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Maarten van Hoek

Maarten van Hoek

About

85
Publications
44,956
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138
Citations
Citations since 2017
75 Research Items
126 Citations
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Introduction
Maarten van Hoek - independent rock art researcher since 1975. Publications available at: https://arte-rupestre3.webnode.nl/bibliography/ ---------- Messages posted at ResearchGate will not be read by me. Please contact me only by using rockart @ home.nl

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
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My paper describes the images on a boulder that has one of the most complex biomorphic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley and in Arequipa rock art. It may well be death-related, as will be demonstrated. Another death-related petroglyph on an adjoining panel definitely links the boulder - and the whole site - with Apu Coropuna, the most Sacred Mountain...
Article
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The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Torán is such an important “minor” site, as it is clearly connected with the two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley; Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis.
Article
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The paper proves that even “minor” rock art sites can be most interesting, especially when placing such a “minor” site in a larger local and regional context. Punta Colorada is such an important “minor” site as it may well connect (graphically, literally and metaphorically) two most important “major” rock art sites in the valley. Additionally, the...
Article
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The paper describes the petroglyph site of Cerro San Diego, north of Lima. The site has a rather unusual location. Moreover, it has some exceptional petroglyphs, for instance a large purported “eye-motif” from the Andean Formative Period.
Article
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It is very rare to find a unique rock art image repeated on ceramics or textiles from contemporaneous cultures. This study discusses the parallel between the unique petroglyph of a deliberately rotated bird image at Cochineros, a rock art site along the Río Mala, and compares the bird with similar images on ceramics and textiles of a surprisingly l...
Article
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The paper considers the role of music and sound possibly depicted in the rock art of the Central Majes Valley (southern Peru) in view of the Middel Horizon musical instruments found at La Real (and Uraca).
Article
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The paper investigates one enormous boulder with numerous petroglyphs at Alto de Pitis, a major rock art site in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. Two types of petroglyphs on this boulder are being described in more detail and discussed within the context of the rock art of the Majes Valley.
Article
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This concerns an update regarding the rock art at Sector-X, Toro Muerto, southern Peru. The whole study about Sector-X will be available at the TRACCE online-publication, which still includes the original 2022-January paper, the 2022-February-Addendum, but now also the update, this 2022-September-Addendum, posted as a separate PDF at ResearchGate.
Book
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My latest book about Arequipa rock art (Peru) exclusively deals with the icon of the enigmatic Majes “Dancer”, which proves to have an unexpected limited distribution, yet appears in large numbers and endless varieties. The book has 71 pages, more than 22.000 words, 61 numbered illustrations, an Appendix with 12 illustrations (a total of 123 illust...
Article
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This paper deals with the rock art site of Quebrada de La Tuna, a small, yet important petroglyph site in the Sihuas Valley of southern Peru. As early as 1977 Cuban archaeologist Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited the site and graphically recorded several boulders with petroglyphs. This present study re-describes the site, offering updated information a...
Article
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This study describes curious cases of “missing” information about petroglyphs reported (and recorded?) at the archaeological complex at Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru. It was claimed (2007) by the leading excavator, Prof. Tiffiny Tung, that all petroglyphs were documented in 2001 and yet not a single illustration of the Beringa petrog...
Article
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My updated report about the falsified photos of petroglyphs from the Majes Valley - southern Peru, published in 2020 by Prof. Tung and Prof. Scaffidi. Also included is the Erratum published by Tung and Scaffidi in July 2022, which is approved by the Editor - Prof. Turner - and by the Publisher, Wiley. In both their paper and the Erratum the two "sc...
Article
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Especially in this time of a dangerously increasing amount of online (deep) fake-news, outrageous lies, falsified photos and misleading information that are used to - for instance - “justify” a disgusting and horrible war in Europe, it should not be tolerated that similar falsifications are being used in scientific publications by academic professi...
