Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen

Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources · Birds and Mammals

Dr. Scient.

About

394
Publications
87,503
Reads
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10,569
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 1988 - present
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1988 - June 1988
Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute
Position
  • Visiting scientist
Education
August 1979 - June 1986

Publications

Publications (394)
Article
Ocean warming is causing shifts in the distributions of marine species, but the location of suitable habitats in the future is unknown, especially in remote regions such as the Arctic. Using satellite tracking data from a 28-year-long period, covering all three endemic Arctic cetaceans (227 individuals) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic, togethe...
Article
Full-text available
The elongated, spiraled tusk of male narwhals (Monodon monoceros) grows continuously throughout the life of the whale and is most likely a secondary sexual trait used in male–male hierarchical competition and possibly in female mate choice. Sex determination in narwhals is typically based on the presence (male) or absence (female) of an erupted tus...
Article
Full-text available
Limited polar geographical range, narrowly defined migratory routes, and deep‐diving behaviors make narwhals exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances including oceanic noise. Although behavioral studies indicate marked responses of cetaceans to disturbance, the link between fear reactions and possible injury from noise exposure is lim...
Article
Full-text available
Synopsis Male mammals of seasonally reproducing species typically have annual testosterone (T) cycles, with T usually peaking during the breeding season, but occurrence of such cycles in male mysticete whales has been difficult to confirm. Baleen, a keratinized filter-feeding apparatus of mysticetes, incorporates hormones as it grows, such that a s...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Identify hotspots and areas of high species richness for Arctic marine mammals. Location Circumpolar Arctic. Methods A total of 2115 biologging devices were deployed on marine mammals from 13 species in the Arctic from 2005 to 2019. Getis‐Ord Gi* hotspots were calculated based on the number of individuals in grid cells for each species and fo...
Article
Full-text available
The East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea (EGSB) bowhead whale stock (Balaena mysticetus) was hunted to near extinction and remains Endangered on the International Union of Conservation of Nature Red List. The intense, temporally extensive hunting pressure may have left the population vulnerable to other perturbations, such as environmental change. H...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals of different sex or age can vary in their resource use due to differences in behaviour, life history, energetic need, or size. Harbour porpoises are small cetaceans that rely on a constant prey supply to survive. Here, we use bone collagen carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope compositions to elucidate sex and size differences i...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a considerable number of reports on Hg concentrations in Arctic mammals since the last Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) effort to review biological effects of the exposure to mercury (Hg) in Arctic biota in 2010 and 2018. Here, we provide an update on the state of the knowledge of health risk associated with Hg conce...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is affecting the population dynamics and trophic interactions across a wide range of ecosystems and habitats. Translating these real-time effects into their long-term consequences remains a challenge. The rapid and extreme warming period that occurred after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition (7–...
Article
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A decreasing trend in narwhal (Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758) abundance has been identified in a small population in Scoresby Sound, Southeast Greenland. We hypothesize that excessive hunting has affected life history and population dynamics of this population. Biological information and samples collected from the Inuit hunt, from satellite-tagg...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rationale Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone and dentine collagen extracted from subfossil specimens of extinct and extant mammalian species have been widely used to study the paleoecology of past populations. Due to possible systematic differences in stable isotope values between bone and dentine, dentine values...
Article
Full-text available
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process in which nucleotide changes are introduced into an RNA sequence, many of which can contribute to proteomic sequence variation. The most common type of RNA editing, contributing to nearly 99% of all editing events in RNA, is A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) editing mediated by double-stranded RNA-specific a...
Article
Elucidating the evolutionary and ecological characteristics of distinct populations constitutes a cornerstone in the classification of ecotypes, and in assessing their specific responses to environmental changes and potential impacts from human activities. In this study, two complementary approaches were deployed to investigate the existence of a p...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities are increasing in the Arctic, posing a threat to niche-conservative species with high seasonal site fidelity, such as the narwhal Monodon monoceros . In this controlled sound exposure study, six narwhals were live-captured and instrumented with animal-borne tags providing movement and behavioural data, and exposed to concur...
Article
Full-text available
Narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) are gregarious toothed whales that strictly reside in the high Arctic. They produce a broad range of signal types; however, studies of narwhal vocalizations have been mostly descriptive of the sounds available in the species’ overall repertoire. Little is known regarding the functions of highly stereotyped mixed calls...
Article
Full-text available
One of the last pristine marine soundscapes, the Arctic, is exposed to increasing anthropogenic activities due to climate-induced decrease in sea ice coverage. In this study, we combined movement and behavioral data from animal-borne tags in a controlled sound exposure study to describe the reactions of narwhals, Monodon monoceros , to airgun pulse...
Article
Full-text available
Tallurutiup Imanga (TI) is a National Marine Conservation Area (NMCA) established in 2019 at the eastern entrance of the Northwest Passage in Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, to protect 110,000 square kilometres of core habitat for cetaceans. This study examines the potential impacts of underwater noise from increased ship traffic in TI NMCA on th...
