Maia Akhalkatsi

Maia Akhalkatsi
Ilia State University | ISU · Institute of Botany Plant Genetic Resources

Submission: March 03, 2020; Published: April 01, 2020

About

115
Publications
57,302
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2,758
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
1985 Citations
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Introduction
Department of Plant Genetic Resources at the Institute of Botany conducts inventory of crop wild relatives of Georgia. We have monitored genetic erosion of landraces in Georgian regions and some publications are published. Many landraces disappeared last time and are substituted by introduced cultivars. Georgia owned many ancient cultivars. We are studying crop domestication in Georgia (grape, pear, etc.). Georgia is confirmed as one of the oldest center of domestication of the world.
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Position
  • Successional recovery of degraded habitats
Description
  • Plant species diversity changes during forest restoration and land use change in mountain regions of Georgia
January 1985 - October 2015
Ilia State University
Position
  • Head of Department
January 1985 - October 2015
Institute of Botany
Position
  • Head of Department
Education
November 1981 - November 1984
Russian Academy of Sciences
Field of study
  • Plant anatomy
September 1976 - June 1981

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
The wine industry in Georgia produces vast amounts of grape pomace that is currently mostly wasted, while only a minor amount is used for distilling alcohol. The study was carried out on the grape pomace from the three most widely used grapevine sorts (Vitis vinifera var. Rkatsiteli, V. vinifera var. Saperavi, V. labrusca var. Isabella) in Georgia,...
Book
Full-text available
Abstract Medicinal plants of Staphylea pinnata L. Family Staphyleaceae Lindl. are in the genus Staphylea L. Species. Staphylea pinnata L. is an accepted name in Georgia and it is medicinal plants and it has vitamin A, B1, C, E. This plants it has gene 2n=26. Staphylea pinnata L. is an accepted name in Georgia and is are 1-Kakheti 320 m-618m. 2-Tbil...
Book
Full-text available
Natura 2000 habitats as conservation units are based on species composition and plant community types including as well abiotic factors (EUR27). Sampling is then confined within those boundaries. Ecologists based in different countries, educated in different traditions, tend to view communities differently: Europeans tend to see communities as dist...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Forest Habitats Restoration in Georgia, Caucasus Ecoregion Strategy for restoration of ecoregion forests. Restoration of ecological functions after restoration of the forest. Natural hazards cause the extinction of species and mutational changes. Forest damages cause the reproductive and geographical isolation of species. Global catastrophe is a t...
Article
Full-text available
The situation of plant genetic resources in southwestern Georgia is illustrated using the material from a 2010 collecting mission of the Tbilisi Botanical Garden and Institute of Botany and the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben, after having finished seed reproduction and plant characterization. Despite...
Article
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Georgian flora has species of Portulaca oleracea L. and it is an accepted scientific name as Family Portulacaceae Juss. and genus Portulaca L. are in Caucasian and places. The medicinal plants of Portulaca oleracea is for and is to the village Shilda, Kvareli city, Kakheti, Georgia. This is the place and where my mother Tsira Sidamon-Eristavi is ap...
Book
Full-text available
Natura 2000 habitats as conservation units are based on species composition and plant community types including as well abiotic factors (EUR27). Sampling is then confined within those boundaries. Ecologists based in different countries, educated in different traditions, tend to view communities differently: Europeans tend to see communities as dist...
Article
Full-text available
The article deals with tasks related to monitoring and diagnostics of microprocessor devices of data transmission systems. We have completed the life cycle of the technical means of data transmission systems and the ways of their enhanced reliability. The analysis of tasks and classification of systems of technical diagnostics of microprocessor dev...
Article
Full-text available
A widely distributed species of the pine in Georgia is - Pinus kochiana in the Caucasus Mountains. Central Great Caucasus higher is 5047 m of Mt. Kazbegi and many summits are higher than 4000 m. Caucasian pine from 300 to 2600 m above of alpine treeline ecotone. Caucasian Pinus kochiana is on slopes from 784-2417 m. Forest degradation will be activ...
Article
Full-text available
Avena L. crops are cultivated in agriculture as 3 species in Georgia: A. sativa, A. sativa var. aurea and A. sativa var. krausei. The uses of the crop wild relatives (CWR) are total related to species of direct socioeconomic importance, which includes the progenitors of crops. Accepted name of Avena are 6 species in Georgia and these have many syno...