Article
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This study describes a little-known rock art site located on very high ground between the rivers Rímac and Lurín, a short distance inland from the capital of Perú, Lima. It has been reported for the first time in 2014. At least 25 boulders with petroglyphs have been discussed in this study. Este estudio describe un sitio de arte rupestre poco cono...
Article
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Report describing a hitherto undescribed rock art site ENE of Lima, Peru. Simple petroglyphs of quadrupeds (camelids?) and abstract motifs predominate, but there is at least one interesting zoomorphic image as well. Informe que describe un sitio de arte rupestre hasta ahora no descrito ENE de Lima, Perú. Predominan los petroglifos simples de cuadr...
Book
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The book deals with only one of the roughly 19 rock art sites in the Caravelí Valley (Arequipa) in southern Peru. The site is very old (it definitely dates from the Andean Formative Period) but also features some interesting historic messages. The site proves to house some unique images that are fully discussed in my book. The book has 51 numbered...
Article
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This article about rock art in Peru deals with Tacar, a major rock art concentration in the Vítor Valley of southern Peru. The article describes the rock art images at Tacar and attempts at offering an explanation for the location of the rock art. Interestingly, several petroglyphs are evidence of links with the Majes Valley, further west.
Article
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La Laja is a major rock art concentration on a large outcrop wall high above the Majes River valley in southern Peru. This article describes the many rock art images at La Laja and attempts at a tentative chronology. Most of the imagery belongs to the Majes Rock Art Style (see Van hoek 2018 for more information), although several images are later.
Article
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It is known for more than 80 years that the Manga drainage in southern Peru houses one of the most important rock art sites in this part of the Andes (Illomas). However, apart from Illomas there are a number of smaller, yet important rock art sites in this valley. This study discusses two sites in the Manga Valley that were provisionally recorded i...
Article
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Toro Muerto es el sitio de arte rupestre más grande de los Andes, conocido desde 1953. En 2018, un equipo de investigación polaco-peruano inició el Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica - Toro Muerto (PIA-TM) e inspeccionó una parte informada anteriormente, pero no inspeccionada en el extremo norte del sitio. Se llamaba Sector-X. Este estudio inte...
Article
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This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. Mollebaya Chico is one of those sites.
Article
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This paper again demonstrates that in the area of the Majes Rock Art Style (Arequipa; southern Peru) many sites are firmly and ritually connected with at least one of the Sacred Mountains (the Apus) of the area. Those volcanoes play an important role in selecting spots for rock art production. La Caldera is one example.
Article
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Many rock art sites are easily destroyed, also in Peru, especially because of road constructions or mining activities. This paper describes three petroglyph sites near the village of Huaca Blanca in northern Peru. Especially Huaca Blanca has already been partially destroyed by unwanted quarrying. This paper offers a brief inventory of what is (was!...
Book
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This book was written by me to serve as a supplement to a most extensive survey of the Wari Settlement at Quilcapampa in the Sihuas Valley of Southern Peru, the results of which were published in 2021 after many years of meticulous excavation and research, which started in 2013 by the Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica Quilcapampa La Antigua (P...
Article
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The Sama Valley in southern Peru has only a few rock art sites. This article (in English and Spanish) describes one of those sites, which is located at Coropuro on the south bank of the river. It has an interesting collection of petroglyphs, some of which might be linked to a previously unnoticed geoglyph nearby.
Article
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This study investigates the possibility whether rock art images in the Majes Valley of southern Peru indeed depict weapons or conflicts between humans. The bio-archaeological excavations and research at Uraca (Majes Valley) by Beth Scaffidi and Tiffiny Tung suggest that the rock art of especially neighbouring Toro Muerto conveys a preoccupation wit...
Article
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The Majes drainage in southern Peru boasts the largest collection of rock art in the Andes, especially because of the abundance of petroglyphs at the Toro Muerto and Alto de Pitis. Importantly, both sites have numerous bird petroglyphs of different types. Yet there are other sites in the Majes drainage that also have idiosyncratic bird imagery. One...
