Magnus Unemo

Magnus Unemo
Örebro University Hospital | USÖ · Department of Laboratory Medicine

About

542
Publications
83,090
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20,349
Citations
Citations since 2017
203 Research Items
13831 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500

Publications

Publications (542)
Article
Full-text available
We report a ceftriaxone-resistant, multidrug-resistant urogenital gonorrhoea case in a heterosexual woman in France, June 2022. The woman was successfully treated with azithromycin 2 g. She had unprotected sex with her regular partner, who developed urethritis following travel to Vietnam and Switzerland. Whole genome sequencing of the gonococcal is...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are common and incidence increasing. Oropharyngeal infections are associated with greater treatment failure compared with other sites and drive transmission to anogenital sites through saliva. Gonococcal resistance is increasing and new treatments are scarce, therefore, clinicians must optimise current...
Article
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The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is seriously threatening the treatment and control of gonorrhea globally. Novel treatment options are essential, coupled with appropriate methods to pharmacodynamically examine the efficacy and resistance emergence of these novel drugs. Herein, we used our dynamic in vitr...
Article
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Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global threat and novel treatment alternatives are imperative. Herein, susceptibility to the novel antimicrobial zoliflodacin, currently in a global Phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial for gonorrhoea treatment, was investigated by screening for zoliflodacin GyrB targ...
Article
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The high global incidence of gonorrhea, the lack of a protective vaccine, and the emergence of N. gonorrhoeae strains expressing resistance to currently used antibiotics demand that new treatment options be developed. Accordingly, we investigated whether corallopyronin A, an antibiotic which is effective against other pathogens, including C. tracho...
Preprint
Objectives Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). We determined the cost-effectiveness of testing strategies for MG using a healthcare provider perspective. Methods We used inputs from a dynamic transmission model of MG among MSM living in Australia in a decision tree model to evaluate the impact of f...
Article
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Extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (XDR-NG) strains with resistance to the last remaining first-line treatments (ceftriaxone monotherapy or combined with azithromycin) represent the emerging threat of untreatable gonorrhea. We present the complete reference genome sequence of the XDR-NG strain AT159, with ceftriaxone and high-level az...
Article
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Objectives To investigate how differential access to key interventions to reduce STIs, HIV and their sequelae changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods British participants (18–59 years) completed a cross-sectional web survey 1 year (March–April 2021) after the initial lockdown in Britain. Quota-based sampling and weighting resulted in a quasi...
Article
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Objectives To (i) describe the nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) isolates cultured across Brazil in 2018–20 and compare it with NG antimicrobial resistance data from 2015–16, and (ii) present epidemiological data of the corresponding gonorrhoea patients in 2018–20. Methods Twelve representative sentinel sites cu...
Article
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Objectives Antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a poorly surveyed and controlled global health concern. We evaluated the first commercial dual resistance assay, AmpliSens M. genitalium -ML/FQ-Resist-FL assay, for detection of potential macrolide and quinolone resistance-associated mutations (MRAMs and QRAMs, respectively) and e...
Article
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We describe a gonorrhoea case with ceftriaxone plus high-level azithromycin resistance. In April 2022, an Austrian heterosexual male was diagnosed with gonorrhoea after sexual intercourse with a female sex worker in Cambodia. Recommended treatment with ceftriaxone (1 g) plus azithromycin (1.5 g) possibly failed. Worryingly, this is the second strai...
Conference Paper
Introduction Use of condoms to prevent STIs/HIV and unplanned pregnancy remains important during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is unknown whether the pandemic affected condom access and which population groups were most impacted. Methods 6658 participants (18-59y) completed a cross-sectional web survey one-year after the initial British lockd...
Conference Paper
Introduction Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, STIs disproportionately affected some Black communities. We examined ethnic inequalities in sexual health during the pandemic. Methods Analyses were restricted to England residents aged 18–59. We included 5,240 sexually-experienced participants from Natsal-COVID survey Wave 2 (quasi-representative web p...
Article
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Background: The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) performs annual sentinel surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to therapeutically relevant antimicrobials across the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). We present the Euro-GASP results from 2019 (26 countries), linked to patient epidemi...
