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Maheshwar Dhakal

Maheshwar Dhakal
Ministry of Forests and Environment, Nepal

PhD

About

106
Publications
88,667
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Introduction
Maheshwar Dhakal currently working at the Climate Change Management Division, Ministry of Forests and Environment, Nepal.
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - June 2021
Ministry of Forests and Environment, Nepal
Position
  • Joint Secretary

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Dragon fruit is an emerging fruit in Nepal. The covered area of this fruit has been expanding during the last few years. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is the easiest and cheapest method for large-scale propagation to produce genetically identical plants. Synthetic rooting hormones have proven to be effective, but their high cost limit...
Article
Full-text available
Although research on wildlife species across taxa has shown that males and females may differentially select habitat, sex-specific habitat suitability models for endangered species are uncommon. We developed sex-specific models for Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris) based on camera trapping data collected from 20 January to 22 March 2010 within Chitwa...
Article
Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the most popular and demanded vegetable in Nepal. Seedlings of seven genotypes of squash gourd; Super Squash Ball, Squash Long, Squash Light, Squash Green Ball, Squash Green House Sondo V (check) and Grey Zucchini (check) were transplanted on second week of March in two consecutive years; 2016 and 2017 in fiel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Horticulture is one of the important sub-sectors of agriculture in Nepal to reduce the poverty and increase income. It contributes 38.59% to AGDP, of which 21% contribution is coming from vegetables. The recent area, production and productivity show a rising trend. Over the last 20 years area has increased by about 98% and production by about 194%....
Article
Wildlife is used for a range of purposes such as food, healthcare and ornamentation. Most wildlife trade is legal, contributing to livelihood and income generation for many people including some of the world’s poorest. However, the part of wildlife harvesting and trade occurring outside the laws is considered the biggest threat to conservation afte...
Article
Full-text available
Nepal Himalayas combine Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic realms as well as those of the eastern and western Himalayas. Physiography coupled with the diverse local climates has enriched the biodiversity of the Nepal Himalayas. The order Chiroptera constitutes more than 25% of the mammalian fauna and forms the most speciose group of mammals i...
Article
Full-text available
We provide the first evidence of an apparent decline in optimal temperature for methane emissions with increasing elevation. These findings have been widely recognized as the most fundamental factor among the variables regulating methane emissions from wetlands, as it involves both production and oxidation processes of methane dynamics. We selecte...
Article
Full-text available
The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is known to occur in the Terai region since at least the late 1920s. Contemporary locality records of the Fishing Cat in this region are widely spaced, and the knowledge about the connectivity between these localities is still deficient. We present the first photographic evidence for the presence of the Fishi...
Article
Full-text available
Better conservation planning requires updated information about leopard distribution to prioritize and allocate limited resources available. The long-term persistence of leopards and sympatric tigers can be compromised by linear infrastructure development such as roads that fragment habitat. We used detection and non-detection data collected along...
Preprint
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A global pledge to double wild Tiger populations by 2022 has focused attention on the need for effective conservation management. Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) was established to identify good management standards for Tigers and promote these within Tiger conservation areas (TCAs). The study reported here assessed TCA management ag...
Article
Full-text available
There is always a conflict of interest between conservation efforts and communities living near conservation areas. Buffer zones and opportunities for ecotourism are sometimes created to lessen the negative impact of the stringent rules involved in conservation which directly impacts the livelihoods of neighbouring communities. This paper examines...
Article
Full-text available
Pangolins are highly-threatened due to illegal hunting and poaching, and by the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of their habitats. In Nepal, effective conservation actions for pangolins are scarce due to limited information on the distribution of pangolins in many areas of the country. To identify the nationwide distribution of pangolins in Ne...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we determined the probability of predator attacks on livestock around Bardia National Park, Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews to explore the patterns and factors affecting livestock losses in four administrative sectors of the Park's buffer zone. We developed models to investigate the overall probability of livestock loss...
Research
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The phylogenetic clustering of the identified H9 segment to that of other prevalent AIV isolated from wild and domestic birds of mixed geographical origin suggest a possible role of migratory birds in worldwide viral spread.
