Mads Fristrup Schou

Mads Fristrup Schou
Lund University | LU · Department of Biology

PhD

About

45
Publications
4,641
Reads
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751
Citations
Citations since 2016
35 Research Items
721 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - November 2015
Aarhus University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
The effective population size (Ne) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne, with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using...
Article
Mechanistic trade-offs between traits under selection can shape and constrain evolutionary adaptation to environmental stressors. However, our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative overlap in the molecular machinery among stress tolerance traits is highly restricted by the challenges of comparing and interpreting data between separate studi...
Article
Thermal limits of ectotherms have been studied extensively and are believed to be evolutionary constrained, leaving ectotherms at risk under future climate change. Phenotypic plasticity may extend the thermal limits, but we lack detailed characterizations of thermal limit reaction norms as well as an understanding of the interspecific variation of...
Article
Many natural populations experience inbreeding and genetic drift as a consequence of nonrandom mating or low population size. Furthermore, they face environmental challenges that may interact synergistically with deleterious consequences of increased homozygosity and further decrease fitness. Most studies on inbreeding–environment (I-E) interaction...
Article
The ability of ectotherms to respond to changes in their thermal environment through plastic mechanisms is central to their adaptive capability. However, we still lack knowledge on physiological and functional responses by which ectotherms acclimate to temperatures during development, and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatu...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative breeding allows the costs of parental care to be shared, but as groups become larger, such benefits often decline as competition increases and group cohesion breaks down. The counteracting forces of cooperation and competition are predicted to select for an optimal group size, but variation in groups is ubiquitous across cooperative bre...
Article
Sociality in spiders has evolved independently multiple times, resulting in convergently evolved cooperative breeding and prey capture. In all social spiders, prey is captured by only a subset of group members and then shared with other, non-attacking group members. However, spiders' propensity to attack prey may differ among species due to species...
Article
Conspecific tolerance is key for maintaining group cohesion in animals. Understanding shifts from conspecific tolerance to intolerance is therefore important for understanding transitions to sociality. Subsocial species disperse to a solitary lifestyle after a gregarious juvenile phase and display conspecific intolerance as adults as a mechanism to...
Article
The evolutionary potential of species to cope with short-term temperature fluctuations during reproduction is critical to predicting responses to future climate change. Despite this, vertebrate research has focused on reproduction under high or low temperatures in relatively stable temperate climates. Here, we characterize the genetic basis of repr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Organisms inhabiting extreme thermal environments, such as desert birds, have evolved various adaptations to thermoregulate during hot days and cold nights. However, our knowledge of selection acting on thermoregulatory traits and their evolutionary potential is limited, particularly for large organisms experiencing extreme temperature fluctuations...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cooperative breeding societies allow the costs of reproduction to be shared. However, as groups become larger, such benefits often decrease and competition increases. This is predicted to select for an optimal group size, yet variation in groups is a ubiquitous feature of cooperative breeding animals. Here we experimentally established groups (n gr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The evolutionary potential of species to cope with short-term temperature fluctuations during reproduction is critical to predicting responses to future climate change. Despite this, vertebrate research has focused on reproduction under high or low temperatures in relatively stable temperate climates. Here, we characterize the genetic basis of repr...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments manipulating the nutritional environment and the associated microbiome of animals have demonstrated their importance for key fitness components. However, there is little information on how macronutrient composition and bacterial communities in natural food sources vary across seasons in nature and on how these factors affect the fitness...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature has a crucial influence on the places where species can survive and reproduce. Past research has primarily focused on survival, making it unclear if temperature fluctuations constrain reproductive success, and if so whether populations harbour the potential to respond to climatic shifts. Here, using two decades of data from a large expe...
Article
Full-text available
Organisms are exposed to temperatures that vary, for example on diurnal and seasonal time scales. Thus, the ability to behaviorally and/or physiologically respond to variation in temperatures is a fundamental requirement for long-term persistence. Studies on thermal biology in ectotherms are typically performed under constant laboratory conditions,...
Article
Full-text available
The variance in phenotypic trait values is a product of environmental and genetic variation. The sensitivity of traits to environmental variation has a genetic component and is likely to be under selection. However, there are few studies investigating the evolution of this sensitivity, in part due to the challenges of estimating the environmental v...
Article
Full-text available
One of the benefits of cooperative hunting may be that predators can subdue larger prey. In spiders, cooperative, social species can capture prey many times larger than an individual predator. However, we propose that cooperative prey capture does not have to be associated with larger caught prey per se, but with an increase in the ratio of prey to...
Article
Insects are known to selectively balance their intake of protein and carbohydrate to optimize reproduction and survival. For insects who feed on decomposing fruit, fluctuations in macronutrient composition occur as fruits ripe and decomposition progresses which may challenge optimal resource allocation. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we tested the...
Article
Full-text available
Some semelparous species show terminal investment by suicidal offspring provisioning. This requires internal cellular disintegration for the production of regurgitated food and in preparation for the sacrifice of the female body to the offspring, however, we have limited insights into the extent and costs of such physiological modifications. Extrem...
