Madhava Botejue

Madhava Botejue
Biodiversity Conservation Society

BSc (Natural Science)

About

63
Publications
47,707
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157
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
139 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
Introduction
I am a wildlife biologist involved in research on biodiversity, ecology, conservation, behavior & taxonomy of Sri Lankan fauna. I also serves as an Environmental Officer at Central Environmental Authority, Sri Lanka, a Editorial Manager of TAPROBANICA, the journal of Asian biodiversity (ISSN: 1800-427X), a member of IUCN – SSC, Crocodile Specialist Group & an expert committee member of National Red List development program.
Additional affiliations
December 2014 - present
Biodiversity Conservation Society
Position
  • Wildlife Biologist / Research Coordinator
Description
  • Herpetofauna and Avifauna of Sri Lanka
January 2007 - December 2014
Taprobanica Nature Conservation Society, Sri Lanka
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Herpetofauna and Avifauna of Sri Lanka
Education
January 2005 - August 2009
The Open University of Sri Lanka
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
The tropical island nation of Sri Lanka is a biodiversity hotspot with a high diversity and endemism of amphibians. The endemic, stream-dwelling Kandian torrent toad Adenomus kandianus is Critically Endangered and was considered to be extinct until its rediscovery in 2012. The species is now known from two localities in tropical montane forests. We...
Article
Full-text available
Terrapins are integral to many freshwater ecosystems, yet are imperilled at a global scale. In Sri Lanka, terrapins are understudied; thus, much of their natural history and distribution status remain unknown. Such paucity of studies impedes conservation. In this study, 79 freshwater habitats located outside the protected area network of south-west...
Article
Full-text available
A new day gecko species of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 is described from a geographically separated forested area in Ensalwatte, Matara district, Sri Lanka. This species is medium (34-35mm SVL) in size and can be differentiated from all other Sri Lankan congeners by a suite of distinct morphometric, meristic, and color characters. The species...
Article
Full-text available
Six new day gecko species of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 are described from geographically isolated forested hills (Bambarabotuwa, Kadugannawa, Kokagala, Kudumbigala, Maragala and Walapane) in Sri Lanka based on analyses of morphological and molecular traits. We provide an updated mtDNA-based genealogy of Sri Lankan Cnemaspis and provide furt...
Article
Full-text available
Three new day gecko species of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 are described from three isolated granite cave habitats with rock walls in Bambaragala (Ratnapura District), Dimbulagala (Polonnaruwa District), and Mandaramnuwara (Nuwara-Eliya District) in Sri Lanka based on morphometric and meristic characters. All of these new species are assigned...
Article
Full-text available
Sri Lanka is considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Although Sri Lanka has a rich diversity of bats, Kerivoula malpasi is the only bat that is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is represented by only five records. The other known species of Kerivoula in Sri Lanka, Kerivoula picta, is more widely distributed. This study maps the current a...
