Maaike Verhagen

Maaike Verhagen
Radboud University | RU · Behavioural Science Institute

PhD

About

62
Publications
31,037
Reads
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2,154
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
1524 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Introduction
Loneliness, Adolescents, Belongingness needs, Longitudinal designs, Psychopathology, Social stress, Oxytocin
Additional affiliations
October 2003 - December 2008
Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Adolescent loneliness can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health, but there is limited understanding of its antecedents in infancy and childhood. A 20-year longitudinal, multi-informant, and multi-methods study (first data collection in 1998) was conducted to examine mechanisms underlying adolescent loneliness (N = 128, 52% boys, Ma...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic may negatively influence food parenting practices, also among parents of adolescents. Parental well-being (stress and depressive symptoms) may explain these COVID-19 related changes in food parenting practices (snack structure, healthy structure, modeling, autonomy support, and coercive control). However, most previous studies...
Article
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Although insight in how adolescents’ food intake is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is critical, knowledge is limited. Hence, this longitudinal study (N = 691, Mage = 14.30, SDage = 0.62; 52.5% female) investigated changes in adolescents’ unhealthy (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) and healthy (fruit and vegetables) food i...
Preprint
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Higher affect variability, instability, and inertia in daily life are usually seen as indicators of emotional dysregulation. Research has shown that individuals with such affect dynamic patterns experience more depressive symptoms. However, similar affect dynamics might function differently across individuals. In this study, we propose that the imp...
Article
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Little is known about how adolescent best friends may affect each other's food intake. This study explored whether friendship selection and socialization mechanisms explained potential food intake similarities in adolescent reciprocated best friend dyads. We also tested whether socialization processes were moderated by dyad member's relative zBMI....
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Samenvatting De coronacrisis kan beschouwd worden als een ‘natuurlijk experiment’ waarin de sociale context aanzienlijk is veranderd. Het is nog grotendeels onbekend hoe jongeren daarop reageren en welke gedragingen veranderen. We hebben een cohortvergelijking gemaakt van derdeklassers ( N = 177, M leeftijd = 15,00) van de middelbare school vóór de...
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Both mothers’ and best friends’ food intake are associated with adolescents’ food intake, but they are rarely investigated simultaneously. In this study, we tested the associations of mothers’ and best friends’ food intake with adolescents’ intake of unhealthy and healthy food, obtained from home and from outside the home, and the moderating role o...
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Not much is known regarding underlying biological pathways to adolescents’ loneliness. Insight in underlying molecular mechanisms could inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing loneliness. Using latent growth curve modeling, baseline levels and development of loneliness were studied in two longitudinal adolescent samples. Genes (OXTR, OXT, AVP...
Article
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Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior...
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Inconsistent findings have been found on the relation between oxytocin levels and psychopathy or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in humans, potentially because the role of trauma in oxytocin secretion and the distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy have been overlooked so far. Primary psychopathy has a stronger biological background,...
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Many longitudinal studies have investigated whether self‐esteem predicts depressive symptoms (vulnerability model) or the other way around (scar model) in adolescents. The most common method of analysis has been the cross‐lagged panel model (CLPM). The CLPM does not separate between‐person effects from within‐person effects, making it unclear wheth...
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Background Body mass index (BMI) is correlated negatively with subjective well-being and positively with depressive symptoms. Whether these associations reflect causal effects is unclear. Methods We examined bidirectional, causal effects between BMI and mental health with Mendelian randomisation using summary-level data from published genome-wide...
Data
Table S1. Variance–Covariance Matrices Study 1–3 Table S2. Measurement Invariance Models Study 1–3 Table S3. Measurement Invariance Within Measurement Waves Study 2 Table S4. Standardized RI‐CLPM Estimates Complete Case Analyses Study 1–3 Table S5. Standardized CLPM estimates Complete Case Analyses Study 1–3 Table S6. Model Fit Comparisons of RI‐CL...
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A large proportion of adolescents eats too many energy-dense snacks, which is detrimental for their current and future health. To understand how to promote healthy dietary behaviors in adolescents, we need to identify factors that affect their snacking. While previous cross-sectional work has shown mother-child similarities in eating behavior, long...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is negatively correlated with subjective well-being and positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Whether these associations reflect causal effects or confounding is unclear. Methods We examined causal effects between BMI and subjective well-being/depressive symptoms with bi-directional, two-sample Mendelian...
