Maibritt Pedersen Zari

Maibritt Pedersen Zari
Auckland University of Technology | AUT · School of Future Environments

PhD

About

91
Publications
88,090
Reads
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1,108
Citations
Introduction
My research interests include redefining sustainable architecture through mimicking ecosystems, changing the goals from sustainable to regenerative development, and integrating complex social factors into sustainable architectural design. Links to most of my publications can be found on: http://mpedersenzari.webs.com/. I am the author of the book 'Regenerative Urban Design and Ecosystem Biomimicry': https://rdcu.be/4ftj
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Currently I am the Deputy Head of School
March 2001 - December 2014
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
June 2006 - September 2012
Victoria University of Wellington
Field of study
  • Architecture

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates how ecosystems are able to be robust, resilient and capable of adapting to constant change, in order to devise strategies and techniques that could be transferable to an architectural or urban design context. This is to aid the creation, or evolution of urban built environments that may be better able to integrate with an...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines biomimicry, where organisms or ecosystems are mimicked in human design, as a means to either mitigate the causes of climate change that the built environment is responsible for, or adapt to the impacts of climate change. Different biomimetic approaches to design are discussed and categorized, and a series of examples illustrat...
Thesis
Full-text available
Humans must mitigate the causes of, and adapt to climate change and the loss of biodiversity, as the now inevitable impacts of these changes become more apparent and demand urgent responses. The built environment cannot solve these issues alone. Because it contributes significantly to these problems however, and because it is the main site of cultu...
Article
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'Neutral' environmental outcomes in terms of energy use, carbon emissions, waste generation or water use are worthy but difficult targets in architectural and urban design. However, the built environment may need to go beyond efforts simply to limit negative environmental outcomes and instead aim for net positive environmental benefits. This implie...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to establish a broad overview of the impact urban areas have on biodiversity and to determine the predicted major impacts that biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation have and will have on the built environment. Common built environment responses to these impacts will also be examined. Regenerative design that uses the...
Article
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Carbon sequestration (CS) and habitat provisioning (HP) through building-integrated vegetation are interlinked approaches that could potentially reduce climate change and biodiversity loss attributed to the built environment. However, a practical approach is required to integrate CS and HP into building design. A two-stage approach was undertaken i...
Article
The expansion of urban environments contributes to climate change and biodiversity loss. Implementing nature-based strategies to create ‘regenerative living cities’ will be critical for climate change mitigation and adaptation and will produce measurable biodiversity and wellbeing co-benefits.
Article
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Urgent biophilia describes the conscious desire of humans to seek interactions with nature during periods of stress. This study examines the changes in frequency and reason for visiting urban green spaces by residents of Wellington, New Zealand, to determine whether resident behavior during a stressful period exemplifies the principles of urgent bi...
Chapter
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This chapter is about carbon sequestration concepts through building-integrated vegetation in the built environment context.
Chapter
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This chapter is about habitat provisioning core concepts in the urban built environment context.
Article
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Many coastal peri-urban and urban populations in Oceania are heavily reliant on terrestrial and marine ecosystem services for subsistence and wellbeing. However, climate change and urbanisation have put significant pressure on ecosystems and compelled nations and territories in Oceania to urgently adapt. This article, with a focus on Pacific Island...
Article
Adaptation to climate change in small island settlements poses unique issues of access, cost, governance and cultural, historical, and ecological preservation. There is a need therefore to focus research efforts on these small coastal settlements in order to assist and support their communities to develop and implement adaptation. This article is a...
Article
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Climate change and urbanisation in combination put great pressure on terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, vital for subsistence and wellbeing in both rural and urban areas of Pacific islands. Adaptation is urgently required. Nature-based solutions (NbS) offer great potential, with the region increasingly implementing NbS and linked approaches like eco...
Article
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Academic research has long established that interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health outcomes. Notably, the area of therapeutic environments has been borne out of the recognition of this critical relationship, but much of this research comes from a specific Western perspective. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, Māori...
Article
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The practice of reconciliation ecology in urban environments relies heavily on urban green space as the primary source of vegetated habitat in cities. However, most cities lack the quantity, connectivity, and accessibility of green space needed to provide essential ecosystem services for the health, well-being, and resilience of human and non-human...
