using life tables have identified generalizations including the observation that mammals senesce faster than similar-sized birds. These generalizations have been challenged because of limitations of life-table approaches and the growing appreciation that senescence is more than an increasing probabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial processes could play an important role in density-dependent population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations-the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild...
Article
Many populations have recovered from severe bottlenecks either naturally or through intensive conservation management. In the past, however, few conservation programs have monitored the genetic health of recovering populations. We conducted a conservation genetic assessment of a small, reintroduced population of Mauritius Kestrel (Falco punctatus)...
Article
Summary • Life-history theory assumes that trade-offs exist between an individual's life-history components, such that an increased allocation of a resource to one fitness trait might be expected to result in a cost for a conflicting fitness trait. Recent evidence from experimental manipulations of wild individuals supports this assumption. • The m...
Article
Re-introduction is a technique widely used in the conservation of threatened bird species. With advances in aviculture the use of captive-produced individuals as the release stock is becoming more commonplace, and ideally, survival of captive-produced, released individuals should be no different from their wild-bred counterparts. During the late 19...
Article
Summary • We studied a reintroduced population of the formerly critically endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus Temmink from its inception in 1987 until 2002, by which time the population had attained carrying capacity for the study area. Post-1994 the population received minimal management other than the provision of nestboxes. • We analyse...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Conservation of the endemic Mauritius Kestrel population