Article
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Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a substantial global public health problem. Gonococcal infections acquired in or from Asia represent most verified ceftriaxone treatment failures, and several ceftriaxone-resistant strains have emerged in Asia and subsequently spread globally. Additionally, in Thailand the gono...
Article
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Background: This study aimed to investigate what impact the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions had on Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, countries with very different governmental strategies for handling this pandemic. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data collected via requ...
Preprint
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Objectives To investigate how differential access to key interventions to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STI), HIV, and their sequelae changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods British participants (18-59y) completed a cross-sectional web survey one year (March to April 2021) after the initial lockdown in Britain. Quota-based sampling...
Article
Full-text available
Because cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonorrhoea treatment failures were increasing, a response plan to control and manage multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (MDR-NG) in Europe was published in 2012. The three main areas of the plan were to: (i) strengthen surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) imple...
Article
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Background Genomic surveillance using quality-assured whole-genome sequencing (WGS) together with epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data is essential to characterise the circulating Neisseria gonorrhoeae lineages and their association to patient groups (defined by demographic and epidemiological factors). In 2013, the European gono...
Article
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The continued emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates which are resistant to first-line antibiotics has reinvigorated interest in alternative therapies such as expanded use of gentamicin (Gen). We hypothesized that expanded use of Gen promotes emergence of gonococci with clinical resistance to this aminoglycoside. To understand how decreased su...
Article
Full-text available
Novel antimicrobials for effective treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea are essential, and the first-in-class, oral spiropyrimidinetrione DNA gyrase B inhibitor zoliflodacin appears promising. Using our newly developed Hollow Fiber Infection Model (HFIM), the pharmacodynamics of zoliflodacin was examined. A clinical zoliflodacin-susceptible N. gono...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Azithromycin is commonly used to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We compared its gastrointestinal side effects using 1 g single, 2 g single or 2 g split (i.e. 1 g plus 1 g 6–12 h later) dosing, representing our clinic’s changing guidelines over the study period. Methods We recruited consecutive sexual health clinic patients who received az...
Article
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common cause of nongonococcal cervicitis and urethritis. We investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients tested in Denmark with the Conformité Européenne (CE)/in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic) and examined the clinical significance of the high...
Article
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We report the frequent appearance of a novel SNP in the gdhR gene ( gdhR6 ) possessed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae . The resulting amino acid change in the GdhR protein resulted in enhanced expression of a virulence gene ( lctP ) that has been suggested to promote gonococcal survival during infection.
Article
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Mycoplasma genitalium infection contributes to 10-35% of non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium is associated with cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in 10-25%. Transmission of M. genitalium occurs through direct mucosal contact. Clinical features and diagnostic tests: Asymptomatic infections are fr...
Article
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The increasing transmission and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global health concern with worrying trends of decreasing susceptibility to also the last-line extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) ceftriaxone. A dramatic increase of reported gonorrhea cases has been observed in Sweden from 2016 and onward. The aim of the...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has affected sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service use and unmet need, but the impact is unknown. We aimed to determine the proportion of participants reporting sexual risk behaviours, SRH service use and unmet need, and to assess remote sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing service use after the first...
Article
The article presents the results of a clinical study conducted in 2018 and 2020 to determine the antibiotic resistance indicators for N. gonorrhoea strains in Belarus. One hundred and fourteen (114) cultures of N. gonorrhoeae from Mogilev were included in the works: thirty six (36) cultures were isolated from patients in 2017, nineteen (19) in 2018...
Article
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Introduction: Several nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), mostly real-time PCRs, to detect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and predict AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are promising, and some may be ready to apply at the point-of-care (POC), but important limitations remain with most NAATs. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can overcom...
Article
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Syphilis, which is caused by the sexually transmitted bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, has an estimated 6.3 million cases worldwide per annum. In the past ten years, the incidence of syphilis has increased by more than 150% in some high-income countries, but the evolution and epidemiology of the epidemic are poorly understood. To chara...