Article
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Tools that spatially model ecosystem services offer opportunities to integrate ecology into regenerative urban design. However, few of these tools are designed for assessing ecosystem services in cities, meaning their application by designers is potentially limited. This research reviews and compares a range of ecosystem services assessment tools t...
Article
Full-text available
By 2050, 68% of the world’s population will likely live in cities. Human settlements depend on resources, benefits, and services from ecosystems, but they also tend to deplete ecosystem health. To address this situation, a new urban design and planning approach is emerging. Based on regenerative design, ecosystem-level biomimicry, and ecosystem ser...
Article
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Redesigning and retrofitting cities so they become complex systems that create ecological and cultural–societal health through the provision of ecosystem services is of critical importance. Although a handful of methodologies and frameworks for considering how to design urban environments so that they provide ecosystem services have been proposed,...
Book
The notion of ecology has become central to contemporary design discourse. This reflects contemporary concerns for our planet and a new understanding of the primary entanglement of the human species with the rest of the world. The use of the term ‘ecology’ with design tends to refer to how to integrate ecologies into design and cities and be under...
Conference Paper
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The expansion of the built environment is a significant driver of climate change and the loss of biodiversity. Subsequently, ecosystem services required for the basic survival of humans are often reduced or removed altogether in many urban contexts. There are numerous building rating tools that are used to conduct building assessments in order to r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tools that spatially model ecosystem services offer the opportunity to include ecological values into regenerative urban design practices. However, few of these tools are suitable for assessing ecosystem services in cities, meaning their application by urban designers and architects is potentially limited. This research reviews and compares a diver...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architecture can play a crucial role in supporting ecosystems and reducing biodiversity loss in urban environments. With predicted urban population increase and a subsequent need for more housing, how buildings and infrastructure is designed will have a direct impact on surrounding ecosystems and biodiversity. Therefore, the built environment desig...
Article
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The connection the Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand, have to the land is threatened by the effects of colonisation, urbanisation and other factors. In particular, many Māori suffer significant health and wellbeing inequalities compared to the non-Māori population. In an effort to reduce such inequalities, there is a growing cons...
Article
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Under the umbrella of biologically informed disciplines, biomimicry is a design methodology that proponents often assert will lead to a more sustainable future. In realizing that future, it becomes necessary to discern specifically what biomimicry’s “promises” are in relation to sustainable futures, and what is required in order for them to be fulf...
Article
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: Built environment professionals must solve urgent and complex problems related to mitigating and adapting to climate change and biodiversity loss. Cities require redesign and retrofit so they can become complex systems that create rather than diminish ecological and societal health. One way to do this is to strategically design buildings and citi...
Article
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Increasing evidence shows that creating and maintaining relationships with nature is important for human wellbeing. Humanity has become a mostly urbanised species where people typically spend most of their time indoors. It is important then that strategies for deliberately bringing aspects of nature into urban spaces are explored. Design that respo...
Article
As the linked impacts of climate change and degradation of ecosystems continue to be felt, particularly in developing countries, it is vital that methods for development that concurrently address adaptation to climate change, rapid urbanisation, and ecosystem degradation be explored. Further development of approaches which are participatory and emb...
Technical Report
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• Green space is needed in central city areas to provide health and wellbeing benefits for current and future residents, commuters and visitors, and increased amenity, liveability and economic benefits. Green spaces also provide ecosystem and resilience benefits that will help mitigate and adapt the city to climate change and other environmental sh...
Article
Ocean Cities' of the Pacific are where urban landscapes and seascapes meet, where built and natural environments interface, and where human behaviour and urban development have profound impacts on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Ocean Cities are at the forefront of climate change consequences, urbanisation challenges , and other development...
Technical Report
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Regional policy guide focused on the Pacific that introduces an integrated approach for ocean-focused climate-responsive urban development that is adapted to island systems.
Conference Paper
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Redesigning and retrofitting cities so they become complex systems that create ecological and societal health through the provision of ecosystem services is of critical importance. This is due to two key reasons. Firstly, it is well known that cities have a large negative ecological impact, and secondly, the human population is rapidly growing and...
Article
Full-text available
This paper employs a unique ecosystem services analysis methodology to evaluate how cities could support or generate ecosystem services. Ecosystem services analysis can provide quantifiable goals for urban ecological regeneration that are determined by the site-specific ecology and climate of an urban area. In this research, the ecosystem service o...
