M. Toufiq Reza

M. Toufiq Reza
Florida Institute of Technology · Department of Chemical Engineering

PhD in Chemical Engineering

About

123
Publications
44,250
Reads
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3,573
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
Florida Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2016 - July 2019
Ohio University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2015 - December 2015
University of Nevada, Reno
Position
  • Research Assistant Professor
Education
May 2011 - May 2013
University of Nevada, Reno
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
August 2009 - May 2011
University of Nevada, Reno
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
February 2003 - January 2008
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (123)
Thesis
There are two widely known thermal pretreatment technologies, known as hydrothermal carbonization and dry torrefaction. In dry torrefaction, also known as torrefaction or mild pyrolysis, dry solid biomass is treated in an inert gas environment in a temperature range of 200-300oC for more than one hour. In hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), also know...
Article
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a pretreatment process for making a homogenized, carbon rich, and energy-dense solid fuel, called biochar, from lignocellulosic biomass. Corn stover, miscanthus, switch grass, and rice hulls were treated with hot compressed water at 200, 230, and 260 °C for 5 min. Mass yield is as low as 41% of the raw biomass, a...
Article
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a pretreatment process to convert diverse feedstocks to homogeneous energy-dense solid fuels. Understanding of reaction kinetics is necessary for reactor design and optimization. In this study, the reaction kinetics and effects of particle size on HTC were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a novel two-c...
Article
Over the past decade, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has emerged as a promising thermochemical pathway for treating and converting wet wastes into fuel, materials, and chemicals [...]
Article
Full-text available
Torrefaction is a promising technology to improve fuel properties of biomass. However, torrefied char does not show densified energy content compared with coal and typically requires densification such as pelletization. Several key parameters including pelletization and torrefaction conditions were investigated in order to determine the effects on...
Article
While the challenge of storing hydrogen in inexpensive and renewable adsorbents is relentlessly pursued by researchers all over the world, application of hydrochar derived from biomass is also gaining attention as it can be subsequently chemically activated using activating agents like KOH in order to tailor the development of favorable porosity. H...
Article
Full-text available
Solvothermal liquefaction (STL) is a promising thermochemical process to produce biocrudes from plastic wastes. In the STL process, solvents, other than water, play a significant role in increasing overall biocrude yield and its properties. However, many of the STL solvents as well as the resulting biocrudes are flammable and hazardous in nature, e...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate weather resistance and hydrophilic nature of biomass pellets are two major concerns for transportation, storage, and conversion. This study investigates how hydrophobicity of air classified corn stover pellets can be increased by blending corn stover with hydrochar. Hydrochar was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of waste corn...
Article
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Chemically activated hydrochar, also known as superactivated hydrochar, has been gaining attentions in the field of gas and energy storage. Although raw hydrochar possesses low porosity, chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) develops substantial porosity. Literature stressed out two main pathways of KOH activation namely, (a) direct c...
Article
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The goal of this study was to upgrade fuel properties of two different bituminous coal wastes (CW) by reducing their ash, sulfur, and chloride content through co-hydrothermal carbonization (co-HTC) with food waste (FW). CW and FW were mixed in 1:1 (dry wt. basis), ratio and co-HTC experiments were performed at three different temperatures of 180, 2...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to evaluate the technoeconomic prospect of hydrochar production through co-hydrothermal carbonization of coal waste (CW) and food waste (FW). A process flow diagram was developed that considered seven reactors, six pumps, and other necessary equipment for producing 49,192 kg/h hydrochar. Three different cases were consi...
Article
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Grindelia squarrosa, known as gumweed, is a shrub that grows in arid lands in North America with up to 8% biocrude (or bio-oil) content that can be extracted by using a common solvent extraction method. This solvent-extracted biocrude (SEB) has nearly 24 wt% oxygen, which is not suitable for direct combustion as a bio-oil or biodiesel. In this stud...
Article
Solvothermal liquefaction (STL) is a thermochemical conversion process, where a waste feedstock is treated with sub-and supercritical solvents. The key objective of the study was to investigate how a one-step STL using toluene as a solvent can degrade hard-to-recycle waste plastics (#5–#7). Three different plastic wastes namely, polypropylene (#5),...
Article
Hydrochar has been gaining tremendous interest as adsorbent materials, however, change in material properties due to process liquid recirculation needs to be explored, since commercial hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is likely to recycle HTC process liquid in order to preheat the feedstock as well as minimize the wastewater accumulation. Therefore...
