Mai Har Sham

Mai Har Sham
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Department of Biochemistry

MPhil, PhD

About

123
Publications
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Introduction
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Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are responsible for muscle homeostasis and regeneration and lncRNAs play important roles in regulating SC activities. Here, in this study, we identify PAM (Pax7 Associated Muscle lncRNA) that is induced in activated/proliferating SCs upon injury to promote SC proliferation as myoblast cells. PAM is generated from a myob...
Preprint
Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are responsible for muscle homeostasis and regeneration; and lncRNAs play important roles in regulating SC activities. Here in this study, we identify PAM-1 (Pax7 Associated Muscle lncRNA) that is induced in activated SCs to promote SC activation into myoblast cells upon injury. PAM-1 is generated from a myoblast specif...
Article
Background & Aims The enteric nervous system (ENS), which regulates many gastrointestinal functions, is derived from neural crest cells (NCCs). Defective NCC migration during embryonic development may lead to enteric neuropathies such as Hirschsprung’s disease (hindgut aganglionosis). Sox10 is known to be essential for cell migration but downstream...
Article
Full-text available
Craniofacial morphogenesis depends on proper migration of neural crest cells and their interactions with placodes and other cell types. Hox genes provide positional information and are important in patterning the neural crest and pharyngeal arches (PAs) for coordinated formation of craniofacial structures. Hox genes are expressed in the surface ect...
Article
Full-text available
For knowledge to benefit research and society, it must be trustworthy. Trustworthy research is robust, rigorous, and transparent at all stages of design, execution, and reporting. Assessment of researchers still rarely includes considerations related to trustworthiness, rigor, and transparency. We have developed the Hong Kong Principles (HKPs) as p...
Article
Full-text available
The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator in the fate determination of a subpopulation of multipotent trunk neural crest (NC) progenitors toward glial cells instead of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, the mechanism by which Sox10 regulates glial cell fate commitment during lineage segregation remains poorly underst...
Article
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Epibranchial placodes are the geniculate, petrosal and nodose placodes which generate parts of cranial nerves VII, IX and X, respectively. How the three spatially separated placodes are derived from the common posterior placodal area is poorly understood. Here, we reveal that the broad posterior placode area is first patterned into a Vgll2+/Irx5+ r...
Article
In 2017, the University of Hong Kong and the University of California San Diego co-hosted the first Asian meeting of the recently formed Asia Pacific Research Integrity (APRI) network in Hong Kong. Aligned with planning meetings in 2015 and 2016 funded in part by the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI), the Hong Kong meeting was designed by a mul...
Article
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Scientists reflect on a year of civil unrest. Writing from Syria, Bolivia, Sudan, Iran, Chile, Ecuador, Lebanon, Venezuela, Hong Kong and Catalonia, correspondents tell of altered priorities, day-to-day challenges and hope in the dark times.
Preprint
Full-text available
The primary goal of research is to advance knowledge. For that knowledge to benefit research and society, it must be trustworthy. Trustworthy research is robust, rigorous and transparent at all stages of design, execution and reporting. Initiatives such as the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA) and the Leiden Manifesto have led...
Article
Full-text available
The channel that governs mechanotransduction (MT) by hair cells in the inner ear has been investigated intensively for 4 decades, but its precise molecular composition remains enigmatic. Transmembrane channel-like protein 1 (TMC1) was recently identified as a component of the MT channel, and lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 5 (LHFPL5) is considered...
Data
Figure S1: quantification of transcript levels for the endogenous and exogenous expression of reprogramming factors in O-iPS and F-iPS cells. qPCR analysis of endogenous (endo) and exogenous (exo) Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc transcript levels. Individual mRNA expression levels were normalized to Gapdh with fold change relative to dermal fibroblasts...
Data
Table S1: list of primers used for genotyping analysis and real-time RT-PCR amplification in this study.
Data
Source data relating to Figure 1—figure supplement 1E.
Data
Source data relating to Figure 6E.
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Source data relating to Figure 6F.
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Source data relating to Figure 6G.
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Source data relating to Figure 7B.
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Source data relating to Figure 7D.
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Source data relating to Figure 7E.
Article
Full-text available
Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchi...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies using defined transcription factors to convert skin fibroblasts into chondrocytes have raised the question of whether osteo-chondroprogenitors expressing SOX9 and RUNX2 could also be generated during the course of the reprogramming process. Here, we demonstrated that doxycycline-inducible expression of reprogramming factors (KLF4 [K]...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall...
Article
Full-text available
Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Sec...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall...
Article
Hirschsprung disease is characterized by a deficit in enteric neurons, which are derived from neural crest cells (NCCs). Aberrant hedgehog signaling disrupts NCC differentiation and might cause Hirschsprung disease. We performed genetic analyses to determine whether hedgehog signaling is involved in pathogenesis. We performed deep-target sequencing...