Article
The built environment is responsible for large negative ecological impacts due in part to the vast amount of materials used in construction. Concurrently, construction and demolition activities result in vast amounts of materials being buried, burnt, and dumped. It is essential therefore to analyze the impact of building materials acquisition, use,...
Article
Landform diversity has been identified as one means to support biodiversity in the face of rising temperatures. The aim of this research is to show methods for researchers to measure the capability of urban landscapes in safeguarding fauna against the impacts of rising temperatures. A case study of Wellington, New Zealand, shows that 1276 ha of the...
Article
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There is sufficient evidence to show that both humans and fauna are profoundly affected by landscape pattern composition and configuration in relation to adaptation to climate change impacts in urban landscapes. Despite this, global-scale research that ranks which components of landscape pattern play the most pivotal roles in this process is absent...
Article
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Biodiversity loss is an urgent global problem that is both caused by and has impacts on humans. Because most humans now live in cities there is a need to understand how cities impact biodiversity and how urban biodiversity impacts people. Ways of integrating biodiversity concerns into urban planning and architectural design are urgently needed. Thi...
Book
It is clear that the climate is changing and ecosystems are becoming severely degraded. Humans must mitigate the causes of, and adapt to, climate change and the loss of biodiversity, as the impacts of these changes become more apparent and demand urgent responses. These pressures, combined with rapid global urbanisation and population growth mean t...
Article
Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is one of the most ecologically important seabirds in New Zealand and depends strongly on terrestrial ecosystems for nesting, moulting and breeding. Wellington, New Zealand, is one of the world's most important biodiversity hot spots for this species, mostly in confluence with human urban settlements. This species i...
Article
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Although biodiversity in cities is essential to ensure the healthy functioning of ecosystems and biosecurity over time, biodiversity loss resulting from human interventions in land cover patterns is widespread in urban landscapes. In the Southern Hemisphere, climate change is likely to accelerate the process of landscape upheavals, and consequently...
Article
Biodiversity loss in urban landscapes is a global challenge. Climate change is a major driving force behind biodiversity loss worldwide. Using Wellington, New Zealand as a research site, the aim of this research is to show how the most suitable patches of vegetation in urban landscapes can be identified, ranked, and prioritised as potential urban w...
Conference Paper
Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are being degraded in Port Vila, Vanuatu (population c.75,000), mainly from rapid population growth (up to c.8% per annum), urban intensification, and overharvesting in coastal marine ecosystems. The rate and nature of population growth, economic development and climate change impacts are among the most important...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than half of all humanity live in urban centres, and people generally spend 80% of time indoors. This means that people are spending less time outside and in places that can be considered ‘nature’. This is problematic, because quantitative and qualitative research shows that isolation from the natural world negatively affects human wellbeing a...
Chapter
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Climate change is already occurring globally and will continue to in the future, resulting in significant negative impacts on society and ecosystems in general. Given that climate change is largely caused by humans, and in part by the built environments they create, a logical response may be to consider how buildings can address the drivers of clim...
Chapter
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This chapter builds upon Chapter 1, and describes how the concept of ecosystem services can practically be applied to built environment design. A methodology for applying the ideas to designing whole buildings, neighborhoods, or urban areas is described and illustrated, and then ecosystem services analysis in relation to building materials specific...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces the concept of ecosystem services in relation to the built environment and examines materials as parts of whole ecosystems. A ranked list of key places for change in the built environment, along with which ecosystem services should be focused on in a built environment context is presented. The chapter concludes that the pote...
Conference Paper
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Despite clear benefits of maintaining human relationships with nature, people increasingly live in urban settings and spend high proportions of time indoors. Both of these trends are increasing globally. This means it is vital to ensure that future cities are designed, created and managed to enable meaningful human / nature connections. Cities that...
Technical Report
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Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Project Implementation Plans, Port Vila, Vanuatu'. Wellington, New Zealand: Report prepared by Victoria University of Wellington for the Pacific Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change Programme (PEBACC) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). As part of the process of selectin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ecosystem Assessment and Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EbA) Options for Port Vila, Vanuatu'. Wellington, New Zealand: Report prepared by Victoria University of Wellington for the Pacific Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change (PEBACC) Programme of the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Port Vila is the capital an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It has been well established that biodiversity plays an irreplaceable role in ensuring the quality of human life through supporting ecosystem functions and services. As more and more people prefer to live in cities worldwide, biodiversity loss in urban environments is being increasingly reported more than ever before. This, in turn, may have a nega...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most of humanity now resides in cities. The proportion of people living in cities is swiftly rising and by 2050 more than two thirds of all humans will be urbanites. The city therefore must be a vehicle for rapid change as society collectively grapples with changes in climate, declines in ecosystem service provision, and changes in human wellbeing...