Research
Full-text available
The phylogenetic clustering of the identified H9 segment to that of other prevalent AIV isolated from wild and domestic birds of mixed geographical origin suggest a possible role of migratory birds in worldwide viral spread
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the dietary habits of sympatric apex carnivores advances our knowledge of ecological processes and aids their conservation. We compared the diets of the sympatric Snow Leopard Panthera uncia and Grey Wolf Canis lupus using standard microhistological analyses of scats collected from the western complex of Nepal Himalaya. Our study reve...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the factors facilitating co-occurrence of two large carnivores, tigers (Panthera tigris) and common leopards (Panthera pardus), within a human-dominated landscape. We estimated their density and population size using camera-trap photographs and examined spatial segregation of habitats, temporal activity pattern, and diets in Chitwan...
Article
Full-text available
Leopards are known to prey on livestock throughout their range. Depredation of livestock makes leopards vulnerable to retaliatory killings and reduces public support for conservation. We examined spatiotemporal patterns, correlates, as well as economic losses and compensation paid for livestock depredation by leopards in buffer zone of Chitwan Nati...
Article
Translocations are an important tool for the conservation of biodiversity, but although ecological feasibility studies are frequently conducted prior to implementation, social feasibility studies that consider how local communities perceive such projects are less common. The translocation of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur to Sagarmatha National Park, N...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate with infrastructure development being one of the leading causes. New infrastructure, such as roads, provides new access and results in increased land clearing and wildlife hunting. A number of large infrastructure projects, including new roads and rail, are being planned in Nepal. We show the appli...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate with infrastructure development being one of the leading causes. New infrastructure, such as roads, provides new access and results in increased land clearing and wildlife hunting. A number of large infrastructure projects, including new roads and rail, are being planned in Nepal. We show the appli...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the diet and prey preferences of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758) in Bardia National Park, Nepal using DNA-based techniques from their scat samples. Remains of prey species in scats were identified through microscopic hair morphology analysis. Of 101 scats, DNA was extracted from 84 samples and 75 were assigned to tigers (3...
Poster
Full-text available
Ganges River dolphin (Plantanista gangetica gangetica) is an indicator of fresh clean water and mainly found within the low land eco-system of Nepal (WWF, 2006). The large rivers: Karnali, Koshi and Narayani basin are the uppermost habitat for Endangered Ganges River dolphin (GRD). GRD have been registered as CE in Nepal (Jnawali et. al., 2011). Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) are globally threatened. Recent surveys suggest further decline of their populations throughout their range. In Nepal, their status is poorly known. However, due to increasing intensity of camera trap surveys, fishing cats were recorded in different protected areas in recent years. In Bardia National Park BNP...
Article
Full-text available
Fishing cats Prionailurus viverrinus are globally threatened. Recent surveys suggest further decline of their populations throughout their range. In Nepal, their status is poorly known. However, due to increasing intensity of camera trap surveys, fishing cats were recorded in different protected areas in recent years. In Bardia National Park BNP of...
Book
Full-text available
This books covered 25 areas of biodiversity conservation in Nepal. This books consists of all areas of biodiversity conservation of Nepal since the incpetion of the CBD convention.
Book
Full-text available
Effective management of the wildlife stockpiles is important to reduce the risk of leakage of contraband to illegal markets. The management of wildlife stockpiles involves a chain of systematized processes that should ensure that such information is not lost, and the destruction of the stockpiles is followed by post-destruction activities. This boo...
Article
Full-text available
We undertook field surveys of the critically endangered Bengal Florican throughout its range in India and Nepal and used the results to develop models of distribution to identify new populations. We also tagged 11 birds with satellite transmitters to assess their distribution and habitat use during the non-breeding season, about which nothing is kn...
Article
Full-text available
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project,...
Data
Thermo-cycling conditions for tiger species and sex identification PCR. PCR: polymerase chain reaction; min: minute; sec: second; “x” indicates times; F: forward; R: reverse. (DOC)
Data
Summary results from analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) for tigers detected across three populations across the Terai Arc Landscape implemented in program ARLEQUIN 3.5 [53]. df = degree of freedom, P value (α = 0.05). (DOC)
Data
STRUCTURE bar plot at k = 2 (top) and k = 4 (bottom) visualizing individual-based genetic differentiation in tigers across the Terai landscape, Nepal. (TIF)
Data