Article
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Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic gonorrhoea prevalence assessments in the general population or proxies thereof (including pregnant women, women attending family planning clinics, military recruits, and men undergoing employment physicals for example) and in population groups at increased risk, including men-who-ha...
Article
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Background: Gentamicin has been used for the treatment of gonorrhea in Malawi since 1993. However, declining clinical cure rates have been suspected. We evaluated current Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to gentamicin in vitro and clinically. Methods: Men with acute urethritis were recruited at the Bwaila District Hospital STI Clinic in Lilo...
Article
Background Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major health concerns globally. Increased global surveillance of gonococcal AMR is essential. We aimed to describe the 2017–18 data from WHO's global gonococcal AMR surveillance, and to discuss priorities essential for the effective management and control of gonor...
Article
Full-text available
Saarentausta K, Ivarsson L, Jacobsson S, Herrmann B, Sundqvist M, Unemo M. Potential impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the incidence, epidemiology and diagnostic testing of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Sweden, 2020 The COVID‐19 pandemic has challenged the societies and health care systems globally, and resulted in many social and physical distancin...
Article
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Objectives To quantitatively determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethral discharge in Jamaica and to describe the syndromic treatment therapies administered. Methods Urethral eSwabs (Copan) were collected from 175 men presenting with urethral discharge to the Comprehensive Health Cen...
Article
Objectives A Finnish Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) new variant was detected in 2019 that escaped detection in the Hologic Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) assay due to a C1515T mutation in the CT 23S rRNA target region. Reflex testing of CT-negative/CT-equivocal specimens as well as those positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) with the Hologic Aptima CT (ACT) as...
Article
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Azithromycin-nonsusceptible Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains are an emerging global public health threat. During 2015-2018, the prevalence of azithromycin-nonsusceptible gonococcal infection increased significantly in Argentina. To investigate the genomic epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of these strains, we sequenced 96 nonsusceptible isolates...
Article
Full-text available
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological agent of gonorrhea, the second most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Reproductive sequelae of gonorrhea include infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Most antibiotics currently in clinical use have been rendered ineffective due to the rapid spread of antimicrobial...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are significant public health concerns globally. Nearly no gonococcal AMR data are available from Central Asia, and no data from Kyrgyzstan has been published. We examined, for the first time, AMR and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in Kyrgy...
Article
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Background Limited antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available in Eastern Europe. We investigated AMR in N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the Republic of Belarus from 2009 to 2019, antimicrobial treatment recommended nationally, and treatment given to patients with gonorrhoea. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates ( n = 522) cu...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is threatening the treatment and control of gonorrhea globally, and new treatment options are imperative. Utilizing our dynamic in vitro hollow fiber infection model (HFIM), we examined the pharmacodynamics of the first-in-class spiropyrimidinetrione (DNA gyrase B inhibitors), zoliflodacin, against...
Article
Full-text available
Background Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent threat to public health, as strains resistant to at least one of the two last-line antibiotics used in empiric therapy of gonorrhoea, ceftriaxone and azithromycin, have spread internationally. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data can be used to identify new AMR clones and tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The last two decades have seen syphilis incidence rise in many high-income countries, yet the evolutionary and epidemiological relationships that underpin this are poorly understood, as is the global T. pallidum population structu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, nationally and internationally, is a serious threat to the management and control of gonorrhoea. Limited and conflicting data regarding the epidemiological drivers of gonococcal AMR internationally have been published. We examined the antimicrobial sus...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a rising rate of antimicrobial resistance. Currently, guidelines do not recommend screening asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM). We developed a mathematical model of MG transmission to examine the impact of various screening strategies on the incidence...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Novel antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhoea are imperative. The first-in-class spiropyrimidinetrione zoliflodacin is promising and currently in an international Phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. We evaluated the in vitro activity of and the genetic conservation of the tar...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, Chlamydia trachomatis in attendees recruited prospectively from October 2018 to January 2019 at the only sexually transmitted infections clinic in Iceland (in Reykjavík), and to evaluate the cobas 4800 CT/NG Test and Aptima Combo 2 Assay for C. trachomatis detection in m...