Article
Evidence shows that in the absence of intact natural habitats, some exotic patches of vegetation may play a compensatory role in supporting indigenous biodiversity in urban environments. This paper suggests that in urban settings where landscapes already contain non-natives, both indigenous and exotic flora may be necessary to maintain indigenous b...
Book
Principles for Evaluating Building Materials in Sustainable Construction: Healthy and Sustainable Materials for the Built Environment provides a comprehensive overview of the issues associated with the selection of materials for sustainable construction, proposing a holistic and integrated approach. The book evaluates the issues involved in choosi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an ecosystem biomimicry methodology for urban design called ecosystem service analysis. Ecosystem services analysis can provide quantifiable goals for urban ecological regeneration that are determined by site specific ecology and climate of an urban area. This is important given the large negative environmental impact that most...
Article
Full-text available
BUSINESS AS USUAL in the New Zealand built environment typically means conventional approaches to building design and construction. Although green or high-performance building design is increasing, in most existing and newly constructed buildings in New Zealand, few environmental sustainability issues have been considered. Living buildings Currentl...
Conference Paper
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Since the 1970s more than half of the Tokelau population has relocated to New Zealand due to limited natural resources and overcrowding of the 10 km2 land area. This raises issues related to the cultural identity and wellbeing of Tokelau people in New Zealand. Local Tokelau community groups in the Wellington region seek to maintain their cultural t...
Chapter
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As professionals of the built environment need to solve more urgent and difficult problems related to mitigating and adapting to climate change, it may be useful to examine examples of how the same problems have been solved by other living organisms or ecosystems. Looking to plants or animals that are highly adaptable or ones that survive in extrem...
Article
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This paper proposes using an understanding of ecosystem services to determine measurable goals for urban regenerative design that are based on site specific ecological reality. This is termed ecosystem services analysis. The usability of the ecosystem services analysis concept is tested through a case study of an existing city. The case study demon...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines ecosystem biomimicry for its potential to contribute to the evolution of intelligent built environments. Ecosystem biomimicry is the emulation of how ecosystems work or what they do in a design context. The article begins by ascertaining whether analysing the urban built environment from the perspective of how ecosystems funct...
Chapter
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As professionals of the built environment need to solve more urgent and difficult problems related to mitigating the causes of climate change, and must plan for changes to the availability of common energy sources such as fossil fuels, analysing new approaches to conserving and generating energy is becoming more important. It may be useful to exami...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the concept of a living systems approach to the built environment through the adoption of strategies such as regenerative development and eco-effectiveness. The research examines the differences and connections between these new concepts of sustainable architecture and design, compares these to current typical design approaches,...
Article
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Sustainability issues, in particular climate change, have become significant drivers of change in architectural education. It is posited that engaging in the reduction and offsetting of greenhouse gas emissions in academic institutions, particularly those responsible for the education of new generations of built environment professionals, could bec...
Chapter
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A growing amount of architectural discourse explores analogies between ecosystems and living organisms, and architectural design that increases the capacity for regeneration. This is referred to here as bio-inspired design. This paper examines the relationship between biophilic and biomimetic approaches to architectural design as two aspects of bio...
Technical Report
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This research document – Rethinking our built environments: Towards a sustainable future – presents findings from a study of several approaches capable of contributing towards a fully sustainable built environment in New Zealand. It examines the value and opportunities for central government organisations of adopting one or all of them to achieve t...
Chapter
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The definition of cutting edge sustainable architecture is changing rapidly. Aiming for ‘neutral’ or ‘zero’ environmental impact buildings in terms of energy, carbon, waste or water are worthwhile targets. It is becoming clear however, that buildings will need to go beyond having little negative environmental impact in the future, to having net pos...
Conference Paper
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International research suggests that the built environment may be responsible for at least a third of global green house gas (GHG) emissions and that measures should be implemented to mitigate these. It is also the built environment, as the principle habitat of humans that will need to adapt to climate change impacts to keep people comfortable and...