Maggie Kirkman

Maggie Kirkman
Monash University (Australia) · Jean Hailes Research Unit

PhD

About

117
Publications
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
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Objective: the COVID-19 pandemic has incurred psychological risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). We established a Victorian HCW cohort (the Coronavirus in Victorian Healthcare and Aged-Care Workers (COVIC-HA) cohort study) to examine COVID-19 impacts on HCWs and assess organisational responses over time. Methods: mixed-methods cohort study, with...
Article
The aim of this study was to gauge the opinions of people in Australia about policies to help them recover from the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions. An anonymous online survey of people aged 18 years and older in Australia was available from 1 July to 31 August 2020. It included 16 proposed policies which responden...
Article
This article reveals the trajectory of parliamentary debate on sex crimes over forty years in Victoria, Australia. We aimed to identify what might have led Parliament to support the introduction of restorative justice as an option for some sex crimes. We searched parliamentary records from 1976 to 2016 for debates on law reform for sex crimes that...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic, and the restrictions required to halt spread of the infection, are associated with increased population burden of moderate to severe symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim was to quantify the mental health burden of the most severe COVID-19 related restrictions. Methods A natural experiment in which differenc...
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Optimal mental health underpins full social participation. As people age, they confront personal and cultural challenges, the effects of which on mental health are not fully understood. The aim of this research was to learn from women of the Baby Boomer generation (born 1946–1964) what contributes to and hinders their mental health and wellbeing. E...
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Objectives To identify sex and age differences in clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety and the factors associated with these differences among adults in Australia during COVID-19-related restrictions. Design Anonymous online survey. Setting Australia. Participants Adults aged over 18 years living in Australia were eligible a...
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Objectives To estimate the population prevalence of clinically significant symptoms of depression, generalised anxiety, thoughts of being better off dead, irritability, and high optimism about the future, and of direct experience of COVID‐19, loss of employment caused by COVID‐19 restrictions, worry about contracting COVID‐19, or major disadvantage...
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Background: We aimed to estimate the population prevalence of people with changes in their usual patterns of alcohol use during the early stages of the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia; assess the association between mental health status and changes in alcohol use during the pandemic; and examine if the associati...
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In Australia and many countries, pornography offers omnipresent, stimulating, easily accessible sexual content; it is an increasing contributor to social meaning-making in women’s sexual lives, including their relationships. Previous research tended to focus on adverse outcomes without considering how women might experience pornography’s interactio...
Article
Although filicide is discussed with concern in the print media and online in Malaysia, there is little empirical evidence about its aetiology or appropriate responses. We sought to elucidate the opinions of health, social work, education and policy professionals in Malaysia on the causes of, and solutions to, filicide. Fifteen informants participat...
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Background: To examine the acceptability of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) that assesses perceptions and experiences of implants for breast reconstruction or augmentation, and the feasibility of implementing it in the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR). Methods: The BREAST-Q Implant Surveillance (BREAST-Q IS) is a 5-question PRO...
Article
Background: Optimal fertility management enables women and men to avoid and achieve conception and parenthood when desired. A lack of knowledge about sexual, reproductive and fertility matters may impede a person’s ability to manage their fertility effectively. Little is known about current gaps in fertility knowledge among Australians. Purpose: To...
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Restorative justice as a response to sexual violence continues to be subject to significant criticism. To assess the evidence, we sought to appraise and synthesize evaluations of restorative justice programs for sexual and family violence offences by conducting a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. However, our rigorous search identified...
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Previous research in Victoria, Australia, found differences in prostate cancer outcomes in regional and metropolitan areas. This investigation of undiagnosed men in regional areas and a metropolitan area of South Australia sought their perspectives on prostate cancer. Our aim was to learn whether men who had not been diagnosed could shed light on w...
Article
Understanding how young women experience pornography is a modern imperative in promoting sexual health. There has been, until now, no Australian research exploring what pornography means to women in relation to sexual pleasure. We conducted in-depth interviews with 27 women from around Australia. A thematic analysis of their accounts, supported by...