Article
HOX genes are frequently dysregulated in human leukemia with the gene rearrangement between Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) and partner genes. The resultant MLL fusion proteins are known to mediate leukemia through disruption of the normal epigenetic regulation at the target gene loci. To elucidate the pathogenic role of MLL fusion proteins in HOX dys...
Article
Cardiogenesis requires proper specification, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The differentiation of CPCs to specific cardiac cell types is likely guided by a comprehensive network comprised of cardiac transcription factors and epigenetic complexes. In this review, we describe how the ATP-dependent chromatin re...
Article
Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-e...
Article
Full-text available
Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-e...
Article
The SOX10 transcription factor is a characteristic marker for migratory multipotent neural crest (NC) progenitors as well as several of their differentiated derivatives. The involvement of SOX10 in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease (pigmentation defects, deafness and intestinal aganglionosis) and studies of mutant animal models have contributed sign...
Article
The recent identification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) provides a new paradigm for studying and treating heart disease. To realize the full potential of CPCs for therapeutic purposes, it is essential to understand the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms guiding CPC differentiation into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, or endothelial cells. ATP-de...
Article
Full-text available
ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes alter the structure of chromatin at specific loci and facilitate tissue-specific gene regulation during development. Several SWI/SNF subunits are required for cardiogenesis. However, the function and mechanisms of SWI/SNF in mediating cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) differentiation during cardiogen...
Article
Utilization of endogenous adult spinal cord progenitor cells (SCPCs) for neuronal regeneration is a promising strategy for spinal cord repair. To mobilize endogenous SCPCs for injury repair, it is necessary to understand their intrinsic properties and to identify signaling factors that can stimulate their neurogenic potential. In this study, we dem...
Article
Full-text available
Hirschsprung (HSCR) disease is a complex genetic disorder attributed to a failure of the enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to form ganglia in the hindgut. Hedgehog and Notch are implicated in mediating proliferation and differentiation of ENCCs. Nevertheless, how these signaling molecules may interact to mediate gut colonization by ENCCs and contr...
Article
PDSS2 is a gene that encodes one of the two subunits of trans-prenyl diphosphate synthase that is essential for ubiquinone biosynthesis. It is known that mutations in PDSS2 can cause primary ubiquinone deficiency in humans and a similar disease in mice. Cerebellum is the most often affected organ in ubiquinone deficiency, and cerebellar atrophy has...
Article
The majority of the enteric nervous system is derived from the vagal neural crest, with a second contribution, which is restricted to the post-umbilical gut, originating from the sacral neural crest. In mammals, although sacral neural crest cells (NCCs) have been shown to enter the hindgut, information on their development and role remains scant. O...
Article
Nicotine at a low concentration was suggested as a new topical drug for clinical application. It has been reported to be capable of enhancing skin wound healing. This study was designed to assess the effect of nicotine administration at a low dose on bone regeneration using a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Twenty New Zealand w...
Article
To assess the influence of nicotine on the proliferation and gene expression of osteogenic and angiogenic mediators of osteoblasts. Rabbit primary osteoblasts were exposed to various concentrations of nicotine (0.001, 0.1 and 10 μmol/l). The cell proliferation was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The gene ex...
Article
The spatial regulation of combinatorial expression of Hox genes is critical for determining hindbrain rhombomere (r) identities. To address the cross-regulatory relationship between Hox genes in hindbrain neuronal specification, we have generated a gain-of-function transgenic mouse mutant Hoxb3(Tg) using the Hoxb2 r4-specific enhancer element. Inte...
Article
Enteric neural crest stem cells (eNCSCs) are a pluripotent, migratory cell population that gives rise to the enteric neurons and glia throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Sox10 is a transcription factor required for the maintenance of pluripotency and survival of eNCSCs during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. SOX10 mutations disrupt NCSC...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on nicotine-compromised bone healing. Fifteen adult New Zealand white rabbits were implanted with 1.5-g time-release nicotine pellets. Bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis was then performed. Autologous PRP was injected into 1 side of the distraction regenerate, whereas...
Article
Hoxb3 plays important roles in embryogenesis and it has a complex transcription profile of mRNAs, non-coding RNAs and anti-sense RNAs. Characterization of the spatial expression patterns of these RNAs is important to understand their functions. We investigated the regulation and spatial expression patterns of multiple RNA transcripts derived from t...
Article
Nicotine is the main chemical component responsible for tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nicotine on angiogenesis and osteogenesis and the associated expression of angiogenic and osteogenic mediators during bone healing. Forty-eight adult New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to a nicotine group and a cont...