Article
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Arequipa in southern Peru is very rich in rock art. This study investigates the relationship between the Majes Rock Art Style and the geoglyphs (not a form of rock art, though) in the area. It proves that several geoglyphs are directly related with the petroglyphs of Toro Muerto and also that they are located on ancient routes to and from the Majes...
Book
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VAN HOEK, M. 2012. Cerro Mulato: Rock Art of the Reque-Chancay Drainage, Peru. Published via BLURB. Oisterwijk, The Netherlands. * This book (in English) exclusively deals with the Rock Art of the Chancay Valley; an area in the Department of Lambayeque in northern Peru. The book has 280 pages and has been lavishly decorated with 767 illustrations (...
Book
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Van Hoek, M. 2013. The Carcancha and the Apu. Rock Art in the Death Valley of the Andes. Published via BLURB. Oisterwijk, The Netherlands. This book discusses the relationship between the rock art site of Alto de Pitis in the Majes Valley of southern Peru and the Sacred Mountain of Nevado Coropuna, the highest volcano of Peru. At Alto de Pitis the...
Book
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In 2016 my wife Elles and I visited Chuquillanqui for the first time. It was an impressive expedition through the enchanting Chicama Valley, exploring the rock art of Chuquillanqui and then back again. Not only the rock art was often most impressive, especially its environmental setting was awe-inspiring for us living in flat-landscaped Holland. Be...
Article
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Certain rock art images prove to occur at numerous places in the world, like cupules and zigzags. In most cases this is a matter of parallel invention. However, a number of motifs may have travelled across the globe for short or even enormous distances. This study investigates the distribution of one of the enigmatic rock art features, the serrated...
Article
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Rock art images often include unexpected and enigmatic elements. This study investigates the petroglyphs of especially anthropomorphic figures that have an unanticipated feather-element; a long groove (sometimes slightly curved) with a row of parallel but shorter grooves attached to one side only, ranging in number from two up to eight of such shor...
Article
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In this study the image of the Majes feline and its graphical anomalies will be discussed, as well as the unexpected distribution pattern of feline imagery in the Majes Valley.
Article
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In 1951, Alberto Fuentes Llaguno and-somewhat later-Eloy Linares Málaga reported the discovery of a large collection of petroglyphs at Toro Muerto in the Majes Valley, Arequipa, Peru. One of the many petroglyphs at this site depicts a skeleton-like anthropomorph. Since then several similar images have been recorded in Arequipa rock art. This study...
Book
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The book has 66 pages and 72 numbered illustrations of drawings, photographs and maps, as well as one Appendix with statistics. The book offers an (almost?) complete inventory of rock art images of watercraft in the Desert Andes (focussing mainly on Chile and Peru and on the petroglyph sites of Tamentica and Ariquilda in particular), but also attem...
Article
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Scientific publications should always be reliable. The content may never be incorrect or misleading. This also goes for publications regarding rock art, whether by amateurs or by academics. This short paper deals with two photographs of petroglyphs from the Majes Valley, southern Peru, and the conclusions based upon those illustrations published by...
Article
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In several instances rock art regions have a number of deviating images that seem to be exclusive for that region. In this paper I discuss the graphical displays of a natural bodily function that is, although - from top to bottom - normal in the natural world, very rare in rock art. It concerns images of defecating elephants, which - enigmatically...
Article
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This paper deals mainly with rock art images of masks that are folded across two rock panels creating 3D masks. In particular the Mogollon 3D masks of Three Rivers in New Mexico, USA, will be discussed. Also the puzzling anomaly regarding the distribution of Mogollon 3D masks and Rio Grande Style 3D masks will be dealt with. Finally, it will be att...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to complete the inventory of petroglyphs on this site, taking into account both the bibliography and new field observations. There are at least thirteen zoomorphic engravings, among which elephants and giraffes seem to be the oldest, followed by ostriches, podomorphs and a few other motifs (star, scorpion...). * Cette é...
Book
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The book is available as a PDF (again only) from ResearchGate. It concerns a mainly photographic presentation of the petroglyphs at Quebrada de los Boliches, a major petroglyph site in the north of Peru, surveyed by us in 2011. The study offers a short description (including 5 maps) and briefly reviews the history of the site, while about 109 panel...