Article
Full-text available
Preliminary study carried out in Georgia in the framework of limestone quarries in V. Kavtiskhevi, Municipality of Kaspi, Shida Kartli in coordinates 41°88’ N‒44°44’ E, elevation 386‒709m. Post‒closed rehabilitation process of the limestone quarry area after finishing the cement production is extremely interesting to use this territory for scientif...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal species are in Georgia on different places. These species are on High Mountainat 2700 meters and some are at 20 meters above the Black Sea. Synonyms by some authors are in species and genes. Medicinal species are on month of the year and some species are in these periods: January – Galanthus L. (Amaryllidaceae); February - Viola L. (Viola...
Article
Full-text available
Subalpine timberline in the Central Greater Caucasus is birch forest on north-facing slopes in 1800-2300 m a.s.l. of the Kazbegi region of Georgia. Subalpine forest is as Betula litwinowii, B. pendula, B. raddeana, and other trees and shrub species. B. litwinowii was occurs only this species of birches and its reaches in treeline at 2300-2550 m and...
Article
Full-text available
The Hordeum L. has several species which will be crop wild relatives (CWRs) in Georgia. Hordeum wild species of barley are widespread in Georgia and there are total 10 species as CWRs represent the same species or direct ancestor of crop plants (GP-1B/TG-1B). Georgia other crops are remains from 1990 years and now are in Meskheti and Svaneti. The f...
Article
Full-text available
To establish the possibility of application in cosmetology, industry of biologically active additives (BAA) or for other reasonscontent of tocopherol, total phenols, anthocyanins, proline, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates and also total antioxidant activity was studied both in unfermented and fermented seeds of two species of grape vine -Vitis...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Subalpine timberline in the Central Greater Caucasus is birch forest on north-facing slopes in 1800-2300 m a.s.l. of the Kazbegi region of Georgia. Subalpine forest is as Betula litwinowii, B. pendula, B. raddeana, and other trees and shrub species. B. litwinowii was occurs only this species of birches and its reaches in treeline at 2300-2...
Book
Full-text available
Comparative embryology investigating structural variability of reproductive organs is actual so far. Hence, the results obtained by this research field are widely used to solve problems of plant diversity and many taxonomic questions. Embryological data together with morphological and anatomical data play essential role in cladistic analysis of pla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Georgia covers 69.700 km 2 Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges located between the Black and Caspian seas. Two-thirds of the country is mountainous with an average height of 1.200 m above sea level, with the highest peaks of Mt. Shkhara (5.201 m) in the Greater Caucasus and Mt. Didi Abuli (3.301 m) in the Lesser Caucasus. The alpine zone (1...
Data
Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life...
Article
Full-text available
Coriander - Coriandrum sativum L., genus Coriandrum L., family Apiaceae; is agricultural species and many species with this genus are as crop wild relatives (CWRs). Rural vegetation is one of the most interesting in terms of CWR. This is especially important for fodder species, such as Coriandrum sativum, Aethusa cynapium, Bifora radians, Cicuta vi...
Article
Full-text available
Editorial The centre of evolution of plant varieties is in the Caucasus has been for many unique life forms and is a natural museum for rich genetic resources, much of which has been lost of certain species of agrarian plants for trade and local use. A number of threats emanate from the over exploitation of natural resources for fuel, fodder, manur...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple species of Georgian flora are preserved in western Georgia, which has not happened under the old period of climate change, which is from 110 000 years. The authors revealed that alpine floras of these regions contain 60 congeneric and 17 conspecific species. The geographically Caucasian region belongs to three different phytogeographic pro...
Article
Full-text available
Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life...
Article
Full-text available
Ancient crops are a domesticated and locally adapted in the Georgia. High diversity of cultivated plants was characteristic feature for Samtskhe-Javakheti from ancient time. Cultivation of field crops, vegetables and fruits, as well as winemaking was main direction of agriculture. According to literature data filed crops were represented by wheat (...
Article
Full-text available
Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genomes AABBDD) originated in South Caucasus by allopolyploidization of the cultivated Emmer wheat T. dicoccum (genomes AABB) with the Caucasian Ae. tauschii ssp strangulata (genomes DD). Genetic variation of Ae. tauschii is an important natural resource, that is why it is of particular importance to investiga...