Article
This study aims to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the gene expression of osteogenic and angiogenic factors in bone regeneration by use of a nicotine-compromised rabbit model of mandibular lengthening. Thirty adult New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to the nicotine group or the control group. The total nicotine or placebo exposu...
Article
Pathological angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer, is a rational target for the treatment of lung cancer which is the most lethal cancer worldwide. In this article we reviewed angiogenesis targets that have potential applications for lung cancer treatment, including endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and molecules in proangiogenic signaling. With an...
Article
The rhombomere 4(r4)-restricted expression of the mouse Hoxb2 gene is regulated by a 1.4-kb enhancer-containing fragment. Here, we showthat transgenic mouse lines expressing cre driven by this fragment (B2-r4-Cre), activated the R26R Cre reporter in rhombomere 4 and the second branchial arch, the epithelium of the first branchial arch, apical ectod...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical signal is important for regulating cellular activities, including proliferation, metabolism, matrix production, and orientation. Bioreactors with loading functions can be used to precondition cells in three-dimensional (3D) constructs so as to study the cellular responses to mechanical stimulation. However, full-scale bioreactor is not a...
Article
The NF-kappaB signalling pathway plays important roles in liver organogenesis and carcinogenesis. Mouse embryos deficient in IKKbeta die in mid-gestation, due to excessive apoptosis of hepatoblasts. Although activation of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, the role of NF-kappaB is controversial...
Article
The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls intestinal peristalsis, and defective development of this system results in hypo/aganglionosis, as seen in Hirschsprung's disease. In the embryo, vagal neural crest cells (NCC) migrate and colonize the intestine rostrocaudally then differentiate into the ganglia of the ENS. Vagal NCC express the homeobox ge...
Article
Enteric neural crest cells (NCC) are multipotent progenitors which give rise to neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system (ENS) during fetal development. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/RET receptor tyrosine kinase (Ret) signaling is indispensable for their survival, migration and differentiation. Using microarray analysis a...
Article
Angiogenesis inhibitors have strong therapeutic potential as antitumor agents in suppressing tumor growth and metastatic progression. Vasostatin, the N-terminal domain of calreticulin, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of vasostatin delivered by recombinant pseudotype adeno-associated virus 2/5 (rAAV...
Article
Prokineticins (Prok-1 and Prok-2) belong to a newly identified AVIT protein family. They are involved in variety of activities in various tissues, including smooth muscle contraction of the gastrointestinal tract and promoting proliferation of endothelial cells derived from adrenal gland. Importantly, they also act as the survival factors to modula...
Article
Hox genes are involved in hematopoietic lineage commitment and differentiation. In this study, we investigated the roles of Hoxb3 in hematopoiesis by examining the phenotypes of a Hoxb3 knockout mutant mouse line. Despite previous reports describing the apparently normal phenotype of these mutant mice, we found that by 6 months of age, Hoxb3(-/-) m...
Article
Full-text available
Rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene with extra eleven nineteen (EEN) was previously identified in an infant with acute myeloid leukaemia. Using homologous recombination, we have created a mouse equivalent of the human MLL-EEN allele and showed that when Mll(Een/+) embryonic stem (ES) cells were induced to differentiate in vitro...
Article
Secretin is a classical gastrointestinal peptide while its neuroactive functions in the central nervous system have recently been consolidated. In the past, there was little information regarding the expression of secretin receptor in prenatal development. In this article, using mouse embryos and by in situ hybridization, secretin receptor transcri...
Article
Full-text available
Lung cancer is the most important lethal neoplasm in the United States and worldwide. There will be an estimated 172,000 new cases of lung cancer in the USA in 2004, 85% of which will lead to death within five years, despite new therapeutic strategies and progresses in surgical oncology. There is no gold-standard therapy and currently used cytotoxi...
Article
Full-text available
The initial enthusiasm for TRAIL as a tumor specific cytotoxic agent, was soon tempered by its demonstrated hepatotoxicity. Here we confirm the therapeutic potential of an AAV2/5 encoded trimerized soluble TRAIL in xenotransplanted A549 human lung cancer. However, in contrast to the other forms of TRAIL, the AAV2/5 encoded sTRAIL114–281 lacks hepat...
Article
The neural and glial cells of the intrinsic ganglia of the enteric nervous system (ENS) are derived from the hindbrain neural crest at the vagal level. The Hoxb3 gene is expressed in the vagal neural crest and in the enteric ganglia of the developing gut during embryogenesis. We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element b3IIIa in the Hoxb3 gene...
Article
Full-text available
Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2/5 (rAAV2/5), a hybrid rAAV-2 with AAV-5 capsid, seems to be a very efficient delivery vector for the transduction of the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Infection of the A549 cell line with a rAAV2/5 vector encoding the extracellular domain of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, a...