Article
Full-text available
Several Arctic marine mammal species are predicted to be negatively impacted by rapid sea ice loss associated with ongoing ocean warming. However, consequences for Arctic whales remain uncertain. To investigate how Arctic whales responded to past climatic fluctuations, we analyzed 206 mitochondrial genomes from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)...
Article
The distribution of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Sea population of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) is largely centered in the Chukchi Sea in autumn (September–November), which is also when sea ice is at minimum extent allowing for increased ship traffic and industrial activity. Prior work paired autumn movements of bowhead whales in the Chukchi...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of animals to respond to changes in their environment is critical to their persistence. In the Arctic, climate change and mercury exposure are two of the most important environmental threats for top predators.1, 2, 3 Rapid warming is causing precipitous sea-ice loss, with consequences on the distribution, composition, and dietary ecolog...
Article
Narwhal (Monodon monoceros) is one of the most elusive marine mammals, due to its isolated habitat in the Arctic region. Tagging is a technology that has the potential to explore the activities of this species, where behavioral information can be collected from instrumented individuals. This includes accelerometer data, diving and acoustic data as...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental change and increasing levels of human activity are threats to marine mammals in the Arctic. Identifying marine mammal hotspots and areas of high species richness are essential to help guide management and conservation efforts. Herein, space use based on biotelemetric tracking devices deployed on 13 species (ringed seal Pusa hispida ,...
Article
Full-text available
Intraspecific variation in resource use by individuals of different age, sex or size may reflect differing energetic requirements and physiological constraints. Males and females often show differences in diet owing to sexual size dimorphism, different life histories and/or habitat use. Here, we investigate how sex and size influence the long-term...
Article
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Deep diving air-breathing species by necessity must balance submergence time and level of exercise during breath-holding: a low activity level preserves oxygen stores and allows longer duration submergence whereas high activity levels consume oxygen quickly and shorten submergence time. In this study, we combined high-resolution multi sensor animal...
Article
Full-text available
Implementation of effective conservation planning relies on a robust understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of the target species. In the marine realm, this is even more challenging for species rarely seen at the sea surface due to their extreme diving behavior like the sperm whales. Our study aims at (a) investigating the seasonal moveme...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental changes are prominent in Arctic ecosystems, where the distribution, abundance, life history, and health of marine organisms such as the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) are tightly connected to sea ice and sea temperature. However, due to logistical and other challenges of data collection in the Arctic, appropriate assessments of pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Narwhal is one of the most mysterious marine mammals, due to its isolated habitat in the Arctic region. Tagging is a technology that has the potential to explore the activities of this species, where behavioral information can be collected from instrumented individuals. This includes accelerometer data, diving and acoustic data as well as GPS posit...
Chapter
Bowhead whales from the East Canada-West Greenland (ECWG) and East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea (EGSB) populations are associated with cold water in the North Atlantic. Here they make highly variable seasonal migrations between coastal areas and offshore waters. The range of EGSB population reaches as far east as the Kara Sea. Sex and age classes...
Chapter
This chapter presents the best information available on the abundance of the four populations of bowhead whales. The Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock and Eastern Canada-Western Greenland stock are abundant. Less is known about the small stocks in the Okhotsk Sea and Spitsbergen region.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Arctic top predators are expected to be impacted by increasing temperatures associated with climate change, but the relationship between increasing sea temperatures and population dynamics of Arctic cetaceans remains largely unexplored. Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are considered to be among the most sensitive of Arctic endemic marine mamm...
Article
Full-text available
The vaquita is the most critically endangered marine mammal, with fewer than 19 remaining in the wild. First described in 1958, the vaquita has been in rapid decline for more than 20 years resulting from inadvertent deaths due to the increasing use of large-mesh gillnets. To understand the evolutionary and demographic history of the vaquita, we use...
Article
Full-text available
insight into animal movements is essential for understanding habitat use by individuals as well as population processes and species life-history strategies. In this study, we instrumented 25 fin whales with ARGoS satellite-transmitters in Svalbard, norway, to study their movement patterns and behaviour (Area Restricted Search (ARS), transiting or u...
Article
Full-text available
1. Global biotic and abiotic threats, particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted. Despite marked impacts on these animals and the ecosystems in which they live, little is known about the physiological repercussi...
Article
Full-text available
Full mitochondrial genomes were assembled for 12 recently sampled animals from the Svalbard bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) stock via high-throughput sequencing data, facilitating analysis of the demographic history of the population for the first time. The Svalbard population has retained noticeable amounts of mitochondrial genome diversity des...
Article
Full-text available
Full mitochondrial genomes were assembled for 12 recently sampled animals from the Svalbard bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) stock via high-throughput sequencing data, facilitating analysis of the demographic history of the population for the first time. The Svalbard population has retained noticeable amounts of mitochondrial genome diversity des...
Article
Full-text available