Article
Full-text available
The forests of Georgia are distinguished by rich biodiversity, abundance of rare habitats and differing ecosystems, where endemic, relict and genetically important species grow. The increasing anthropogenic impact and global climate change afflict damage to the species and habitats, their area is extremely narrowed. Information about condition of t...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of plant species within alpine areas is often directly related to climate or climate-influenced ecological factors. Responding to observed changes in plant species, cover and composition on the GLORIA summits in the Central Caucasus, an extensive setup of 1m x 1m permanent plots was established at the treeline-alpine zones and niva...
Article
Full-text available
The forests of Georgia are distinguished by rich biodiversity, abundance of rare habitats and differing ecosystems, where endemic, relict and genetically important species grow. The increasing anthropogenic impact and global climate change afflict damage to the species and habitats, their area is extremely narrowed. Information about condition of t...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation of the genetic resources of ancient crops in Georgia are current landraces and primitive forms occurring in Georgia and to publish lists of indigenous landraces and CWRs of cereals, legumes, vegetables, vine and fruits representing direct ancestors, and endemic, rare or endangered species. National policies and comprehensive measures a...
Article
Full-text available
In the alpine life zone, plant diversity is strongly determined by local topography and microclimate. We assessed the extent to which aspect and its relatedness to temperature affect plant species diversity, and the colonization and disappearance of species on alpine summits on a pan-European scale. Mountain summits in Europe's alpine life zone. Va...
Article
Full-text available
Genus of Secale contains one cultivar rye and five wild species in the territory of Georgia, Caucasus ecoregion. Historically, cultivar rye (Secale cereale) was distributed in the territories of Georgia from lowlands to high mountain areas at high altitudes of 2300 m. S. cereale had 14 varieties in many areas of Georgia and 5 varieties are distribu...
Article
Full-text available
To save the species in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are largely dependent on climate variations, especially during the annual rainfall, which determine the water reserve in the soil. The impact of climate change, biodiversity has been developed for the assessment of simulation models at the regional level. Survival of the species is almost entirel...
Chapter
Full-text available
The crop wild relatives (CWR) are taxa related to species of direct socio-economic importance, which includes the progenitors of crops. According to modern concept of wild relatives, under CWR we should understand all species related to any cultivated plants. Although, “classical” definition of CWRs is restricted only to species related to cultivat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Georgia (South Caucasus) has many ancient crop varieties used with very old farming traditions and owns linguistics of old civilization coinciding with early Neolithic epoch. The traditional landraces used by local people for thousands of years affected the health and human longevity of individuals in the Georgian population predicting adaptation t...
Article
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Georgia (South Caucasus) has wild Caucasian pear (Pyrus caucasica) representing as relict and endemic species of the Caucasus. It is determined by molecular analysis as the ancestor of 15 pear landraces of Georgia. We used in situ and ex situ methods for conservation of P. caucasica, as crop wild progenitor and relative for pear varieties breeder....
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive biometric data on the morphology of the representatives of the genus Platanthera in Italy considering 8 vegetative, 14 floral and 15 reproductive traits are provided. For comparison additional data taken of P. kuenkelei subsp. atropatanica from Georgia have been included. All data have been evaluated and analysed by standard statistic...
Article
Full-text available
The northern slopes of the Central Great Caucasus of Georgia were covered by birch (Betula litwinowii) forests in the past, but forest degradation resulted in subalpine secondary meadows. Over the past 20 years birch forest natural reforestation processes have taken place. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in plant species diversit...
Book
Full-text available
Georgian Society of Nature Explorers “Orchis” (GSNE) in the framework of the “Clean up Georgia” – Increasing Public Awareness and Involvement in Solid Waste Management Improvement (Phase II)” project with the financial support of Swedish Government intends to undertake efforts for protection and determination of reforestation methods of forest habi...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain regions are hotspots of biodiversity and contain many endemic vascular species. The alpine vegetation is generally considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and can be used as a sensitive “ecological indicator” for climate change effects. We present recent (2001 and 2008) changes in vascular plant composition observed in a...
Chapter
Full-text available
History of viticulture. Diversity of wild grapevine. Diversity of grape varieties.
Article
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The Caucasus and Middle East regions are considered to be the primary centre of origin of cultivated grapevine, and, as confirmed by archaeobotanical, archaeological, and cultural evidence, Georgia belongs to this earliest centre of winemaking. This study aims to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of local aut...