Article
Female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) is increasingly popular. Medical organisations report concern about adverse outcomes and inadequate clinical indications. Given the Internet’s role in health decisions, we aimed to discover what was being communicated about FGCS on Australian provider websites. Thematic analysis of 31 prominent websites identi...
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‘Pornography’ is a protean term, rendered more complex by the digital age. Social science researchers need not only a useful definition but also awareness of how the term is applied (by researchers and research participants) and clarity about the scope of material to be included. As part of our attempts to understand the meaning of ‘pornography’, w...
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Although filicide is of serious concern, it is poorly understood in Malaysia. Our interviews with health and policy professionals revealed that they attribute responsibility for filicide to women’s failure to comply with social norms and religious teachings. This research sought to understand the meaning of and background to filicide from the persp...
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Endometriosis is currently poorly understood by the medical sciences; contemporary healthcare has been evidenced as failing to meet the diverse needs of the women who live with the condition. This study examined women’s experiences of navigating knowledge and power within medical encounters for endometriosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with...
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Objectives To summarise and evaluate evidence from men who had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer about their perspectives on prostate care and prostate cancer. Design A systematic review of qualitative research, on the perspectives of non-cancerous men regarding prostate cancer prevention and care. Setting A wide range of settings including...
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Endometriosis, a common disease characterised as a “gynaecological disorder” in the medical literature, has attracted the attention of feminist scholars as a metaphorical meeting point for gender, knowledge and power. Based on interviews conducted with general practitioners and gynaecologists, we examined the language clinicians use to construct Me...
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Purpose: To examine the fertility experiences of women reporting and not reporting endometriosis in a population-based survey. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey among a community sample of 1543 women in Australia. Data were analysed to compare fertility management between women who did and did not report endometriosis. Factors associa...
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Vulva-positive websites, a sub-type of body-positive sites, reveal women’s discursive, affective, and pragmatic responses to ideals of “normal” and “beautiful” female genitalia. Body-positive sites have been positioned by critical feminist and Foucauldian theorists as facilitating women’s self-surveillance and regulation. To understand how women re...
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Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are usually told that the condition is associated with fertility difficulties. However, little is known about their fertility management including contraceptive use, childbearing desires, and pregnancy outcomes. Aim: To compare the fertility management experiences and outcomes of Australian wo...
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Introduction Despite the considerable and increasing proportion of women of reproductive age with a chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and the potential adverse implications of many NCDs for childbearing, little is known about the fertility management experiences of women with an NCD, including their contraceptive use, pregnancy experiences and...
Article
Objectives: To ascertain the trajectories of mental health among women in Australia assessed in repeat waves from their early 70 s to the end of their lives or their mid 80 s. Method: Secondary analysis of data contributed by the 1921–26 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health Waves 1–6. Primary outcome was the 4-item SF-36 Vi...
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Background The experiences of and reflections on interpersonal violence and victimisation among adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries are poorly understood. The aim was to describe Vietnamese adolescents’ reflections on their experiences of victimisation. Method A self-completed, cross-sectional survey investigating exposure to vi...
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Background The Victorian Prostate Cancer Registry (Australia) revealed poorer rates of survival for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in one Victorian regional area than for men in metropolitan Melbourne. We sought to explore the perceptions and experiences of prostate cancer diagnosis, treatment, and care of men diagnosed with prostate cancer who...
Article
Given the proliferation of pornography in personal, relational, and social realms, it is vital to understand women’s experiences of this accessible, stimulating, and versatile sexual material. We therefore conducted the first systematic review of research using qualitative methods published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Our search of five d...
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Background There are few reliable Australian abortion data. The aim was to investigate prevalence, sexual experiences and socioeconomic characteristics of women and men who report having had or being a partner in an abortion. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of women and men aged 18-50 years randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll w...
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Little is known about filicide from the perspective of women convicted of the offence. The lack of research is partly attributable to the many difficulties entailed in researching socially marginalised and incarcerated people. Research on filicide engages with socially, culturally, and politically sensitive matters, including gendered social struct...