Article
In an effort of developing hydrogen storage material, the goal of this study was to explore the potential of the abounding food waste biomass as a precursor for the development of porous carbon materials for remarkable hydrogen storage. Therefore, in this study, simulated food waste, a mixture of six commonly disposed food items (apple, bread, gree...
Article
Full-text available
We have examined performance of various machine learning (ML) methods (artificial neural network, random forest, support vector-machine regression, and K nearest neighbors) in predicting the kinetics of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of cellulose, poplar, and wheat straw performed under two different conditions: first, isothermal conditions at 20...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the use of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to upgrade agro-waste into solid biofuels and the use of citric acid (CA) as a catalyst capable of enhancing energy properties of hydrochars. HTC of pineapple waste (PA) was carried out at 180, 220, and 250 °C at a fixed 1-h residence time with and without the addition of CA...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process, where biomass is treated in the presence of water at subcritical condition to produce functionalized carbon-rich solid materials known as hydrochar. Hydrochar has a core and shell structure which contains both acidic and basic functional groups but has very small surface area. Pyrolysis...
Article
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Common solvents used for aromatic extraction from aliphatics typically degrade into toxic compounds, while green alternatives perform poorly compared to the state-of-the-art solvents. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are a novel solvent type made of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA). DES have been applied in various applicati...
Article
Full-text available
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are compounds of a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) that contain a depressed melting point compared to their individual constituents. DES have been studied for their use as carbon capture media and biogas upgrading. However, contaminants’ presence in biogas might affect the carbon capture by...
Article
Full-text available
Co-hydrothermal carbonization (Co-HTC) is an emerging technology for processing multiple waste streams together to improve their fuel properties in the solid product, known as hydrochar, compared to the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of those individual streams. Sulfur is considered one of the most toxic contaminants in solid fuel and the combust...
Article
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Air classification (AC) is a cost-effective technology that separates the energy-dense light ash fraction (LAF) from the inorganic-rich high ash fraction (HAF) of corn stover. HAF could be upgraded into energy-dense solid fuel by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). However, HTC is a high-temperature, high-pressure process, which requires additional e...
Article
Improper management of home sewage treatment systems (HSTS) presents major challenges in the developing world, and even in many parts of developed countries, which contribute to health, environmental, economic, and social problems. Hydrothermal treatment, a thermochemical conversion process that is particularly useful for wet wastes, can produce fe...
Article
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Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are nanomaterials with a particle size range of 2 to 10 nm. CQDs have a wide range of applications such as medical diagnostics, bio-imaging, biosensors, coatings, solar cells, and photocatalysis. Although the effect of various experimental parameters, such as the synthesis method, reaction time, etc., have been investigat...
Article
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Hydrogen (H2) is largely regarded as a potential cost-efficient clean fuel primarily due to its beneficial properties, such as its high energy content and sustainability. With the rising demand for H2 in the past decades and its favorable characteristics as an energy carrier, the escalating USA consumption of pure H2 can be projected to reach 63 mi...
Article
In this study, the analyses of energy and exergy were implemented for an industrial-scale vertical roller mill (VRM) of Kerman Momtazan Cement Company (KMCC) of Iran. The energy and exergy analyses demonstrated the first law efficiency of the VRM is 62.1%, while the second law efficiency of the VRM is 34.6%. Comparing to the widely applied ball mil...
Article
Full-text available
Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), a perennial biomass crop, allocates more carbon belowground and typically has lower soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than conventional feedstock crops, but best practices for nutrient management that maximize yield while minimizing soil GHG emissions are still debated. This study evaluated the effects of four...
Article
Hydrochar, used for numerous applications including solid fuel, adsorbent medium, anode material, and soil amendment, is the major solid product or unwanted byproduct resulting when biomass undergoes for subcritical or supercritical water treatment, respectively. Regardless of the reaction temperature, hydrochar forms from biomasses at different re...
Article
A techno-economic analysis (TEA) of the integration of hydrothermal carbonization of waste biomass with an algal bioreactor is presented. Analyses of qualitative data from a two-m3 tubular photobioreactor constructed at Honda R&D Americas in Raymond, Ohio, USA, indicated that microalgal nutrient cost was a key economic challenge. The use of hydroth...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing needs of clean water supplies, the use of biomass wastes and residues for environmental remediation is essential for environmental sustainability. In this study, the residues from winery and citrus juice industries, namely grape skin and orange peel, respectively, were first converted to hydrochars by hydrothermal carbonization...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process that produces biofuels and carbon-based materials from wastes; the solid product is commonly known as hydrochar. However, the fate of common pharmaceutical products during HTC has not been explored extensively. Knowledge on degradation pathways for emerging contaminants is important for f...