Article
Full-text available
Orchids as indicator species are adapted to abiotic factors of habitat and have symbiotic relation with soil mycorrhizal fungi and pollination mechanisms by insects. Sky exposition is lower in degraded forest as high trees are replaced by small trees and shrubs with many twigs covering underground. Intensive cut down changes forest for shibliak con...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term changes in plant species number, cover, frequency and composition were 22 studied along an altitudinal gradient crossing four Gloria summits (from 2240 m to 3024 23 m a.s.l.) from the treeline ecotone to the subnival zone in the Central Caucasus. Large-scale (summit area) and small-scale patterns (16 plots of 1m²/ summit) were monitored...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Elimination of several plant species, expansion of drought-resistant plants, suppression of the vitality of many mesophytes, constraints in treeline seedling establishment represent pronounced changes of the vegetation structure of Kazbegi region (the Central Caucasus, Georgia) resulted by the recent climate change. It is expected that further clim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant species diversity and species ranges were investigated in two siliceous mountain systems: the Central Alps (Nature Park Texel gruppe, South Tyrol, N-Italy) and in the Central Greater Caucasus (Cross Pass area, Kazbegi region, Georgia). Altitudinal gradients from the treeline ecotone to the upper alpine/subnival and nival zone, respectively, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Georgia is made up of two separate mountain systems: the Greater Caucasus lying between the Black and Caspian Seas; and the Lesser Caucasus, which runs parallel to the greater range. Two thirds of the country's territory (69700km²) is mountainous. One third of it is covered by forests, 70% of which are mountain forests spread from lower montane bel...
Patent
Full-text available
The habitat classification of Georgia is based on the Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats - EUR27. The "Habitats" Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, O.J. L206) is a Community legislative instrument in the field of nature conservation that establishe...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this article is to analyze the current state of habitat conservation strategy and evaluate the conceptual phases of the habitat classification and prioritization activities in Georgia. This information will be used for updating the document - National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP, 2005) elaborated and adopted as a require...
Article
Full-text available
In mountainous regions, climate warming is expected to shift species’ ranges to higher altitudes. Evidence for such shifts is still mostly from revisitations of historical sites. We present recent (2001 to 2008) changes in vascular plant species richness observed in a standardized monitoring network across Europe’s major mountain ranges. Species ha...
Chapter
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The problem of genetic erosion of landraces and their wild relatives needs active contributions by national policies and comprehensive measures are urgently needed to avoid the complete loss of ancient crop genetic resources in Georgia. International nature conservation institutions and Georgian scientific and nongovernmental organizations should s...
Article
Full-text available
Climate impact studies have indicated ecological fingerprints of recent global warming across a wide range of habitats1, 2. Although these studies have shown responses from various local case studies, a coherent large-scale account on temperature-driven changes of biotic communities has been lacking3, 4. Here we use 867 vegetation samples above the...
Article
Full-text available
Detailed morphological investigations of a Platanthera-species, recently reported as new for Sardinia and the second on this island after P. algeriensis, have been carried out in comparison to central, northwest and north European P. bifolia s.l., Caucasian subsp. atropatanica and central European P. chlorantha. The results confirm its affinity to...
Article
Full-text available
Landschaftswandel im Kaukasus Georgiens • Interdisziplinäre Forschung für eine nachhaltigere Zukunft Seit seiner Erklärung der Unabhängigkeit im Jahr 1991 ist Georgien dramatischen Transfor-mationsprozessen ausgesetzt. Diese Prozesse führten zu gesellschaftlichen Veränderun-gen, wie Verarmung gefolgt von Migration, und haben auch Umweltprobleme und...
Article
Full-text available
214 individuals of 26 local, 9 introduced pear cultivars and 3 wild progenitor species of cultivated pear: Pyrus caucasica Fed.; P. balansae Decne. and P. pyraster (L.) Burgsd. have been evaluated by 27 morphological characters. 6 quantitative and 6 qualitative leaf and young shoot and 14 qualitative fruit descriptors have been used in multivariate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main threat to agrobiodiversity in Georgia is the loss of ancient crop varieties. These traditional cultivars which are adapted to local climatic conditions and often disease resistant, have been largely replaced by introduced crops with higher yields. Imported modern agricultural machines that are adapted for the widely distributed, imported c...