The monodontids—narwhals, Monodon monoceros, and belugas, Delphinapterus leucas—are found in much of the Arctic and in some subarctic areas. They are hunted by indigenous subsistence users. In the past, some populations were substantially reduced by commercial hunting and culling; more recently, some populations have declined due to uncontrolled su...
Article
Full-text available
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) is a high‐Arctic species inhabiting areas that are experiencing increases in sea temperatures, which together with reduction in sea ice are expected to modify the niches of several Arctic marine apex predators. The Scoresby Sound fjord complex in East Greenland is the summer residence for an isolated population of n...
Article
Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an ~9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeologic...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating abundance is one of the most fundamental and important aspects of population biology, with major implications on how the status of a population is perceived and thus on conservation and management efforts. Although typically based on one of two methods (distance sampling or mark-recapture), there are many individual identification method...
Article
Full-text available
Spitsbergen's bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were hunted to near extinction in the world's first commercial whaling enterprise; this population clearly remains threatened, but nothing is known about its distribution, making assessment unfeasible. In this study, we document range, movement patterns and habitat preferences of this population, ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
The vaquita is the most critically endangered marine mammal, with fewer than 19 remaining in the wild. First described in 1958, the vaquita has been in rapid decline resulting from inadvertent deaths due to the increasing use of large-mesh gillnets for more than 20 years. To understand the evolutionary and demographic history of the vaquita, we use...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate, with unknown consequences for endemic fauna. However, Earth has experienced severe climatic oscillations in the past, and understanding how species responded to them might provide insight into their resilience to near-future climatic predictions. Little is known about the responses of Arctic marine ma...
Article
Full-text available
Once thought to be the magical horn of a unicorn, narwhal tusks are one of the most charismatic structures in biology. Despite years of speculation, little is known about the tusk's function, because narwhals spend most of their lives hidden underneath the Arctic ice. Some hypotheses propose that the tusk has sexual functions as a weapon or as a si...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that the ~20 routinely monitored per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing need for comprehensive oceanographic sampling, and taking advantage of marine mammal studies of movements and habitat use for augmenting spatial and temporal coverage, especially in remote and inaccessible areas, is an attractive approach. Oceanographic sampling instruments that transmit profiles of temperature and salinity (...
Chapter
This article describes the relationship between sea ice and marine mammals around Greenland, the possible effects of climate change and the importance of subsistence hunting in modern Greenland. We also summarize the biology, conservation status and utilization of the polar bear, walrus, seal and whale species of Greenland.
Article
Full-text available
We used satellite telemetry to examine bowhead whale movement behavior, residence times, and dive behavior in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, 2006 – 2018. We explored the timing and duration of use of three subregions (western, central, eastern) within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and applied a two-state switching state-space model to infer bowhead whale beh...
Article
Full-text available
Animal-borne electronic instruments (tags) are valuable tools for collecting information on cetacean physiology, behaviour and ecology, and for enhancing conservation and management policies for cetacean populations. Tags allow researchers to track the movement patterns, habitat use and other aspects of the behaviour of animals that are otherwise d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Narwhals are considered to be the most sensitive and most vulnerable of Arctic endemic marine mammals to climate change due to their limited prey selection, strict migratory patterns and high site fidelity. We showed a sharp SST increase in Northwest, Mideast and Southeast Greenland, whereas no change in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and in...
Article
Full-text available
Domestic dogs have been central to life in the North American Arctic for millennia. The ancestors of the Inuit were the first to introduce the widespread usage of dog sledge transportation technology to the Americas, but whether the Inuit adopted local Palaeo-Inuit dogs or introduced a new dog population to the region remains unknown. To test these...
Preprint
There is increasing evidence that the ~20 routinely monitored per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver...
Article
Full-text available
In 1990, a skull from a morphologically unusual Monodontid was found in West Greenland and collected for the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen. From its intermediate morphology, the skull was hypothesized to be a beluga/narwhal hybrid. If confirmed, the specimen would, to our knowledge, represent the sole evidence of hybri...
Article
Full-text available
The mesopelagic layer is represented in all oceans and is of crucial importance to the pelagic communities, and in this paper it is hypothesised that the Greenlandic harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is seasonally dependent on mesopelagic prey when abandoning the ice-covered continental shelf areas and remains in offshore areas. Data from 15 har...
Article
Full-text available
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) is a highly specialized endemic Arctic cetacean, restricted to the Arctic seas bordering the North Atlantic. Low levels of genetic diversity have been observed across several narwhal populations using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites. Despite this, the global abundance of narwhals was recently estimated at �170,...
Article
Full-text available
Diving behaviour of narwhals is still largely unknown. We use Hidden Markov models (HMMs) to describe the diving behaviour of a narwhal and fit the models to a three-dimensional response vector of maximum dive depth, duration of dives and post-dive surface time of 8,609 dives measured in East Greenland over 83 days, an extraordinarily long and rich...
Data
Estimates of the model parameters of the state distributions and their 95% confidence intervals in model 1 for correlated log-normal distribution. In state i, μi and σi are the log-mean and log-standard deviation of the correlated log-normal distribution. Index MD stands for Maximum Depth, DT stands for Dive Duration and PD stands for Post-Dive tim...