Optimal number of genetic clusters (kmax) based on DIC (Deviance Information Criteria) for admixture models (CAR and BYM). Both models selected three genetic clusters across the landscape. Error bars represent standard deviations. (TIF)
Data
Primers information for tiger specific species and sex identification. bp: base pair; F: forward; R: reverse. (DOC)
Data
Summary of pair-wise migration rate (immigration and emigration) between three populations estimated in Program BayesAss+[70]. Net migration rates (immigration-emigration) were estimated as 0.02 for CNP, -0.08 for SWR, and +0.10 for BNP; “+” indicate migrant receiving from other population; “-” indicate contributing migrant to other population. (DO...
Data
Results from program Bottleneck showing the expected and actual numbers of loci with heterozygosity excess under the respective mutation models, and significance of heterozygosity excess. IAM: Infinite Allele Model; TPM: Two-Phase Mutation Model; SMM: Stepwise-Mutation Model. Assuming any mutation model, a Wilcoxon test results with P<0.05 signifie...
Data
Century-wide land-use change detected in the Terai Arc using Anthrome 2.0 datasets[36]. (TIF)
Data
Spatial autocorrelogram for Panthera tigris tigris in the Terai Arc Landscape, Nepal. The spatial correlogram for tigers (n = 78) shows the genetic correlation coefficient (r) as a function of geographic distance across defined spatial distance classes. Dashed red lines represent upper (U) and lower (L) bounds of the null hypothesis based on 9,999...
Data
Genetic variability of 17 candidate microsatellite loci screened and “*” indicates loci used in this study. NA, number of alleles; Ho, observed heterozygosity. (DOC)
Data
Magnitude of ∆k± SD (rate of change in the log probability of k; SD: standard deviation) and Ln P(k) ± SD (posterior probability of the data; SD: standard deviation) as a function of k(number of sub-populations) detected three and four genetic clusters in the sampled population following [60]. (TIF)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite local, national, and global efforts to mitigate undesirable ecosystem change, anthropogenic impacts on Earth’s systems are intensifying. However, the understanding of coupling of ecological and social sciences is limited. Focusing on Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR) of Nepal, we assessed biophysical, socio-cultural and economic values to...
Article
Full-text available
Information on density and abundance of globally threatened species such as tigers Panthera tigris is essential for effective conservation as well as to evaluate the success of conservation programmes. We monitored tigers in Parsa Widlife Reserve, Nepal, using camera traps, in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Once believed to be a sink for tigers from adjacent...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how wide-ranging animals use landscapes in which human use is highly heterogeneous is important for determining patterns of human–wildlife conflict and designing mitigation strategies. Here, we show how biological sign surveys in forested components of a human-dominated landscape can be combined with human interviews in agricultural p...
Article
Full-text available
In Nepal, the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) occurs across the Middle Hills but not in the lowland Terai of Nepal, which is occupied by the sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus ). A single record exists, from a camera trapping survey in 1999 - 2000, of a Himalayan black bear in the Babai Valley (along the Babai River) of Bardia National Park (Jnawa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The snow leopard and ecosystem management plan for the Eastern Himalaya Landscape Nepal is prepared in response to the Bishkek declaration (2013) to secure 20 snow leopard landscapes by 2020. The management plan process involved extensive consultation and in-depth analyses of the current bio-climatic and socio-economic situation; an assessment of f...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal) to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including 13 that killed humans, six serial livestock killers a...
Article
Full-text available
The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispers...
Article
Full-text available
Human–tiger conflict arises when tigers Panthera tigris attack people or their livestock, and poses a significant threat to both tigers and people. To gain a greater understanding of such conflict we examined spatio-temporal patterns, correlates, causes and contexts of conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and its buffer zone, during 2007–2014....
Article
Global populations of rhinoceros have declined alarmingly, from about 500,000 at the beginning of the 20(th) century to 29,000 in 2016, largely due to an escalation of poaching for rhinoceros horn (Traffic 2016; Biggs et al. 2013). The current global rhino population is comprised of three Asian Species and two African species, the latter located in...
Article
Full-text available
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) are highly endangered apex predators. These charismatic animals are categorized as flagship and umbrella species, and hence are the focus of many conservation programs. Protecting tiger and snow leopard also safeguards the entire habitat in which they reside, including...
Article
Full-text available
Rusty-spotted cat Prionailurus rubiginosus is the smallest wild cat, believed to be distributed only in India and Sri Lanka. Recently it was discovered from wider areas than previously thought but never recorded from Nepal. During a camera trap survey primarily targeted for tigers Panthera tigris, rusty-spotted cat was photographed multiple times o...
Book
Full-text available