Article
Full-text available
Bats perform critical ecosystem functions, including the pollination, seed dispersal, and regulation of invertebrate populations. Yet, bat populations are declining worldwide primarily due to habitat loss and other anthropogenic stressors. Thus, studies on bat ecology, particularly on environmental determinants of bat occupancy, are paramount to th...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological responses of nocturnal predatory birds to forest cover and other geospatial predictors vary both geographically and taxonomically. Considerable knowledge gaps exist regarding the habitat associations of the Sri Lanka Frogmouth, a nocturnal bird restricted to Sri Lanka and the Indian Western Ghats. Via a 20-year island-wide survey, we sea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sri Lanka is a global biodiversity hotspot, and also harbour a unique and largely endemic assemblage of reptiles, especially agamid lizards. Twenty (90%) out of the 22 species in the island are endemic and nearly 68% of these are threatened with extinction. Several species are restricted to a single, small range (<100 km 2 ; i.e. micro-endemics). D...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This species is known from Kaduannawa in Kandy District, in Sri Lanka's Central Province, at 427 and 435 m asl. The broader Kadungannawa area has an area of 600 ha and an altitudinal range between 354 and 587 m asl. The species' closest relatives have type localities within around 40 km straight-line distance, suggesting that this species has a gen...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This species is known only from Keerthibandarapura, Walapane, Nuwara Eliya District, in Sri Lanka's Central Province, at elevations of 539 and 562 m asl. The Keerthibandarapura area covers an area of 900 ha and an altitudinal range of 500-750 m asl. It is thought unlikely to be more widespread than presently known, but this requires confirmation th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This species is known only from Kumaradola, Maragalakanda, Monaragala District in Sri Lanka's Uva Province, at elevations of 421 to 437 m asl. The broader Maragalakanda area covers an area of 4,100 ha and an altitudinal range from 354 to 750 m asl.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This species is known only from granite caves in Bambarabotuwa, Opanayake, Ratnapura District, in Sri Lanka's Sabaragamuwa Province, where it has been collected at 445 and 458 m asl. Bambarabotuwa Forest Reserve covers an area of 3,500 ha and an altitudinal range of 380-850 m asl. It may be more widespread in forest in this protected area, but this...
Article
Full-text available
A new day gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 is described from the intermediate bioclimatic zone (Haputale Forest and Idalgashinna Forest in Badulla District) of Sri Lanka. The new species belongs to the Cnemaspis kandiana clade and was recorded from granite caves and abandoned buildings within forested areas. The region in which these habi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The illegal wildlife trade is one of the most lucrative multi-billion-dollar enterprises, involving direct exploitation of flora and fauna around the world. Much of the illegal wildlife trade tends to be associated with a number of charismatic and/or high-profile species and elephants fall into the top-end of this category. Number of studies have b...
Article
Full-text available
The illegal wildlife trade is considered one of the major threats to global biodiversity. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have been highly valued by various cultures for use in religious and spiritual contexts, as a draft animal, and more recently, as a tourist attraction. Thus, the demand for captive elephants is high. Wild Asian elephants are t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In September 2019, the IUCN/CI Biodiversity Assessment Unit held a workshop to complete IUCN Red List assessments for 169 species of snakes and lizards of the 230 currently (September 2019) described reptile species known from Sri Lanka, as part of the Global Reptile Assessment. Additionally, a preliminary Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) assessment was...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Indian oceanic, tropical island of Sri Lanka is recognized as a biodiversity hotspot owing to the rich biodiversity, high rate of biological endemism and anthropogenic threats. Among the biodiversity, herpetological diversity spawns burgeoning interest due its uniqueness leading to numerous research. However, this enthusiasm on Sri Lankan repti...
Article
Full-text available
Jaffna peninsula is quite an unexplored area of Sri Lanka's lowland dry zone. We constructed a species checklist for all herpetofauna of this area based on a short-term field survey, a comprehensive literature review, museum specimens, and observations made by field herpetologists. Based on 200 × 10 m belt transects, we surveyed herpetofauna both d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The day geckos (Cnemaspis) are diminutive, slender-bodied geckos with crepuscular behavior. These geckos are mostly rupicolous with a few being arboreal and ground-dwelling. Most members of this genus have a cryptic morphology and coloration, which help in camouflage. Sri Lankan Cnemaspis clade has undergone much taxonomic revisions, where a number...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The island of Sri Lanka is home to 21 species of draconid lizards including 19 (~90%) endemic species. Nearly 62% of these species are listed as threatened with 7 critically endangered, 5 endangered and 1 vulnerable, however this number may change as conservation status of four species described after 2012 are not assessed. A number of taxonomic re...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 is described from Nilgala Savannah Forest in Sri Lanka. The new species is diagnosed from all other congeners by the following suite of characters: small body size (SVL< 33 mm), dorsal scales on trunk homogeneous, one pair of post mentals separated by a single small chin scale, ventral scales on trunk smooth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Sri Lanka frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger) is a small-sized nocturnal bird largely restricted to tropical lowland forests with thick undergrowth. The motionless roosting posture as well as their plumage coloration and color patterns (which resemble that of tree stems and branches) enable them to camouflage and thereby avoid predation. Throu...
