Maaret Castrén

Maaret Castrén
Karolinska Institutet | KI · Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset

About

231
Publications
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7,299
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - December 2017
University of Turku
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (231)
Article
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Background: The requirement concerning formal education for emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) is debated and varies, both nationally and internationally. There are few studies on the outcomes of emergency medical dispatching in relation to professional background. This study aimed to compare calls handled by an EMD with and without support by a r...
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Aims and objectives: To describe prehospital nursing students' experiences of patient safety culture in emergency medical services during their internship. Background: Patient safety culture in the emergency medical services is a complex phenomenon including more than organisational policies and practices and professionals' technical skills. De...
Article
Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a global issue setting challenges to all care providers. Elderly patients are frequent visitors of the ED and their risk stratification is demanding due to insufficient assessment methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk-predicting value of a prognostic biomarker, soluble urok...
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Objectives: To explore the emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) experiences of managing emergency medical calls. Design: A qualitative interview study with an inductive approach. EMDs were interviewed individually using a semistructured interview guide. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Setting: EMDs,...
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Background Randomized trials have shown that trans-nasal evaporative cooling initiated during CPR (i.e. intra-arrest) effectively lower core body temperature in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. However, these trials may have been underpowered to detect significant differences in neurologic outcome, especially in patients with initial shocka...
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Background Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints (NSC). Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been established that NSCs may have a serious underlying condition that has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study was to determine...
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Background In the pre-hospital setting, non-urgent patients with non-specific chief complaints pose assessment challenges for the emergency medical systems (EMS). Severely ill patients should be identified among these patients, and unnecessary transport to the emergency department (ED) should be avoided. Unnecessary admissions burden EDs, deplete E...
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The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Tre...
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The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Tre...
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Abstract Background Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is, by its nature, a challenging context that may create risks for both patients and employees. It is also known that an organisation’s safety culture has an influence on both patient and employee safety. Finnish EMS organisations lack knowledge of how their safety culture is perceived by their e...
Article
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these basic life support guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include cardiac arrest recognition, alerting emergency services, chest compressions, rescue breaths, automated external d...
Article
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these basic life support guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include cardiac arrest recognition, alerting emergency services, chest compressions, rescue breaths, automated external d...
Article
Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves cardiac arrest survival. Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump have been reported as alternative CPR techniques. We aimed to summarise in a systematic review the effectiveness of these alternative CPR techniques. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library on...
Article
Background Quality Indicator (QI) appraisal protocols are a novel methodology that combines multiple appraisal methods to comprehensively assess the "appropriateness" of QIs for a particular healthcare setting. However, they remain inadequately explored compared to the single appraisal method approach. This paper aimed to describe and test a QI app...
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Background: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with a non-specific chief complaints (NSC); i.e. decreased general condition, general malaise, sense of illness, or just being unable to cope with usual daily activities. Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been establis...
Article
Introduction Cardiac arrest is a time-sensitive condition requiring urgent intervention. Prompt and accurate recognition of cardiac arrest by emergency medical dispatchers at the time of the emergency call is a critical early step in cardiac arrest management allowing for initiation of dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and appropriate and timely em...
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Background A decision system in the ambulance allowing alternative pathways to alternate healthcare providers has been developed for older patients in Stockholm, Sweden. However, subsequent healthcare resource use resulting from these pathways has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was therefore to describe patient pathways, healthcare u...
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Background Research on patient safety in emergency medical services (EMS) has mainly focused on the organisation’s and/or the EMS personnel’s perspective. Little is known about how patients perceive safety in EMS. This study aims to describe the patients’ experiences of their sense of safety in EMS. Methods A qualitative design with individual int...
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This 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations on basic life support summarizes evidence evaluations performed for 22 topics that were prioritized by the Basic Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The eviden...
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Sudden out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Many of these lives could be saved if bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were better. “All citizens of the world can save a life—CHECK—CALL—COMPRESS.” With these words, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation launched the 201...
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Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa consistently fails to deliver timely reperfusion to these patients, possibly due to under-developed coronary care networks (CCN). Objectives: To determine the current perceived state of CCNs, to determine the barriers to optimising CCNs and...