Article
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This study outlines the methodology to model hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent (HDES) interactions to obtain computational results that accurately represent experimental results of furfural removal from water. Computational prediction with high accuracy of HDES behavior could elucidate hydrogen bond interaction in HDES. COSMOtherm modeling and expe...
Article
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as a substitute for ionic liquids with lower cost and enhanced biodegradability. The most common class of DES refers to a mixture of a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salt and a hydrogen bond donor (e.g., carboxylic acid) with a melting point lower than that of individual components. DESs have recently...
Preprint
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as a substitute for ionic liquids with lower cost and enhanced biodegradability. The most common class of DES refers to a mixture of a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salt and a hydrogen bond donor (e.g., carboxylic acid) with a melting point lower than that of individual components. DESs have recently...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, CO2 and SO2 captures from post-combustion flue gas from a pulverized coal-fired power plant were evaluated using deep eutectic solvents (DES) to replace existing mono-ethanol amine (MEA) and CanSolv technologies. The system design of the DES-based CO2 and SO2 capture was based on the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) 550...
Article
Full-text available
Ion selective electrodes (ISE) were evaluated for use in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater monitoring system. Calcium, chloride, nitrate, and nitrite ISE’s were calibrated in a broad range of concentrations that were designed to model an actual FGD wastewater sample that was obtained from an industrial partner. Ideal Nernst, Modified Nern...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising technology to convert wet wastes like septic tank wastes, or septage, to valuable platform chemical, fuels, and materials. However, the byproduct of HTC, process liquid, often contains large amount of nitrogen species (up to 2 g/L of nitrogen), phosphorus, and a variety of organic carbon containing co...
Article
A detailed steady-state equilibrium–based simulation model was developed in Aspen Plus to demonstrate the CO 2 -gasification process of cow manure-derived hydrochar. Simulation was performed at gasification temperature of 700–1000 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.1–0.6 for HTC treatment temperatures between 180 and 260 °C. Various simulation outputs i...
Article
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process, where biomass is treated with subcritical water. Hydrochar, the solid product of HTC, is a carbon-rich material containing acidic functional groups. In order to increase total surface area, one of the common practices is to pyrolyze it. However, dehydration occurs during pyrolysis, which...
Article
Full-text available
Each year the pulp and paper industries generate enormous amounts of effluent treatment sludge. The sludge is made up of various fractions including primary, secondary, deinked, fiber rejects sludge, etc. The goal of this study was to evaluate the fuel properties of the hydrochars produced from various types of paper mill sludges (PMS) at 180 °C, 2...
Article
Full-text available
Co-Hydrothermal Carbonization (Co-HTC) is a thermochemical process, where coal and biomass were treated simultaneously in subcritical water, resulting in bulk-homogenous hydrochar that is carbon-rich and a hydrophobic solid fuel with combustion characteristics like coal. In this study, technoeconomic analysis of Co-HTC was performed for a scaled-up...
Article
The aims of this work were to quantify chemical states associated with the pH, dissociation constants, and pH at point of zero charge (pHPZC) of hydrochar and to quantify the acidic functional groups on hydrochar surface. Hydrochars from cellulose and wood treated at 180, 220, and 260 °C with 30 min residence time were produced. Boehm titration was...
Article
Low porosity of Marcellus shale often limits the hydrocarbon recovery. To increase shale porosity, hydrothermal deformation (HTD) of Marcellus shale was performed and the effects of subcritical water temperature and reaction time on porosity were evaluated. HTD was performed at 200, 250 and 300 °C for one, three and 6 h of residence time. Low-tempe...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was performed on homogenized food waste (FW) in a batch reactor at 200, 230, and 260 °C for 30 min. Solid product, called hydrochar, was characterized by means of ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, higher heating value (HHV), and ash content. On the other hand, liquid products were analyzed by inductively couple...