Article
Full-text available
The homalopsid snake Gerarda prevostiana is known from parts of southern Asia and lives in coastal brackish-water habitats. For six years we surveyed 50 such habitats around the coastline of Sri Lanka and recorded the distribution and behaviour of this species. We also observed captive G. prevostiana to understand microhabitat use and behaviour. Du...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mammalian conservation in Sri Lanka has mostly focused in the protected area network which only covers >30% of the nation's land area. Bats are relatively mobile and their overall fitness depends on landscape-scale features, including habitat suitability both inside and outside protected areas. To study the bat communities outside Sri Lankan conser...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution of Kerivoula hardwickii, Hardwicke’s Woolly Bat, in Sri Lanka is restricted to the central highlands and to the northeastern region of the country, and so far, only recorded from four distinct locations. In Sri Lanka, this species was last documented in the year 1994 and no subsequent surveys recorded this species in Sri Lanka, thus co...
Article
Full-text available
In Sri Lanka, there are 31 species of bats distributed from lowlands to mountains. To document bat diversity and their habitat associations, 58 roosting sites in Maduru-Oya National Park periphery were surveyed. Fifteen bat species were recorded occupying 16 different roosting sites in this area. Among all the species recorded, Rhinolophusrouxii wa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biodiversity-rich tropical island of Sri Lanka is not isolated from ongoing global-scale biodiversity loss. Declining populations of native fauna and flora can be attributed to a plethora of human activities. Predominantly, such anthropogenic activities involve deforestation, invasive alien species, global environmental change, modifications in nat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are 30 species of Chiropterans inhabiting the tropical Indian Oceanic Island of Sri Lanka, many of which are nationally threatened. These 30 species consist of four Megachiropterans and 26 Microchiropterans. Interestingly, despites geographical isolation, Sri Lanka does not possess any endemic Chiropterans. There is a paucity of long-term stu...
Article
Full-text available
The Bengal monitor (Varanus bengalensis) is the second largest lizard species in Sri Lanka, and is well adapted to living in a variety of terrestrial habitats. Varanus bengalensis is a diurnal generalist predator, but sometimes function as a scavenger. Given the ecological plasticity and generalist foraging strategy of V. bengalensis, its feeding e...
Conference Paper
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Turtles are integral to freshwater and wetland ecosystem functions as herbivores, carnivores, and scavengers in food webs. Turtles have extensive home ranges and utilize numerous aquatic and woodland habitats to satisfy different life-history requirements; therefore, “fortress conservation” is inadequate in turtle conservation. We investigated popu...
Article
Full-text available
Crocodiles are found in all sorts of wetlands from the sea level up to around 300 m (close to Ratnapura). As the vernacular names suggest mugger or freshwater crocodiles are found in freshwater wetlands such as rivers, tanks (man-made lakes), canals, villus, marshlands, natural pools, and agro-wells. The saltwater crocodile is found in saline water...
Article
Full-text available
Gonatodes kandianus var. tropidogaster was described by Boulenger (1885) with only “Ceylon” (=Sri Lanka) as its locality. This taxon was later assigned to the genus Cnemaspis and then recorded from many different parts of the country. Misleading taxonomic publications and muddled nomenclatural issues has since rendered its taxonomic position unclea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Jaffna peninsula is quite an unexplored area of Sri Lanka's lowland dryzone. We constructed a species checklist for all herpetofauna of this area based on, a short-term field survey, a comprehensive literature review, museum specimens, and observations made by field herpetologists. Based on 200 × 10 m belt transects, we surveyed herpetofauna both d...
Data
FIGURE 3. Habitat of Cnemaspis tropidogaster at Pilikuttuwa, Gampaha District, Sri Lanka (a) forest foot path; (b) caves and rock boulders; (c) egg-nesting habitat with an adult female (not collected; Photo: W. M. S. Botejue)
Data
FIGURE 4. Current distribution pattern of Cnemaspis tropidogaster, with other lowland (wet and intermediate zones) and central highland Cnemaspis species. Type locality of each species marked with black dot centrally.