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Objective: Unintended pregnancy and abortion may, in part, result from suboptimal use of effective contraception. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors associated with the use of effective and less effective methods among women and men of reproductive age living in Australia. Methods: In a cross-sectional national survey, 1544 wo...
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Background Cancer treatment can diminish fertility in women and men. The need for fertility preservation is growing as increasing numbers of people survive cancer. Cryostorage of reproductive material to preserve potential for conception for cancer survivors has moved from being experimental to being a part of clinical management of women and men w...
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BackgroundA breast cancer diagnosis and an abortion can each be pivotal moments in a woman’s life. Research on abortion and breast cancer deals predominantly with women diagnosed during pregnancy who might be advised to have an abortion. The other—discredited but persistent—association is that abortions cause breast cancer. The aim here was to unde...
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Background: Endometriosis is a complex, chronic condition with known psychological and social implications for women. Little is known about clinicians' perceptions of the psychosocial aspects of endometriosis and associated care. Aim: To describe clinicians' perceptions of women's experiences of living with endometriosis and of the provision of...
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the characteristics and circumstances of women who cryopreserved their oocytes for non-medical indications and their reasons for cryopreservation. Background: Oocyte cryopreservation for non-medical reasons is becoming increasingly common. Little is known about women who freeze their oocytes in this context. M...
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Study question: What are the reproductive experiences of women who cryopreserve oocytes for non-medical reasons? Summary answer: One in three women had been pregnant at some stage in their lives and while most still wanted to have a child or another child, very few had used their stored oocytes, predominantly because they did not want to be sing...
Chapter
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The ‘designer vagina’ is a relatively new phenomenon, becoming part of public discourse only in the late 1990s. Although female genital surgery has a history longer than 150 years, modification has not usually been for aesthetic reasons (Green 2005). Nowadays, cosmetic surgeons promising ‘designer vaginas’ offer to modify all parts of women’s genit...
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The aim of this research was to ascertain General Practitioners’ (GPs) perceptions and experiences of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis, treatment, and care in metropolitan Melbourne and in a regional area of Victoria, Australia, associated with poorer PCa outcomes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with GPs (N= 10) practising in...
Conference Paper
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Despite strategies in Malaysia to reduce filicide—the crime of a parent killing a child—rates have not decreased. We used framework analysis to identify commonalities and disparities in understandings among service providers and women convicted of filicide, ascertained in individual interviews. While service providers believed that filicide was pre...
Article
AbstractUnintended pregnancy can be difficult to identify and conceptualise. We aimed to understand how unintended pregnancies are constructed, explained and situated in a reproductive life. A total of 41 women and 7 men aged 20?50 years were interviewed in depth. Transcripts were analysed using iterative hermeneutic techniques informed by narrativ...
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Background: As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective: To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods: To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughou...
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Study question: What do women with endometriosis recall being told about their fertility by their healthcare providers? Summary answer: Women recalled being given varied information and advice, and gave examples of empathic and individualized care from doctors but also reported opportunities for enhancing clinical practice. What is known alread...
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The myth of Prometheus, embodied in Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, has transformed into a powerful metaphor that has influenced conceptions of science and bioethics, especially of organ transplantation and assisted conception. The authors of this article employ auto-ethnographic accounts that draw on personal experience of organ transplantation...
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Background: Women considering female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) are likely to use the internet as a key source of information during the decision-making process. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what is known about the role of the internet in the promotion and normalisation of female genital cosmetic surgery and to identify...
Article
Objective: Mistimed, unexpected or unwanted pregnancies occur in Australia, despite widespread contraception use. The objective was to estimate prevalence and ascertain modifiable social factors for prevention of unintended pregnancy. Methods: National population-based survey of women and men aged 18-51 years recruited from a random sample of el...
Article
Families are the fastest growing segment of homeless populations in resource-rich countries; most are female-headed. We report on women’s experiences of being homeless with their children in Victoria, Australia, emphasising their mental health. Twelve women (who between them had daily responsibility for 31 children) were interviewed, revealing comp...