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Objective: Previous work has linked high levels of belongingness needs to low well-being, suggesting that high desire for social connection causes problems. Against that view, we hypothesized that problems stem especially from unmet belongingness needs. To examine this, discrepancies between belongingness needs and relationship satisfaction were m...
Article
An important element of understanding the genotype–phenotype link in psychiatric disorders lies in identifying the psychological mechanisms through which genetic variation impacts mental health. Here we examined whether emotional inertia, the tendency for a person’s emotions to carry over from 1 moment to the next and a prospective predictor of the...
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Loneliness and depressive symptoms are distinct, but partly overlapping constructs. The current study examined whether clusters of loneliness and depressive symptoms could be identified through latent profile analysis in two samples of 417 and 1140 adolescents (48.40 and 48.68 % male, respectively), on average 12.47 and 12.81 years old, respectivel...
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Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-re...
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Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings...
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According to the differential reactivity hypothesis, lonely individuals respond differently to their environment compared to nonlonely individuals, which may sustain their loneliness levels. However, this interesting hypothesis has not yet been explored in daily life: Do lonely individuals feel lonely all the time, or do they feel more or less lone...
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Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these r...
Article
Gene by environment (G x E) research has been increasingly appreciated as it relates to the development of psychopathology. In particular, interactions between dopaminergic genotypes and maladaptive parenting have been prominently in the spotlight. In this study, we investigated whether high parental psychological control and low support would be d...
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Friendship quantity and quality are related to adolescent loneliness, but the exact link between these constructs is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine whether adolescents' perception of friendship quantity and quality, and the perceptions of their peers, were related to loneliness. We examined the relation between loneliness a...
Article
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Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were...
Article
A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to examine these two characte...
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The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individual...
Article
Based on the belongingness regulation theory (Gardner et al., 2005, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 31, 1549), this study focuses on the relationship between loneliness and social monitoring. Specifically, we examined whether loneliness relates to performance on three emotion recognition tasks and whether lonely individuals show increased gazing towards...
Article
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As a complex trait, loneliness is likely to be influenced by the interplay of numerous genetic and environmental factors. Studies in behavioral genetics indicate that loneliness has a sizable degree of heritability. Candidate-gene and gene-expression studies have pointed to several genes related to neurotransmitters and the immune system. The notio...
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Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of loneliness-a component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is tr...
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The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (Mage = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results showed that ado...
Article
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Alcohol use and depressive feelings are often related among early adolescents. However, the nature and underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-development of alcohol use and depressive feelings over time and to examine the effects of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G genotype o...
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Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to explore the relationship between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in childhood. Study 1 was performed in non-clinical children aged 9–13 years (N = 688) who completed a single-item measure of attachment style and a vignette-based instrument for assessing guilt and shame. Res...
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Previous research has shown that loneliness has a heritable component and that genes within the serotonin-, dopamine-, and oxytocin systems are related to loneliness in adolescence. In the present study, the relation between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and loneliness in adolescent boys and girls was examined in a longitudinal study spanning five...
Article
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Background: In the present study, the relation between a polymorphic marker within the OXTR gene (rs53576) and gazing behavior during two separate social interaction tasks was examined. Gazing behavior was considered to be an integral part of belonging regulation processes. Methods: We conducted an observational interaction study (N = 116; 58 dyads...
Article
