Maira Bes-Rastrollo

Maira Bes-Rastrollo
Universidad de Navarra | UNAV · Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

PhD
Professor of Public Health, University of Navarra (mbes@unav.es)

About

315
Publications
63,133
Reads
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11,996
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - September 2016
Universidad de Navarra
Position
  • Professor
February 2009 - April 2009
Loma Linda University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
August 2006 - September 2007
Harvard University
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (315)
Article
Objective To investigate the association between different versions of a provegetarian food pattern (FP) and micronutrient inadequacy Design Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline through a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Participants were classified according to groups of different versions of a p...
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Background Helping consumers to improve the nutritional quality of their diet is a key public health action to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The modified version of the Food Standard Agency Nutrient Profiling System Dietary Index (FSAm-NPS DI) underpinning the Nutri-Score front-of-pack label has been used in public health strategies to ad...
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Obesity is associated with a higher risk of several types of cancer, grouped as obesity-related cancers (ORC). Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in obese subjects, and it has been suggested to play a role in the association between obesity and cancer risk. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake and the sub...
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Healthy and unhealthy lifestyles are tightly linked to general health and well-being. However, measurements of well-being have failed to include elements of health and easy to interpret information for patients seeking to improve lifestyles. Therefore, this study aimed to create an index for the assessment of general health and well-being along wit...
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Purpose In several studies, exploratory dietary patterns (DP), derived by principal component analysis, were inversely or positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, findings remained study-specific, inconsistent and rarely replicated. This study aimed to investigate the associations between DPs and T2D in multiple cohorts a...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pre-gestational carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the incidence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Data from the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort were used, which includes 3,827 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and December 2019....
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The health benefits of plant-based diets have been reported. Plant-based diets found in Spain and other Mediterranean countries differ from typical diets in other countries. In the Mediterranean diet, a high intake of phenolic compounds through olives, olive oil, and red wine may play an important role in cardiovascular prevention. Prospective stud...
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Purpose To assess the association between a score appraising adherence to the PaleoDiet and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We included 18,210 participants from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort study. The PaleoDiet score comprised six food groups promoted within this diet (fruit, nuts,...
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Background: The relationship between modifiable risk factors, such as diet and lifestyle, and glaucoma remains controversial. We analyse the effect of the Mediterranean lifestyle (ML) on glaucoma incidence in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) Project. Methods: The SUN Healthy Lifestyle Score (SHLS) includes 10 healthy habits: never...
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Background Recent lifestyle changes include increased consumption of highly processed foods (HPF), which has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, nutritional information relies on the estimation of HPF consumption from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) that are not explicitly developed for this purp...
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Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may influence telomere length (TL), which is considered as a marker of biological age associated with the risk of chronic disease. We hypothesized that dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins could affect TL. Our aim was to evaluate the association of dietary exposure to PCBs...
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Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health. Thus, it is important that they share contents which promote healthy habits. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Analysis of tweets has become a tool for understanding perceptions on health issues. Methods: We investigated tweet...
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Background: Siesta has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease but the mechanism remains unclear. New studies into the relationship between siesta and metabolic syndrome have identified siesta length as a crucial differential, suggesting that siesta less than 40 min is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome...
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Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design A randomised controlled community trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 7-month nutritional intervention and to promote FV intake, separately and together. All participants attended physical exercise sessions. T...
Article
Background Myopia is a highly prevalent disorder, and one of the first causes of blindness. In turn, alcohol consumption has been shown to be a risk factor for many diseases and a main contributor to the global burden of disease. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and myopia. Our aim was to prospectively a...
Article
Background & aims The specific association of olive oil consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke has not been totally established. Objective: to examine whether olive oil consumption is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the risk of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHD, and stroke. Methods Three cohorts were included: A...
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The COVID pandemic has strongly affected daily life both in Spanish schools and worldwide. Providing the best environmental conditions for children allowing face-to-face learning with healthy and safe indoor spaces is a challenge. In the present study, empirical research about how these environmental conditions change with COVID is presented compar...
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The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification sys...
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We aimed to investigate the relationship between the pre-gestational consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). We carried out a prospective study among 3730 Spanish women of the SUN cohort who reported at least one pregnancy after baseline recruitment. Cases of GDM were identified among women with a conf...