Article
This study focuses on determining the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis and gasification of manure‐derived hydrochar. Hydrochar was first pyrolyzed in Thermogravimetric analyzer at heating rates of 5, 10, and 20°C min⁻¹ with N2 and gasified afterwards with CO2 at 800, 900, and 1000°C for 30, 60, and 90 min. Morphology of the pyrolysis and gasified ch...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, feedstock interaction of cow manure and digested sewage sludge on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of loblolly pine (LP) was evaluated. Noncatalytic HTL experiments were performed at reaction temperatures of 250, 275, and 300 °C at a constant reaction time of 30 min. Cyclohexane and acetone were used for biocrude extraction separately...
Article
This work studied the changes of stable isotope compositions (C and N) of diverse biomass feedstocks (loblolly pine, cow manure, and sewage biosolids) as a result of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), and provides insight into degradation pathways based on these changes. HTC was conducted at different times (5 and 30 min) and temperatures (180, 220,...
Article
In this study, septic tank waste, septage, was hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) in order to recover macro-and micro nutrients, while tracking the fate of residual heavy metals. Three different HTC temperatures i.e., 180, 220, and 260 °C at autogenous pressures and two reaction times i.e., 30 and 120 minutes were applied on both solid and liquid sept...
Article
Co-Hydrothermal Carbonization (Co-HTC) was performed on a blended feedstock of coal and miscanthus. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the synergistic effects of miscanthus on coal during Co-HTC. Fuel quality was assessed for all hydrochars by evaluating mass yields, energy content, ultimate analysis, and proximate analysis. Calculation of...
Presentation
Full-text available
Septage wastes were hydrothermally treated and the fates of macro/micro nutrients and heavy metals were traced. This presentation occurred at the 2017 AICHE national conference.
Poster
Full-text available
Three samples of deep eutectic solvents (DES) (e.g., ethanolamine hydrochloride and ethylenediamine, choline chloride and urea, and methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide and ethylene glycol) where evaluated as potential candidates for aromatic extraction from aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study, ethylbenzene was used as aromatic compound, whereas he...
Poster
Full-text available
Ion selective electrodes (ISE) were evaluated for use in flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater monitoring system. Calcium, chloride, nitrate, nitrite ISE were calibrated in a broad range of concentrations. Ideal Nernst equation, modified Nernst equation, and mathematical regression analysis were performed for each electrode. Multiparameter reg...
Article
Hygienization by thermochemical carbonization may be one option to enable the use of sewage sludge (SS) as soil amendment and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. To evaluate this possibility, SS derived from different water purification processes of a rural waste water treatment plant were hydrothermal carbonized (HTC) at 200 and 260°C for 0.5 and 3.0h, and p...
Conference Paper
:In this study, three diverse biomass feedstocks (loblolly pine, manure, and sewage sludge) were hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) and torrefied at different reaction times and temperatures. Solid hydrochars and torrefied chars, as well as their corresponding raw feedstocks, were characterized by ultimate, proximate, ash, stable carbon isotope (δ13C)...
Conference Paper
A systematic experimental study on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of digestate was conducted to evaluate the catalytic impact of natural zeolite and the properties of the produced hydrochar-zeolite composites (HZCs). An agricultural digestate and, as reference, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) were treated at HTC temperatures of 190, 230, and 27...
Presentation
Steam autoclaving is a technology that has been around since the 80’s and can efficiently divide the biogenic and non-biogenic fractions of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for best re-use and upgrading. Autoclaving eliminates hazardous hand sorting of raw garbage and in the process of separating the pulp fibers, sterilizes the output and allows for seq...
Poster
Full-text available
Since 2014, it has been estimated that the world has produced nearly 2 billion tons of garbage also known as municipal solid waste (MSW) and it is further projected that this generated waste will be increased by nearly five times by 2050 due to large economic and urban growth of developing countries. In the U.S, a typical garbage disposal fee of $2...
Presentation
Full-text available
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC, thermal hydrolysis, or wet torrefaction) is a treatment process which converts moist feedstocks into homogenized, carbon rich, and energy dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. One of the main advantages of HTC compared to other thermochemical treatment processes is the use of moisture as reaction medium and reactant,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Continuous bench-scale reactor for hydrothermal carbonization of cow manure
Article
Full-text available
Digestate from anaerobic digestion of biomass often contains more than 90% of water, which is economically unfavorable for pyrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has potential to treat very wet biomass, however, the hydrochar may be acidic, contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toxic organic substances (e.g., phenolic compounds),...