Malcolm Fairbrother

Malcolm Fairbrother
Umeå University | UMU · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

36
Publications
75,180
Reads
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1,530
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
University of Bristol
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2006 - June 2007
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of...
Article
Increasing numbers of comparative survey datasets span multiple waves. Moving beyond purely cross-sectional analyses, multilevel longitudinal analyses of such datasets should generate substantively important insights into the political, social and economic correlates of many individual-level outcomes of interest (attitudes, behaviors, etc.). This a...
Article
What makes people concerned about environmental degradation and willing to pay for its prevention? Recent survey research argues that richer people are greener—that residents of more economically developed countries, as well as relatively wealthier people within countries, are more concerned about the state of the natural environment and more willi...
Article
Previous research has argued that income inequality reduces people's trust in other people, and that declining social trust in the United States in recent decades has been due to rising levels of income inequality. Using multilevel models fitted to data from the General Social Survey, this paper substantially qualifies these arguments. We show that...
Article
Around the world, most people are aware of the problem of climate change, believe it is anthropogenic, and feel concerned about its potential consequences. What they think should be done about the problem, however, is less clear. Particularly due to widespread support among policy experts for putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions, more studie...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of public opinion toward regionalism tend to rely on questions regarding trade integration and specific regional organizations. This narrow focus overlooks dimensions of regionalism that sit at the heart of international relations research on regions today. Instead, we argue that research should explore public preferences with respect to re...
Preprint
Do people care much about future generations? Moral philosophers argue that we should, but it is not clear that laypeople agree. Humanity’s thus-far inadequate efforts to address climate change, for example, could be taken as a sign that people are unconcerned about the well-being of future generations. An alternative explanation is that the lack o...
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to explore whether gendered family roles in the country of origin and the country of destination explain labour market outcomes for immigrants in Sweden. We examine the assumptions of the source country culture literature - that traditional gender norms in immigrants’ source countries drive women’s employment in the new country – by...
Article
Full-text available
Policy decisions, and public preferences about them, often entail judgements about costs people should be willing to pay for the benefit of future generations. Economic analyses discount policies’ future benefits based on expectations about increasing standards of living, while empirical studies in psychology have found future-oriented people are m...
Article
Full-text available
The US has experienced a substantial decline in social trust in recent decades. Surprisingly few studies analyze whether individual-level explanations can account for this decrease. We use three-wave panel data from the General Social Survey (2006-2014) to study the effects of four possible individual-level sources of changes in social trust: job l...
Article
Full-text available
Tackling diffuse pollution from agriculture is a key challenge for governments seeking to implement the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the research literature, how best to integrate and align effective measures for tackling diffuse pollution, within the context of the EU’s multilevel governance structure, remains an open quest...
Chapter
This chapter is the first of three that show how each country of North America embraced continental free trade. All three chapters describe key decisions and investigate whether there is evidence consistent with the liberal literature’s expectation that those decisions were strongly influenced by public preferences for free trade, as opposed to the...
Book
This book is about the political events and decisions in the 1980s and 1990s that established the global economy we have today. Different social scientists and other commentators have described the foundations of globalization very differently. Some have linked the rise of free trade and multinational enterprises to the democratic expression of ord...
Article
Taxes on fossil fuels could be a useful policy tool for governments seeking to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, such taxes are politically challenging to introduce, as public opinion is usually hostile to them. Prior studies have found that attitudes toward carbon and other environmental taxes reflect not just people's beliefs and concerns...
Article
Full-text available
Open relationships are those in which individuals agree to participate in sexual and/or emotional and romantic interactions with more than one partner. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of open relationships, based on representative, unbiased samples, are few, and there are none from outside of the United States. We present findings from a natio...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview over the application of mixed models (multilevel models) to comparative survey data where the context units of interest are countries. Such analyses have gained much popularity in the last two decades but they also come with a variety of challenges, some of which are discussed here. A focus lies on the small-N proble...
Article
Full-text available
This paper assesses modelling choices available to researchers using multilevel (including longitudinal) data. We present key features, capabilities, and limitations of fixed (FE) and random (RE) effects models, including the within-between RE model, sometimes misleadingly labelled a ‘hybrid’ model. We show the latter is unambiguously a RE model, a...
Article
Full-text available
Kelley at al. argue that group-mean-centering covariates in multilevel models is dangerous, since— they claim—it generates results that are biased and misleading. We argue instead that what is dangerous is Kelley et al.'s unjustified assault on a simple statistical procedure that is enormously helpful, if not vital, in analyses of multilevel data....
Article
This article reviews recent studies showing that distrust lies at the heart of the serious crisis of sustainability that humanity is failing to address, insofar as distrust of environmental scientists, communicators, and policymakers are all undermining public demand for better public policies. Generalised distrust of scientists is rare, but politi...
Article
This article presents results from survey experiments investigating conditions under which Britons are willing to pay taxes on polluting activities. People are no more willing if revenues are hypothecated for spending on environmental protection, while making such taxes more relevant to people – by naming petrol and electricity as products to which...
Article
Full-text available
Geoengineering could be taken by the public as a way of dealing with climate change without reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents the results of survey experiments testing whether hearing about solar radiation management (SRM) affects people’s support for taxing polluting energy and/or their trust in climate science. For a national...
Article
The concept of externalities represents the core of environmental economics but appears much less in sociology and other social sciences. This article presents the concept of externalities and makes a case for its usefulness, noting reasons why environmental sociologists should like it and use it more than they do currently. The concept is closely...
Article
One major theory of environmental inequality is that firms follow a political path of least resistance when locating polluting facilities in low-income and minority communities. Such communities, this theory suggests, lack the social capital that allows others to keep such facilities at bay. We will test this argument. We investigate whether commun...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, most people share scientists' concerns about environmental problems, but reject the solution that policy experts most strongly recommend: putting a price on pollution. Why? I show that this puzzling gap between the public’s positive concerns and normative preferences is due substantially to a lack of trust, particularly political trust....
Article
Many surveys of respondents from multiple countries or subnational regions have now been fielded on multiple occasions. Social scientists are regularly using multilevel models to analyse the data generated by such surveys, investigating variation across both space and time. We show, however, that such models are usually specified erroneously. They...
Conference Paper
Existing studies present economic development and income inequality as two key determinants of cross-national differences in religiosity, and of changes in religiosity over time. But the case for both explanatory variables remains uncertain. First, some studies claim that religiosity has not been declining over time; if so, rising incomes cannot ha...
Article
Research on trade policymaking often fails to recognize important disagreements between economists, on the one hand, and economic and political elites, on the other. As a consequence, many studies overstate the prevalence of economists' neoclassical trade theory among businesspeople and politicians, and its intellectual influence on the practice of...
Article
Full-text available
A response to a recent paper by Barnes, arguing that the origins of geography’s quantitative revolution were not as monofocused as he suggests.
Article
Un grand nombre d'anciens partisans du Nouveau Parti démocratique, particulièrement les organisations syndicales et les défenseurs des pauvres, ont déclaré avoir été abandonnés par les gouvernements NPD en Ontario et en Colombie-Britannique pendant les années 1990. Cet article examine cette critique à la lumière du meilleur argument théorique dispo...
Article
In shifting from nationalist/statist to neoliberal economic policies, states seek out and build alliances with other advocates—especially large capital—and work to disorganize political opponents—including small business. This article examines the politics of the private sector's involvement in trade liberalization in the developing world through a...

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