Maël Lemoine

Maël Lemoine
University of Bordeaux · Department of Life and Health Sciences

Professor

About

81
Publications
14,484
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
565
Citations
Introduction
I currently work at the Department of Life and Health Sciences, University of Bordeaux. I practice philosophy in biomedical science (see https://philinbiomed.org for more details). At the moment, I am working on aging: its biology, mechanisms, theories, definitions, boundaries, measurements - in one word, everything conceptual which may be a hindrance or a promise to the science of aging.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
University of Bordeaux
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • I am working within a group of philosophers of science immersed in an immunology lab. I am a member of the PhilInBioMed Institute.

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, cancer incidence and mortality. As inflammation contributes to cancer initiation and progression, one could hypothesize that age-associated chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the increase in cancer incidence and/or mortality observed during aging. Here, we review the evidence suppo...
Chapter
This chapter offers an overview of the biological knowledge of ageing. There are two complementary approaches to the biology of ageing. In the populational approach, the focus is on the properties of ageing populations, some of which can be extrapolated to individuals. In the physiological approach, one investigates the mechanisms of ageing at the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we provide a macro level analysis of the visibility of philosophy of science in the sciences over the last four decades. Our quantitative analysis of publications and citations of philosophy of science papers, published in 17 main journals representing the discipline, contributes to the longstanding debate on the influence of philoso...
Article
Full-text available
Since the turn of the twenty-first century, biomedical psychiatry around the globe has embraced the so-called precision medicine paradigm, a model for medical research that uses innovative techniques for data collection and analysis to reevaluate traditional theories of disease. The goal of precision medicine is to improve diagnostics by restratify...
Article
Full-text available
In this essay, we show that 3 distinct approaches to immunological exhaustion coexist and that they only partially overlap, generating potential misunderstandings. Exploring cases ranging from viral infections to cancer, we propose that it is crucial, for experimental and therapeutic purposes, to clarify these approaches and their interconnections...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary theory of aging has set the foundations for a comprehensive understanding of aging. The biology of aging has listed and described the “hallmarks of aging,” i.e., cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in human aging. The present paper is the first to infer the order of appearance of the hallmarks of bilaterian and thereby human...
Article
Full-text available
Hippocampal adult neurogenesis has been associated to many cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions and dysfunctions, and its status as a selected effect or an “appendix of the brain” has been debated. In this review, we propose to understand hippocampal neurogenesis as the process underlying the “Baldwin effect”, a particular situation in ev...
Article
Translational research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced limited improvements in clinical practice. Fear conditioning (FC) is one of the dominant animal models of PTSD. In fact, FC is used in many different ways to model PTSD. The variety of FC-based models is ill defined, creating confusion and conceptual vagueness, which in tu...
Article
Full-text available
Most philosophers of science do philosophy ‘on’ science. By contrast, others do philosophy ‘in’ science (‘PinS’), i.e., they use philosophical tools to address scientific problems and to provide scientifically useful proposals. Here, we consider the evidence in favour of a trend of this nature. We proceed in two stages. First, we identify relevant...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction to the 2018 SPS conference
Preprint
Full-text available
Most philosophers of science do philosophy ‘on’ science. By contrast, others do philosophy ‘in’ science (‘PinS’), i.e., they use philosophical tools to address scientific problems and to provide scientifically useful proposals. Here, we consider the evidence in favour of a trend of this nature. We proceed in two stages. First, we identify relevant...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is an elusive property of life, and many important questions about aging depend on its definition. This article proposes to draw a definition from the scientific literature on aging. First, a broad review reveals five features commonly used to define aging: structural damage, functional decline, depletion, typical phenotypic changes or their...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aging is an elusive property of life, and many important questions about aging depend on its definition. This article proposes to draw a definition from the scientific literature on aging. First, a broad review reveals five features commonly used to define aging: structural damage, functional decline, depletion, typical phenotypic changes or their...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter questions the received view that in medical research extrapolation from animal models mainly consists in establishing mechanisms of human pathological states in organisms, thanks to a step by step comparison of causal pathways. Mechanistic extrapolation takes the form: (1) cause C brings out effect E in animal through causal pathway M,...
Article
Full-text available
In our commentary on Lynch et al.'s target paper (2019, this issue), we focus on decomposition as a research strategy. We argue that not only the presumptive microbial causes but also their supposed phenotypic effects need to be decomposed relative to each other. Such a dual decomposition strategy ought to improve the way in which causal claims in...
Article
Full-text available