Conference Paper
From Hippocrates’ ‘wandering womb’ to Freud’s ‘penis envy,’ social influences on medical knowledge has facilitated some perplexing and, at times, harmful diagnoses for women. Recent research on enigmatic conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome suggest that modern medicine remains susceptible to socially constructed...
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Objectives: The aim of this research was to investigate awareness, perceived reliability and consideration of use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) among Australians of reproductive age. Methods: A sample of 18- to 50-year-old women and men (N = 2235) was randomly recruited from the Australian electoral roll in 2013. Respondents com...
Conference Paper
Background: Women with endometriosis are more likely than other women to experience infertility. However, there are no reliable data that enable quantification of the increased risk. This uncertainty makes it difficult to provide accurate advice and treatment to women. As part of research aiming to understand women’s experiences of endometriosis, t...
Article
Background: Endometriosis is experienced by approximately 10% of women worldwide; it is associated with significant burden on the woman, her family, and society. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the available qualitative literature to increase our understanding of the effects of endometriosis on women’s lives. Methods: Sev...
Article
Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Su...
Conference Paper
Aim: To increase understanding of the effects of endometriosis on women’s lives. Method: Seven social science and medical databases and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English using qualitative research methods. Results: Eighteen papers reporting 11 studies met inclusion criteria; these studies were all conducted...
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What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. Donor conception is part of assisted rep...
Article
Breast cancer and its treatment have complex ramifications for women of reproductive age, including reduced fertility. With the aim of increasing understanding of what it means to women to manage fertility and motherhood in the years after a diagnosis of breast cancer, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women aged 26-45 years, l...
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How do gamete donors who presumed they could remain anonymous respond to proposed legislation to retrospectively remove anonymity? A little more than half of the donors opposed the recommendation to introduce legislation to remove donor anonymity with retrospective effect. An increasing proportion of parents disclose their origins to their donor-co...
Article
Breast cancer and its treatment in reproductive-age women can reduce fertility and compromise family formation. To learn about women's experiences of fertility-related cancer care we interviewed 10 women (aged 26-45), at least one year postdiagnosis. Thematic analysis revealed that all women, including one who chose to be child-free, valued fertili...
Article
Young adults in Australia face barriers in accessing sexual health services, including concerns about confidentiality, cost, and limited choice of doctors.1–3 The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) therefore initiated a 1-year pilot of free telemedicine (telephone, computer-linked video) consultations for asymptomatic people under the age of 26...
Article
It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinheri...
Article
BACKGROUND: Certain chronic health conditions and their treatments may compromise women's fertility; some chronic conditions are more likely to affect women of reproductive age than others, and some are heritable. All have implications for women's future childbearing and fertility management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to iden...
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Given the high rate of sexually transmissible infections among young people and limited rural access to specialist healthcare, an Australian telemedicine service was piloted. Clients' views were investigated. All clients aged 15-24 were given a questionnaire. A sub-sample was interviewed. The service was used by 25 rural youths aged 15-24; 18 retur...
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Young people are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections in Australia but face barriers to accessing sexual health services, including concerns over confidentiality and, for some, geographic remoteness. A possible innovation to increase access to services is the use of telemedicine. Young people's (aged 16-24) pre-use views...
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Background Young adults in Australia face barriers to accessing sexual health services including concerns over confidentiality and privacy, cost, lack of transportation and limited options around medical providers. A possible solution to decreasing these barriers is the use of telemedicine. Method An online questionnaire examined young adults' (age...
Article
This paper explores HIV-positive women's accounts of their use and non-use of treatments for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2001 with 34 HIV-positive women who were diagnosed during their childbearing years. This paper reports on the 16 women who gave birth after being diagnosed with HIV. Some...
Article
There is little research on women's experience of abortion, despite its prevalence and considerable public debate. Women have abortions in a discursive environment that can pit the foetus against the woman and identifies motherhood as a woman's destiny. What does it mean to have an abortion in these circumstances? The research reported in this pape...
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Teenage pregnancy is typically presented as a problem to be solved, if not as an epidemic in need of urgent intervention. This paper reports on Australian research that examined the phenomenon of teenage motherhood from the perspective of the young women themselves. The theoretical frame of narrative was adopted in order to understand both the way...