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Previous research has shown that the rs53576 variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with trait levels of loneliness, but results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study is to examine micro-level effects of the OXTR rs53576 variant on state levels of loneliness in early adolescents. In addition, gene-environment interactio...
Article
Recent research has shown that loneliness, a common problem in adolescence, may have a genetic basis. The evidence, though, was limited mostly to serotonin-related and dopamine-related genes. In the present study, we focused on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Associations were examined in a longitudinal study spanning five annual waves (N=307)....
Article
The aims of this study were (1) to examine relations between baseline levels of loneliness and momentary affect and perceptions of company, and (2) to test responses to perceived social threat and lowered reward response to positive stimuli in relation to loneliness in adolescents. Data were collected among 278 adolescents (Mage = 14.19, 59% girls)...
Article
According to cognitive theories of depression, individuals susceptible to depression attend selectively to negative information. The purpose of the study was to examine if such an affective processing bias is present in never-depressed individuals with a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Formerly depressed female patients having at...
Article
Candidate gene studies on smoking behaviors mainly focused on dopaminergic and serotonergic genes, but genes within the µ-opioid system might also be involved. The A118G variant within the OPRM1 gene has been most often examined in relation to smoking, yielding inconsistent findings. It is largely unknown which of the alleles increases susceptibili...
Article
Measures of personality and psychological distress are correlated and exhibit genetic covariance. We conducted univariate genome-wide SNP (~2.5 million) and gene-based association analyses of these traits and examined the overlap in results across traits, including a prediction analysis of mood states using genetic polygenic scores for personality....
Article
Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid rec...
Article
Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support, and loneliness were e...
Article
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Parental support and parental depressive feelings are found to be associated with depressive feelings in adolescent boys and girls, but results are inconsistent. In addition, the 5-HTTLPR genotype has been found to interact with environmental stressors in predicting adolescents’ depressive feelings, but this has not been examined longitudinally. Th...
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To investigate whether perceived parental smoking is related to pretend smoking in young children and whether children influence each other in pretend smoking. Children who reported to have at least one smoking parent were coupled with children who had non-smoking parents. Both children were then asked to pretend that they were adults having a barb...
Article
Loneliness is assumed to peak in early adolescence and to decrease throughout middle and late adolescence, but longitudinal confirmation of this tendency is lacking. Behavioral genetic studies with twin designs have found a significant genetic component for loneliness in children and adults, but no molecular genetic studies have been conducted to r...
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Although associations between family history and depression have been shown in clinical patients, it is unknown if they also apply to subjects living in the community. The present study considers the relationship between family loading and depression phenotype characteristics in a large community-based sample. In a Dutch representative population s...
Article
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) has been proposed as a candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). Association studies, however, have revealed inconsistent results. This could be because of the phenotypic heterogeneity of MDD, as it often presents with comorbid disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), alcohol-related dis...
Article
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor that has antidepressant-like effects in animals and may be implicated in the etiology of mood-related phenotypes. However, genetic association studies of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (single nucleotide polymorphism rs6265) in major depressive disorder (MDD) have produced inconsiste...
Article
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) aggregates in families and is associated with high rates of lifetime axis-I comorbidity. This study examined whether familiality of MDD is associated with the presence of specific comorbid disorders, which might be an important factor to be taken into account in MDD treatment and research into MDD etiology. A populat...
Article
Gender differences exist in the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates whether familiality of MDD contributes to observed gender differences in comorbidity. Familial (f-MDD) and non-familial (nf-MDD) MDD cases from a population sample were assessed for comorbid dysthymia, anxiety disorders...

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Project
Due to the corona-measures taken during the lockdown (social distancing, closing of schools, limited leisure-time activities, having to rely on parents, less contact with friends), adolescents could face changes in the adequate performance of essential developmental tasks in the social domain. It is of utmost importance to investigate what the negative and positive effects are of the coronacrisis on the well-being of (vulnerable) youth, and to assess the differential impact of the coronacrisis and the resilience on the short- and longer-term of youth.