Because biologization of psychiatric constructs does not involve derivation of laws, or reduce the number of entities involved, the traditional term of ‘reduction’ should be replaced. This paper describes biologization in terms of redefinition, which involves changing the definition of terms sharing the same extension. Redefinition obtains through...
Chapter
This chapter views philosophy of medicine as a domain within philosophy of science as opposed to a province of bioethics. Thus, it first deals with the philosophical analysis of health, disease, and illness concepts and with the scientific nature of medicine. Relative to the second theme, it addresses questions relative to the causes and explanatio...
Article
Full-text available
The vitality of physiology is currently under debate. Some say that physiology is a dying discipline in the era of molecular medicine and systems biology, whereas others claim that physiology remains a key biological and medical discipline, due in part to its integrative nature. In this conceptual review, we argue that any assessment of the vitalit...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its vagueness Personalized, Precision, P4, P5, individualized, stratified medicine—or p-medicine in short—has become an increasingly popular term in biomedical literature. Philosophers have attempted to analyze what these various terms involve and have discussed consequences for medical practices. In this article, I argue that an important...
Article
According to the received view, the transportation view, animal extrapolation consists in inductive prediction of the outcome of a mechanism in a target, based on an analogical mechanism in a model. Through an analysis of the failure of preclinical studies of TGN1412, an innovative drug, to predict the tragic consequences of its first-in-man trial...
Chapter
Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory of health and disease (BST) puts forward a naturalistic definition of these two concepts. Indeed, ‘naturalism’ in the philosophy of medicine was initially defined in terms of the BST, and has often been since. This chapter is an attempt to clarify in what sense Boorse does in fact defend a naturalistic def...
Book
Animal models of depression are problematic and results drawn from them is moderately convincing. The main problem, it is often argued, is that it is impossible to model a mental disorder, i.e. specifically human, in animals like rodents: it is a matter of resemblance of symptoms. Yet in this field it is generally assumed that animal models of depr...
Chapter
Science starts by using terms such as ‘temperature’ or ‘fish’ or ‘gene’ to preliminarily delimitate the extension of a phenomenon, and concludes by giving most of them a technical meaning based on an explanatory model. This transformation of the meaning of the term is an essential part of its naturalization. Debating on the definition of ‘disease’,...
Article
Epidemiology is a crucial medical science, often underrated by philosophers, focusing either on clinical or biological science. “Epidemiology,” says Broadbent, “is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and other health states in human populations by means of group comparisons, for the purpose of improving population health” (p....
Article
Following the neurophenomenological approach, we propose a model of emotional emergence that identifies the experimental structures of time (i.e., anticipation, crisis, and aftermath) involved in emotional experience and their plausible components in terms of cognition, physiology, and neuroscience. We argue that surprise, as a lived experience, an...
Article
Full-text available
Philosophers of science have recently focused on the scientific activity of modeling phenomena, and explicated several of its properties, as well as the activities embedded into it. A first approach to modeling has been elaborated in terms of representing a target system: yet other epistemic functions, such as producing data or detecting phenomena,...
Article
The so-called received view on scientific theories, at its acumen in the early 60s, hampered the conception of scientific theories in biology and medicine. The semantic conception of scientific theories that followed facilitated the task, but did not allow to distinguish theories in experimental biology and theories in medicine. This article is a r...
Article
Full-text available
Conceptual analysis of health and disease is portrayed as consisting in the confrontation of a set of criteria-a "definition"-with a set of cases, called instances of either "health" or "disease." Apart from logical counter-arguments, there is no other way to refute an opponent's definition than by providing counter-cases. As resorting to intension...
Article
The main thesis of this paper is that mental health practitioners can legitimately infer that a patient's given condition is a case of mental disorder without having diagnosed any specific mental disorder. The article shows how this is justifiable by relying either on psychopathological reasoning, on 'intentional' analysis or possibly on other mode...
Book
Depuis le célèbre essai de Georges Canguilhem sur le normal et le pathologique publié initialement en 1943 et dont l'un des objectifs était la clarification des concepts de santé et de maladie, une littérature philosophique abondante, principalement anglo- saxonne, s'est attachée à définir ces concepts et à analyser leur statut. Le principal débat...
Article
Full-text available
Henri Ey suggested that all hallucinations occur against the background of depersonalization, which is an alteration in experience that people find hard to describe, where the subject feels a strangeness pervading the world and her/his own body, emotions and thoughts. Embracing Ey's proposal, this paper draws a comparison between depersonalization...
Article
De nombreuses recherches ont été consacrées à la décision médicale. Nous souhaitons poursuivre ces travaux en étudiant plus particulièrement les décisions médicales lors des phases palliatives des maladies létales. Notre approche se veut plus descriptive que normative. Nous formulons deux hypothèses, l’une négative, l’autre positive.
Article
Full-text available
Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several auth...
Article
Les notions de cénesthésie et cénesthopathie ont eu une influence considérable sur la psychiatrie du xixe et du début du xxe siècle. La cénesthésie caractérise une forme de perception globale, implicite et affective du corps. Les cénesthopathies sont une entité clinique résultant d’une forme d’altération de la cénesthésie, qui se caractérise par de...