Article
Heat tolerance increases at higher acclimation temperatures in D. melanogaster, but not in D. subobscura. The two species represent separate lineages of the subgenus Sophophora of Drosophila with contrasting tropical African and temperate Palearctic evolutionary histories. D. melanogaster has five copies of the inducible hsp70 gene distributed in t...
Article
Genetic correlations for a trait across environments are predicted to decrease as environments diverge. However, estimates of genetic correlations from natural populations are typically defined across a limited environmental range and prone to very large standard errors, making it difficult to test this prediction. We address the importance of envi...
Article
Thermal performance curves (TPCs) are intended to approximate the relationship between temperature and fitness, and are commonly integrated into species distributional models for understanding climate change responses. However, TPCs may vary across traits because selection and environmental sensitivity (plasticity) differ across traits or because t...
Article
Full-text available
In species with chromosomal sex determination, X chromosomes are predicted to evolve faster than autosomes because of positive selection on recessive alleles or weak purifying selection. We investigated X chromosome evolution in Stegodyphus spiders that differ in mating system, sex-ratio, and population dynamics. We assigned scaffolds to X chromoso...
Article
Abiotic environmental factors play a fundamental role in determining the distribution, abundance, and adaptive diversification of species. Empowered by new technologies enabling rapid and increasingly accurate examination of genomic variation in populations, researchers may gain new insights into the genomic background of adaptive radiation and str...
Article
Rather than maximizing intake of available macronutrients, insects increase intake of some nutrients and restrict intake of others. This selective consumption influences, and potentially optimizes developmental time, reproduction and lifespan of the organism. Studies so far have focused on discriminating between protein and carbohydrate and the con...
Article
Inbreeding depression is often intensified under environmental stress (i.e. inbreeding‐stress interaction). While the fitness consequences of this phenomenon are well‐described, underlying mechanisms such as an increased expression of deleterious alleles under stress, or a lower capacity for adaptive responses to stress with inbreeding, have rarely...
Article
Full-text available
Division of reproductive behaviour and alloparental care are key aspects of many animal societies. In cooperatively breeding species, variation in helping effort and unequal task participation are frequently observed. However, the extent to which the reproductive state of an individual affects the tasks performed during offspring care remains poorl...
Article
Across several animal taxa, the evolution of sociality involves a suite of characteristics, a 'social syndrome', that includes cooperative breeding, reproductive skew, primary female biased sex-ratio, and the transition from outcrossing to inbreeding mating system, factors that are expected to reduce effective population size (Ne). This social synd...
Article
Full-text available
Background Evolutionary theory predicts that antagonistically selected alleles, such as those with divergent pleiotropic effects in early and late life, may often reach intermediate population frequencies due to balancing selection, an elusive process when sought out empirically. Alternatively, genetic diversity may increase as a result of positive...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple environmental factors acting in concert can interact and strongly influence population fitness and ecosystem composition. Studies investigating interactions usually involve only two environmental factors; most frequently a chemical and another abiotic factor such as a stressful temperature. Here we investigate the effects of three environm...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect...
Article
The ability of insects to cope with stressful temperatures through adaptive plasticity has allowed them to thrive under a wide range of thermal conditions. Developmental plasticity is generally considered as non-reversible phenotypic changes, e.g. in morphological traits, while adult acclimation responses are often considered to be reversible physi...
Article
Full-text available
There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temper...
Article
Physiological adaptation through acclimation is one way to cope with temperature changes. Biochemical studies on acclimation responses in ectotherms have so far mainly investigated consequences of short-term acclimation at the adult stage and focussed on adaptive responses. Here we assessed the consequences of developmental and adult rearing at low...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estim...
Article
Drosophila melanogaster is often used as a model organism in evolutionary biology and ecophysiology to study evolutionary processes and their physiological mechanisms. Diets used to feed Drosophila cultures differ between laboratories and are often nutritious and distinct from food sources in the natural habitat. Here we rear D. melanogaster on a s...
Article
Coping with cold winter conditions is a major challenge for many insects. In early spring we observed newly emerged Drosophila subobscura, which had overwintered as larvae and pupae. As temperatures increase during spring these flies are faced with higher minimum and maximum temperatures in their natural microhabitat. Thus, there is a potential cos...
Data
Figure S1.Pigmentation assessment. Figure S2. Wing landmarks. Figure S3. Tergite and replicate population specific pigmentation. Figure S4. Tergite specific pigmentation means.
Article
Full-text available
Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced ability of inbred individuals to respond plasticall...
Data
The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared to control lines. We also predicted an increased diff...
Article
The ability to respond evolutionarily to increasing temperatures is important for survival of ectotherms in a changing climate. Recent studies suggest that upper thermal limits may be evolutionary constrained. We address this hypothesis in a laboratory evolution experiment, encompassing ecologically relevant thermal regimes. To examine the potentia...
Article
Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which is known to affect the mean and variance of fitness components such as growth, fecundity and mortality rate. Across inbred lines inbreeding depression is typically observed and the variance between lines is increased in inbred compared to outbred lines. It has been suggested that damage incurred from increas...
Article
Full-text available
When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
We investigate natural history of social spiders from task differentiation, mating behaviour to sperm storage in close collaboration with the Spider Lab of Trine Bilde, Aarhus University