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Introduction In South Africa (SA), prehospital emergency care is delivered by emergency medical services (EMS) across the country. Within these services, quality systems are in their infancy, and issues regarding transparency, reliability and contextual relevance have been cited as common concerns, exacerbated by poor communication, and ineffective...
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Background In-hospital cardiac arrest is a major cause of death in European countries, and survival of patients remains low ranging from 20% to 25%. Aims The purpose of this study was to assess healthcare professionals’ knowledge on cardiopulmonary resuscitation among university hospitals in 12 European countries and correlate it with the return o...
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Background: Hand hygiene (HH), a cornerstone in infection prevention and control, lacks quality in emergency medical services (EMS). HH improvement includes both individual and institutional aspects, but little is known about EMS providers' HH perception and motivations related to HH quality. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HH perception and...
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The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the third annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Wit...
Article
Objectives: Hyperglycemia is a predictor for poor stroke outcome. Hyperglycemic stroke patients treated with thrombolysis have an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Insulin is the gold standard for treating hyperglycemia but comes with a risk of hypoglycemia. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are drugs used in type 2 diab...
Article
Utstein-style reporting templates provide a structured framework with which to compare systems of care for cardiac arrest. The 2004 Utstein reporting template encompassed both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest. A 2015 update of the Utstein template focused on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which makes this update of the in-hospital te...
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Introduction: Historically, performance within the Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC) setting has been assessed primarily based on response times. While easy to measure and valued by the public, overall, response time targets are a poor predictor of quality of care and clinical outcomes. Over the last two decades however, significant progress has be...
Article
Objective Deficits in healthcare quality are becoming an increasing concern globally. Within the low‐ to middle‐income country (LMIC) setting insufficient quality has become a bigger barrier to reducing mortality than insufficient access, where 60% of deaths from conditions amenable to healthcare, are due to poor quality care. Measuring quality is...
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The incidence of cardiovascular disease and STEMI is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Timely treatment is essential to reduce mortality. Internationally, prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry has been proposed to reduce time to reperfusion. Its value in South Africa has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prehos...
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Introduction Healthcare-associated infection caused by insufficient hygiene is associated with mortality, economic burden, and suffering for the patient. Emergency medical service (EMS) providers encounter many patients in different surroundings and are thus at risk of posing a source of microbial transmission. Hand hygiene (HH), a proven infection...
Article
Objective: To develop a template for uniform reporting of standardized measuring and describing of care provided in the emergency department (ED). Methods: An international group of experts in emergency medicine, with broad experience from different clinical settings, met in Utstein, Norway. Through a consensus process, a limited number of measu...
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Cardiac arrest effectiveness trials have traditionally reported outcomes that focus on survival. A lack of consistency in outcome reporting between trials limits the opportunities to pool results for meta-analysis. The COSCA initiative (Core Outcome Set for Cardiac Arrest), a partnership between patients, their partners, clinicians, research scient...
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Cardiac arrest effectiveness trials have traditionally reported outcomes that focus on survival. A lack of consistency in outcome reporting between trials limits the opportunities to pool results for meta-analysis. The COSCA initiative (Core Outcome Set for Cardiac Arrest), a partnership between patients, their partners, clinicians, research scient...
Article
Introduction: Timely reperfusion, preferably via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) following myocardial infarction, improves mortality rates. Emergency medical services play a pivotal role in recognising and transporting patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction directly to a PCI facility to avoid delays to reperfusion. Access to PCI...
Article
Introduction Historically, the quality and performance of prehospital emergency care (PEC) has been assessed largely based on surrogate, non-clinical endpoints such as response time intervals or other crude measures of care (eg, stakeholder satisfaction). However, advances in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems and services world-wide have see...
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Background: Emergency medical dispatching should be as accurate as possible in order to ensure patient safety and optimize the use of ambulance resources. This study aimed to compare the accuracy, measured as priority level, between two Swedish dispatch protocols - the three-graded priority protocol Medical Index and a newly developed prototype, t...
Article
2017 marks the 25th anniversary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1992 to create a forum for collaboration among principal resuscitation councils worldwide. Since then, ILCOR has established and distinguished itself for its pioneering vision and leadership in resuscitation science. By systematical...