Data
FIGURE 1. Cnemaspis tropidogaster male NMSL 5159, (a) dorsal head; (b) lateral head; (c) ventral head; (d) dorsal body; (e) ventral body; (f) subdigital lamellae on hind limb; (g) lateral body; (h) ventral tail and pelvic area.
Data
FIGURE 2. Cnemaspis tropidogaster lectotype male (BMNH 71.12.14.49), (a) dorsal head; (b) lateral head; (c) ventral head; (d) dorsal body; (e) ventral body; (f) toes and subdigital lamellae; (g); lateral body (h) ventral tail base and pelvic area (photo courtesy of BMNH).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The endangered Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1949) is the only big cat species native to Sri Lanka, ranging from lowland to highlands. They are habitually poached for pelts and other body parts, including for medicinal use. In addition, due to habitat degradation human-leopard conflict has slowly risen throughout the past...
Article
Full-text available
We found a total of 102 food items that have been observed predated/consumed by Varanus salvator salvator in Sri Lanka. Among these, 86 (84.3%) were vertebrates, and 16 (15.7%) invertebrates. Vertebrate prey included four species of amphibians (3.9%), 18 species of reptiles (17.7%), 11 species of birds (10.8%), 24 species of mammals (23.5%) and 29...
Article
Full-text available
A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Sitana was described by Cuvier (1829) on the basis of a single species, S. ponticeriana. The secondly described, Sitana minor Günther, 1864, is identical to S. ponticeriana Cuvier, 1829, and should be considered as a junior objective synonym of the latter. The syntypes of S. deccanensis Jerdon, 1870 have been rediscovered, misplaced among...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The terrapins and tortoises consist of over 330 species around the world, and are the most threatened reptiles. Sri Lanka is home to three species and two sub-species. One species and the two sub-species appear to form an endemic radiation: Lissemys ceylonensis, Melanochelys trijuga parkeri, Melanochelys trijuga thermalis, Geochelone elegans is wid...
Article
Full-text available
Adenomus is an endemic genus of toads to Sri Lanka known from three species. Adenomus kandianus had been considered extinct until its recent rediscovery from the Peak Wilderness in 2012, after a lap of 136 years. Here we report the second existing population of Adenomus kandianus from lower part of the Pidurutalagala Forest Reserve, in central Sri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently, 7 species were categorized as critically endangered, 5 endangered, 1 vulnerable, 2 near threatened, and 5 least concerned. More than 65% of the Sri Lankan draconids are listed in the National List of threatened species. A number of taxonomic revisions has taken place during the last decade resulting in changes in draconid systematic at s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The dry zone of Sri Lanka contains one of the largest populations of mugger crocodiles in the world (Crocodylus palustris -globally listed as 'Vulnerable'). The island also has an ever increasing human population, and over the past half century, the number of humans and livestock using natural water bodies in the dry zone has increased significantl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maduruoya National Park was established in 1983 under the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance of Sri Lanka as an integral part of the Mahaweli Protected Area Complex to provide habitats for many native fauna and flora, especially for the wildlife displaced from reservoir construction and hydropower development. This park is located within the dry...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A primary study was conducted to assess the impact of humans on crocodiles and vice versa along the Urubokka Oya / Maha Oya (oya = river) in Humbantota District, Sothern Province of Sri Lanka. This river provides good habitats with both rocky and muddy river banks and muddy shallow water. The river mainly flows through paddy cultivated lands and vi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A preliminary survey was conducted to assess the diversity of herpetofauna in the Atweltota tropical rainforest (ATRF) in Atweltota (Kalutara and Ratnapura districts), Sri Lanka. This forest covers more than 5000 hectares and falls within the southwestern wet-zone, at an elevation of 200 - 600 m above sea level. A total of 30 (~27%) species of amph...