Article
Cenesthesia and cenesthopathy have played a fundamental role in 19th and early 20th century French and German psychiatry. Cenesthesia refers to the internal, global, implicit and affective perception of one's own body. The concept of cenesthopathy was coined by Dupre and Camus in 1907 to describe a clinical entity characterized by abnormal and stra...
Article
Philosophers of biology usually distinguish historical and systemic accounts of functions. In many areas of experimental biology the "systemic" account is often the most relevant. Yet there are problems this account does admittedly not face up to very well. My contention is that, though two minor problems are irredeemably unsolvable for the systemi...
Article
Medecine does not only diagnose and treat diseases. It also aims at explaining them, thereby fully belonging to science. What do medical explanations consist in, and what makes them special among biological explanations? The first property of medical explanations is pluralité. Medicine seems to unite under the same label various, even heterogenous...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the latent variables construct, particularly in regard to the following: that latent variables are considered as the sole explanatory factor of a disorder; that pragmatic concerns are ignored; and that the relationship of these variables to biological markers is not addressed. Further, we comment on the relationship between bridge sympto...
Article
Behavioral neuroscience commonly uses several models of a single disease such as depression. This multiplicity takes two forms. Mosaicism of models refers to the multiplicity of hypotheses explaining one disease: many different theoretical models supposedly refer to the same integrated mechanism but the way to do that remains undetermined. Chimeris...
Article
Sans doute est-il attendu d'une analyse philosophique qu'elle traque les prestiges et les fausses promesses de concepts vagues tels que " guérir ". N'est-ce pas le travail de Socrate : expliquer au général qu'il ne sait pas ce qu'est le courage, et au sophiste pourquoi il ne sait rien de la sagesse ? C'est un jeu aisé auquel on se livrerait ainsi d...
Article
In the field of chronic disease, education of patients aims to endow them with the tools to live with their disease and to manage the treatments. It is not clear whether the goal of the so-called therapeutic education is to allow for a longer life or a better life. In a medical point of view the concept of quality of life depends mostly on how the...
Article
The purpose of therapeutic education is to transmit to patients those elements, which are essential for understanding their disease and their treatments. The goal is to help them become an active partner in the care process. Using three concrete cases for illustration, we show how the concept of education cannot be limited simply to a transmission...
Article
Malgre le progres des connaissances de leurs mecanismes etiopathogeniques et la medicalisation de leur prise en charge, les pathologies dementielles restent tres invalidantes sur le plan du maintien de l’autonomie dans les actes de la vie quotidienne et des relations interpersonnelles. Le terme de « demence » reste largement utilise dans une accept...
Article
Full-text available
If the healthy and the pathological are not merely judgments qualifiers, but real phenomena, it must be possible to define both of them positively, which, in this context, means as factual contraries. On the other hand, only a privative definition, either of the pathological as 'non-healthy', or of the healthy as 'non-pathological', can rationally...
Article
People who are ill, particularly those with a chronic disease, must cope with new situations involving their body, lifestyle, and social relationships. Accepting the implications involved, we propose examining the situation of chronic illness as an occupation. Considered in this light, the sick person is an active participant in the health care sys...
Article
Une explication scientifique peut toujours être développée ou approfondie, de sorte qu'un phénomène semble ne jamais pouvoir être expliqué. Dans ces conditions, chaque discipline scientifique définit les conditions d'une explication " suffisante " ou " satisfaisante " dans son propre champ. En partant d'un exemple d'énoncé médical : " la cyclospori...
Article
L'éthique se distingue du droit en ce qu'elle ne permet pas de faire la démonstration indiscutable de la moindre obligation faute de prémisses universelles. Pourtant, il y a des situations, telle la protection de l'intimité de la vie privée dans un cadre professionnel, que le droit ne peut trancher sans susciter des paradoxes éthiques. Une analyse...
Article
Face à l'ensemble des revendications liées aux nouveaux usages de la sexualité et de la reproduction, la notion de parentalité semble appeler une redéfinition. Du point de vue exclusif d'une logique de la liberté, est “parent” l'individu qui a choisi de se définir ainsi en appelant à l'existence un nouvel individu qui bénéficieipso facto de la même...
Conference Paper
Popper wrote that Hegel, as a thinker, is a forerunner of totalitarianism; on the other hand, one cannot but regard Bergson as a true democrat. Both however considered the politic body as an organism, a doctrine supporters of the totalitarian state favored. The assertion must not be underrated: neither thinker intended to use a metaphorical express...
Article
Popper wrote that Hegel, as a thinker, is a forerunner of totalitarianism ; on the other hand, one cannot but regard Bergson as a true democrat. Both however considered the politic body as an organism, a doctrine supporters of the totalitarian state favoured. The assertion must not be underrated : neither thinker intended to use a metaphorical expr...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
To develop the budding field of philosophy of cancer.
Project
To developp the budding field of philosophy of cancer.
Project
To articulate more precisely the extension and interactions of aging and pathological phenomena, in particular, in cancer. The first step is to assess the results of biodemography, a recent discipline that frame the contributions of biology to the explanation of demographic phenomena.