Article
2017 marks the 25th anniversary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1992 to create a forum for collaboration among principal resuscitation councils worldwide. Since then, ILCOR has established and distinguished itself for its pioneering vision and leadership in resuscitation science. By systematical...
Article
2017 marks the 25th anniversary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1992 to create a forum for collaboration among principal resuscitation councils worldwide. Since then, ILCOR has established and distinguished itself for its pioneering vision and leadership in resuscitation science. By systematicall...
Article
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a near-continuous review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation science that replaces the previous 5-year cyclic batch-and-queue approach process. This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Wi...
Article
Full-text available
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a near-continuous review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation science that replaces the previous 5-year cyclic batch-and-queue approach process. This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Wi...
Article
Aim: High quality evidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can measure the long-term impact of CA. The aim of this study was to critically appraise the evidence of psychometric quality and acceptability of measures used in the assessment of HRQoL in cardiac arrest survivors. Methods: Sys...
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Introduction: The incidence of myocardial infarction is rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to reduce mortality, timely reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis followed by PCI is required. South Africa has historically been characterised by inequities in healthcare access based on geographic and socioeconomic stat...
Article
Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the...
Article
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Vital signs are widely used in emergency departments. Previous studies on the association between vital signs and mortality in emergency departments have been restricted to selected patient populations. We aimed to study the association of vital signs and age with 1-day mortality in patients visiting the emergency department. This retrospective coh...
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Background Trauma systems and regionalized trauma care have been shown to improve outcome in severely injured trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a prehospital trauma care protocol and transport directive, and to determine its effects on the number of primary admissions and secondary trauma transfers in a la...
Article
Aim: In out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) a single rescuer should start with Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) immediately after calling the Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC). The start of CPR may be delayed considerably if the total time to connect to the dispatcher at the EMCC (TT-EMCC) is prolonged. EUROCALL aimed to investiga...
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Background: Efficient trials of interventions for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) should have adequate but not excess power to detect a difference in outcomes. The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is the threshold value in outcomes observed in a trial at which providers should choose to adopt a treatment. There ha...
Article
Pain is a major health problem that has a huge impact on public health. Pain is also the most common reason for patients to seek care at the emergency department. Data were collected at seven emergency departments in Stockholm, Sweden, over 24 hours. Data were gathered from patients via a questionnaire conducted by the triage nurse during the first...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bystanders with no training in triage can correctly prioritize three injured patients by using a triage instrument.Method An observational study was conducted. Participants performed a primary triage on three paper-based patient cases and answered 11 questions during a public event in the cent...
Article
Unlabelled: Introduction Disaster triage is the allocation of limited medical resources in order to optimize patient outcome. There are several studies showing the poor use of triage tagging, but there are few studies that have investigated the reasons behind this. The aim of this study was to explore ambulance personnel attitude towards, and expe...
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Background Trauma-related mortality can be lowered by efficient prehospital care. Less is known about whether gender influences the prehospital trauma care provided. The aim of this study was to explore gender-related differences in prehospital trauma care of severely injured trauma patients, with a special focus on triage, transportation, and inte...
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Background: Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) may negatively affect patient outcomes, so different triage models have been introduced to improve performance. Physician-led team triage obtains better results than other triage models. We compared efficiency and quality measures before and after reorganization of the triage model in the E...
Article
Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations Andrew H. Travers, Gavin D. Perkins, Robert A. Berg, Maaret Castren, Julie Considine, Raffo Escalante, Raul J. Gazmuri, Rudolph W. Kost...
Article
Andrew H. Travers, Co-Chair*; Gavin D. Perkins, Co-Chair*; Robert A. Berg; Maaret Castren; Julie Considine; Raffo Escalante-Kanashiro; Raul J. Gazmuri; Rudolph W. Koster; Swee Han Lim; Kevin J. Nation; Theresa M. Olasveengen; Tetsuya Sakamoto; Michael R. Sayre; Alfredo Sierra; Michael A. Smyth; David Stanton; Christian Vaillancourt; on behalf of th...
Article
Full-text available
Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the...