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Which intensity of physical activity (PA) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention remains unclear. Isotemporal substitution models assess the relationship of replacing the amount of time spent in one activity for another. We aimed to assess T2D incidence associated with light-to-moderate physical activity (LMPA) and vigorous physical ac...
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Background: Food retail environments have an influential role in shaping purchasing behavior and could contribute to improving dietary patterns at a population level. However, little is known about the level of public support for different types of initiatives to encourage healthy food choices in supermarkets, and whether this varies across countr...
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Resumen Introducción y objetivos Los telómeros son regiones no codificantes localizadas al final de los cromosomas de células eucariotas, y su acortamiento se ha visto relacionado con la enfermedad cardiovascular y sus factores de riesgo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la asociación entre el índice de salud cardiovascular ideal y el riesgo...
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Plant-based diets (PBD) are characterized by a high intake of foods of plant origin and the partial or total avoidance of animal products. The objective of the current study was to compile the evidence on types of PBD and its effect on the main modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors (CMRF). Healthy and unhealthy PBD were found to exist. Some he...
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Introduction and objectives Telomeres are noncoding regions located at the end of chromosomes and their shortening has been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health (Life's simple 7) and the odds of having short telomeres in a subsample of part...
Article
Background: Dietary quality indices (DQI) are widely used in nutritional epidemiology. However, how they might change over time in a Mediterranean population is not well understood. Objective: To evaluate within-participant longitudinal changes in scores for nine a priori-defined DQIs: Fat Quality Index (FQI), Carbohydrate Quality Index (CQI), P...
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The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pa...
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PurposeThe health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been widely studied. However, controversy remains for one of its components: alcohol intake. We aimed to assess the joint effect of adherence to the MedDiet and alcohol-drinking pattern on all-cause mortality.Methods We used data from 20,506 subjects from a prospective cohort of Sp...
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Background and aim the association between ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been much explored. We aimed to evaluate the association between consumption of UPF and the incidence of T2D. Methods We assessed 20,060 participants (61,5% women) from the SUN project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra...
Article
Background & aims A potential protection against COVID-19 infection by a high-quality dietary pattern is to be expected given the biological plausibility supporting the beneficial effects of adequate nutrition on the immune system. However, knowledge on the relationship between long-term maintained healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranea...
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Background Several healthy diet indices have been associated with mortality risk. However, the ideal diet should not only be healthy but also environmentally friendly and affordable. This study aimed to determine if a new Sustainable Diet Index (SDI), which takes into account the nutritional quality, environmental impacts, and market price of diets...
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No previous study has assessed the relationship between overall macronutrient quality and all-cause mortality. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between a multidimensional macronutrient quality index (MQI) and all-cause mortality in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) (University of Navarra Follow-Up) study, a Mediterranean...
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Background The consumption of legumes is promoted as part of a healthy diet in many countries but associations of total and types of legume consumption with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well established. Analyses across diverse populations are lacking despite the availability of unpublished legume consumption data in prospective cohort studies. O...
Article
Objective: Although available evidence supports the protective effects of walking on hypertension - a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke - more information is needed in determining whether walking pace independently provides additional hypertension risk reductions. This prospective study determined the association between self...
Article
Background & Aims Ultra-processed food and drink products (UPF) consumption has been associated with obesity and its-related comorbidities. Excess of visceral fat, which appears with increasing age, has been considered as the culprit contributing to adiposity-associated adverse health outcomes. However, none of previous studies elucidated the link...
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Resumen Objetivo Cuantificar el impacto de reducir el consumo de carnes rojas y procesadas sobre la mortalidad cardiovascular y la mortalidad total de la población adulta española, basado en 5 revisiones publicadas. Participantes y mediciones principales Se define la exposición como el consumo de ≥ 3 raciones/semana de carnes rojas o procesadas,...
Article
Background: Available evidence on the association of physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior with cognitive decline is inconclusive. Objective: To assess the association between an active lifestyle score and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and changes in cognitive function in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective co...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health habits. Analysis of tweets has become a tool for health research and dissemination of public health information. OBJECTIVE Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of tweets about Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the interest generated a...