Article
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Objectives Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, supported by molecular typing, ideally through genome sequencing, is imperative. We defined N. gonorrhoeae Sequence Typing for Antimicrobial Resistance (NG-STAR) clonal complexes (CCs) and validated their usefulness in gonococcal AMR surveillance. Methods All NG-ST...
Article
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Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of invasive neonatal disease in the industrialized world. We aimed to genomically and phenotypically characterise invasive GBS isolates in Slovenia from 2001 to 2018 and contemporary colonising GBS isolates from screening cultures in 2018. Methods GBS isolates from 101 patients (invasive...
Article
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Mycoplasma genitalium has developed resistance to first-line azithromycin and second-line moxifloxacin. Third-line pristinamycin is only 75% effective. Gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene topoisomerase II inhibitor, blocks bacterial DNA replication. We determined the in vitro activity of gepotidacin alone and in combination with doxycycline a...
Article
Full-text available
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease that increases in incidence, particularly in more developed countries worldwide. LGV is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars/genovars L1-3, including their subvariants, and in Europe mostly affects men who have sex with men (MSM). It can be asymptomatic but has now emerged as a fr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae NG-MAST genogroup G1407, associated with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone resistance, has declined in Europe and it switched from circulating predominantly in men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2009–2010 to heterosexuals in 2013. We hypothesise that c...
Article
Introduction Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes frequently asymptomatic STIs. MG prevalence figures are lacking and management is complicated by the lack of etiological diagnostics and high antimicrobial resistance in many countries. Appropriately validated, quality-assured, and FDA-approved MG diagnostic assays have been lacking. Areas covered The...
Article
The 2020 edition of the European guideline on the management of syphilis is an update of the 2014 edition. Main modifications and updates include: • ‐ The ongoing epidemics of early syphilis in Europe, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM) • ‐ The development of dual treponemal and non‐treponemal point‐of‐care (POC) tests • ‐ The progres...
Article
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Background Emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR) challenges gonorrhoea treatment and requires surveillance. Aim This observational study describes the genetic diversity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Germany from 2014 to 2017 and identifies N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) genogroups associated with AMR or some patien...
Article
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Background: Accurate molecular assays for prediction of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)/susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) can offer individualized treatment of gonorrhoea and enhanced AMR surveillance. Objectives: We evaluated the new ResistancePlus® GC assay and the GC 23S 2611 (beta) assay (SpeeDx), for prediction of resistance/susce...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is a need for a rapid diagnostic point of care test to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection to prevent incorrect, lack or excess of treatment resulting from current syndromic management in low-resource settings. An assay to identify NG antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is also highly desirable to facilitate antibiotic steward...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae , including to first-line treatment options, is a great concern worldwide. However, very limited gonococcal AMR data are available in Eastern Europe. We investigated the AMR in N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n=522) cultured in three regions of the Republic of Belarus, 2009-201...
Article
Full-text available
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent public health threat due to rapidly increasing incidence and antibiotic resistance. In contrast with the trend of increasing resistance, clinical isolates that have reverted to susceptibility regularly appear, prompting questions about which pressures compete with antibiotics to shape gonococcal evolution. Here, w...
Article
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Objectives: Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is imperative internationally, but only eight (22.9%) countries in the WHO Region of the Americas reported complete AMR data to the WHO Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (WHO GASP) in 2016. Genomic studies are ideal for enhanced understanding of gonoco...
Article
Background Increasing multi-drug resistance rates in Neisseria gonorrhoeae have raised concerns and an urgent call for new antibiotics for treatment of gonorrhoea. Several decades of subdued drug development in this field and the recent failures of two new antibiotics to show non-inferiority compared to the current first-line antibiotics ceftriaxon...
Article
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Background: The rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae may result in untreatable gonorrhoea in certain circumstances and development of novel antimicrobials is urgently needed. Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro activity of a novel small-molecule antimicrobial with a new mechanism of action, DIS-73285, against a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent threat to public health, as strains resistant to at least one of the two last line antibiotics used in empiric therapy of gonorrhoea, ceftriaxone and azithromycin, have spread internationally. With new treatment options not yet available, this has prompted a call for collab...