Book
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Besides a tour along the many examples of polycephalic biomorphs found at rock art sites across the globe, the book also offers a special Case Study involving a most specific bicephalic anthropomorphic figure from the west of North America. The book has 147 pages, including an extensive list of references and list of Figures (plus the full captions...
Book
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My book ‘The Chavín Controversy’, published in 2011 is now available as PDF at ResearchGate. It exclusively deals with Andean Rock Art from the Formative Period (roughly between 2000 B.C. to A.D. 0) and focuses on imagery that has been labelled ‘Chavín-style’ in the past. Yet, rock art constitutes the main body of the book. The book begins with an...
Book
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In 2011 I published the printed version of my book commenting on the 1986-book by Núñez Jiménez about rock art in Peru. This book is called: Petroglyphs of Peru - Following the Footsteps of Antonio Núñez Jiménez. Later I created a er PDF e-version on the BLURB website. But a few years ago I deleted my BLURB account and my five printed books are no...
Book
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The book exclusively describes and discusses rock art images from the Desert Andes (the deserts of western Peru and northern Chile) which are associated with life and death (sex and gender related imagery). The book has been lavishly decorated with 326 illustrations (many colour photos and numerous drawings)……. El libro exclusivamente trata las ima...
Article
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Despite increasing interest in inventorying of the rock art in the northern coastal area of Peru, only very little has been published by Peruvian scholars. In fact, several scholars said to publish inventories of - for example, Palamenco in Ancash and even of whole departments such as La Libertad - but nothing happens. This interim inventory about...
Article
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The rock art of Arequipa (southern Peru) is characterised by several idiosyncratic images, like 'Dancers'. However, also rather simple elements form rare and uncommon configurations that are composed of grooves, arcs of dots and crosses that are hovering over or are emanating from zoomorphic petroglyphs, yet intimately associated. Similar configura...
Article
In 1936, Leonidas Bernedo Málaga reported the discovery of a large collection of petroglyphs near the village of Illomas. We present the results of a recent study of the site, describing both the rock art and the organization of its surrounding ceremonial complex in light of our broader understanding of the prehistory of what is now the Department...
Book
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“The Book of Bows - The Archer in Desert Andes Rock Art” discusses the distribution of the rock art image of the archer in the coastal desert of western South America. After having inventoried all rock art images of the archer (known to me up to July 2019) I discuss the remarkable absence of the archer in big parts of the Desert Andes. I continue e...
Article
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In this publication about rock art I tentatively propose that some Andean (rock) art images of zoomorphs and anthropomorphs may hold an invisible object. I also argue that those images are not unfinished and not incomplete.
Book
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I started working on this book in 2014, triggered by the discovery of many enigmatic petroglyphs in the Majes Valley of Peru, which I labelled ‘Carcanchas’ (Van Hoek 2013); rare anthropomorphic figures symbolising life and death. It proved that - globally - there were many more rock art images and some objects that are possibly related to the same...
Article
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In the area just south of the Anti-Atlas numerous rock art sites have been recorded. However, there are remarkably few rock art panels with cupules in that area. This study describes a surprisingly high number of cupule panels in the Imaoun area, north of the town of Akka in southern Morocco, which represents a true anomaly in this respect.
Article
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Although in general complex biomorphic figures in rock art are not suitable to demonstrate diffusion, there is one idiosyncratic anthropomorphic figure the in rock art repertoire of the Americas, which, although it is very rare, has a remarkably wide distribution that might indicate long-distance diffusion. I have labelled this icon the Saluting An...
Book
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This book deals with a group of valleys in the Department of Arequipa: from Caravelí to Vítor. The book (156 pages in English with 105 numbered illustrations [and many more]) - called Formative Period Rock Art in Arequipa, Peru. An up-dated analysis of the rock art from Caravelí to Vítor - offers many, previously unpublished illustrations of rock a...