Article
Background and aim Both physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors have demonstrated independent associations with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the combination of both, has been less explored. We aimed to compare the associations of PA-only versus the simultaneous effect of PA and sedentary behaviors on T2DM in a...
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Current dietary patterns are negatively affecting both the environment and people’s health. Healthy diets are generally more environmentally friendly. However, few studies have focused on the health consequences of diets with low environmental impact. We analyzed differences in the dietary composition (types of food, macro- and micro-nutrients) of...
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Over the last centuries, in the context of industrialization, globalization and urbanization, profound dietary changes have occurred. Ubiquitous access to cheap, readily available and highly palatable unhealthy products, together with aggressive marketing that forcefully impacts social norms, have led to overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-po...
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Background and objectives Cured ham is one of the most characteristic foods in the Spanish diet. Because it is a red processed meat and due to its nutritional composition, including high sodium content, a potential association between cured ham consumption and a higher risk of hypertension could be expected. However, epidemiological studies evaluat...
Article
Background & aims Front-of-pack nutrition labelling is a key public health policy that can be adopted as part of a comprehensive set of measures to promote healthy diets. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour summary label based on a modified version of the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSAm-NPS), is being considered for impleme...
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Background: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated. Objectives: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC,...
Article
Background The aim of this study was to assess the association between body shape trajectories and all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods Using a group-based modeling approach to fit body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years, among 11,423 participants from the Spanish SUN cohort, we assessed the subsequent risk of all-cause mo...
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Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is a subjective appreciation of how personal characteristics and health influence well-being. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to quantitatively measure the influence of dietary, lifestyle, and demographic factors on HRQoL. A sub-sample of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project, a Mediterranea...
Article
Several healthy diet indices have been associated with mortality risk. However, the ideal diet should not only be healthy but also environmentally friendly and affordable. The study aimed to determine if a new Sustainable Diet Index (SDI), which takes into account the nutritional quality, environmental impacts and market price of diets, was associa...
Article
Introduction Lifestyle-related habits have a strong influence on morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigates the association between a multidimensional healthy lifestyle score and all-cause mortality risk, including in the score some less-studied lifestyle-related factors. Methods Participants (n=20,094) of the Seguimiento Universid...
Article
Background: Telomere length (TL) is a marker of biological age that may be affected by dietary factors through oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. In addition, ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased worldwide and it has been associated with the risk of developing several diseases. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association...
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Purpose A growing body of evidence shows that consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) is associated with a higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases, which, in turn, have been linked to depression. This suggests that UPF might also be associated with depression, which is among the global leading causes of disability and disease. We prospectively e...
Article
Background and Aims We prospectively assessed the association between a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods and results We followed up 11005 participants initially free of diabetes diagnosis in the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort. We evaluated the influence of li...
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Alcohol intake is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Different patterns of alcohol-drinking may have different effects on breast cancer even when keeping constant the total amount of alcohol consumed. We aimed to assess the association between binge drinking and breast cancer risk. The SUN Project is a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of...
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Background: Current scientific literature suggests healthy dietary patterns may have less environmental impact than current consumption patterns, but most of the studies rely on theoretical modeling. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on resources (land, water, and energy) use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of healthy dietary patter...
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The use of oral contraceptives (OC) has been suggested to represent a potential risk factor for the development of obesity. However, the available literature assessing the relationship between OC use and the development of obesity is still scarce and characterised by controversial heterogeneity. We prospectively evaluated the association between th...
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The objective of this study was to study the association between total sugar intake (TSI) levels of children aged 6-8 years old, nutrient intake and anthropometry. Food and beverage intakes were collected by a prospective three-day recall questionnaire. The 2237 children were distributed into three groups according to TSI percentiles. Mean TSI was...
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Dietary guidelines play a key role in setting standards for nutrition policies and promoting healthy eating. Like other public health guidelines, they are often influenced by political and economic factors that could place other concerns ahead of the population’s health. In order to determine their effectiveness on obesity prevention, we prospectiv...
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Purpose To prospectively assess the association of dietary fiber intake (from different dietary sources) with all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We assessed 19,703 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort (mean follow-up: 10.1 years). A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. We used Cox...