M. Rajeevan

M. Rajeevan
Ministry of Earth Sciences | MoES · National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS)

M.Sc, Ph.D

About

229
Publications
134,864
Reads
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12,198
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2015 - July 2021
Ministry of Earth Sciences
Position
  • Secretary
Description
  • As the Head of the Ministry, responsible for implementing all S&T programs in Earth Sciences, that included programs in Atmospheric Science (weather and climate science), Ocean Science and Technology, Polar Sciences and Geosciences including Seismology. Responsible for improving weather and climate services in India and launching the ambitious Deep Ocean Mission.
Education
December 1994 - August 1997
University of Pune
Field of study
  • Atmospheric Sciences

Publications

Publications (229)
Article
The present study evaluates the skill of seasonal forecasts of temperatures over India during April to June using the Monsoon Mission Coupled Forecasting System (MMCFS) model hindcasts, which are initialized with February initial conditions. Model hindcast data of 1981‐2017 period have been used for the analysis. The India Meteorological Department...
Article
Full-text available
The campaign mode observational program 'Winter Fog Experiment' (WiFEX) was set up at the Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA), New Delhi, during the winter months of 2016–17 and 2017–18. Using the WiFEX data, in this study, we examine the microphysical structure of fog formed in a polluted environment and attempt to predict visibility (Vis)...
Article
Full-text available
The previous studies on temperature trends are based on temperatures observed at a fixed hour (maximum and minimum temperatures). In this study, trends in sub-daily (hourly) temperatures are examined using quality temperature data from 66 Indian stations spread over the country. The season April–May–June and the data period of 1975–2012 have been c...
Article
Full-text available
The present study highlights the role of high-resolution land data assimilation in improving the prediction of the radiation fog and near-surface meteorological variables. The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) is evaluated for a dense fog event tha...
Article
The evaluation and usefulness of lightning prediction for the Indian subcontinent are demonstrated. Implementation of the lightning parameterizations based on storm parameters, in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, with different microphysics schemes are carried out. With the availability of observed lightning measurements over Mahar...
Article
This study focuses on assessing different quantile mapping (QM) bias correction approaches based on empirical and parametric methods to bias-correct the Indian Monsoon Data Assimilation and Analysis (IMDAA) precipitation data subsequently calibrate the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) Unified Model operational forecasts...
Article
Full-text available
Dense fog events and their micrometeorological characteristics and structural evolution at Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA), New Delhi, during the Winter Fog Experiment (WiFEX) are illustrated in this study. Four dense fog events that occurred in January 2016 for which visibility dropped below 200 m have been selected. Depending on the vi...
Article
The new normal dates of onset/progress and withdrawal of southwest monsoon over the country are computed based on the operationally declared dates of these events by India Meteorological Department (IMD) during recent years. The normal onset/progress dates were calculated based on 1961-2019 data and that of withdrawal were calculated based on 1971-...
Article
The ensemble predictions were more skillful than the deterministic forecasts , as they were able to predict rainfall anomalies.
Research
Full-text available
IMDAA: A Regional Reanalysis for the Indian Monsoon high-resolution satellite-era regional reanalysis produced by the Indian Monsoon Data Assimilation and Analysis (IMDAA) project has recently been made available to researchers (https://rds. ncmrwf.gov.in). This 40-year reanalysis (1979-2018) at 12-km resolution covers a large geographical domain (...
Article
This novel study explains a plausible physical mechanism for rainfall initiation over the southeast peninsular India (SEPI, referred to be a ‘rain shadow’ region) during the southwest monsoon season. Further, the contrasting rainfall patterns between the rain shadow region and central India (CI) are also elucidated through the response of the marit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tropical cyclones do not form easily near the equator but can intensify rapidly, leaving little time for preparation. We investigated the number of near-equatorial (originating between 5°N and 11°N) tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean during post-monsoon seasons (October to December) over the past 60 years. A marked 43% decline in the num...
Article
During August 2018 and 2019 the southern state of India, Kerala received unprecedented heavy rainfall which led to widespread flooding. We aim to characterize the convective nature of these events and the large-scale atmospheric forcing, while exploring their predictability by three state of the art global prediction systems, the National Centre fo...
Article
Full-text available
A high resolution regional reanalysis of the Indian Monsoon Data Assimilation and Analysis (IMDAA) project is made available to researchers for deeper understanding of the Indian monsoon and its variability. This 12 km resolution reanalysis covering the satellite-era from 1979 to 2018 using 4D-Var data assimilation method and the UK Met Unified Mod...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports a very high-resolution (400 m grid-spacing) operational air quality forecasting system developed to alert residents of Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) about forthcoming acute air pollution episodes. Such a high-resolution system has been developed for the first time and is evaluated during October 2019-February 2020....
Article
Thunderstorms source of lightning discharge is a major hazard to humans. In India, the loss of human life due to thunderstorms is high because of frequent lightning during pre-monsoon season (March-May). Therefore, simulation of lightning flash counts based on various lightning parameterization schemes and Lightning Potential Index (LPI) in Weather...
Preprint
During 2015, the southwest monsoon (SWM) rainfall over the country remained deficient with seasonal rainfall of about 86% of the long period average (Table 1.1). Last year, the seasonal rainfall deficiency over the country as a whole was 12% (www.imd.gov.in). Thus, this is a fourth episode of two consecutive years, with deficient monsoon, similar t...
Article
Full-text available
To enhance the knowledge of various physical mechanisms related to the evolution of Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), detailed analysis has been performed using suite of observations (weather radar, electric field mill, surface weather station, flux tower, microwave radiometer and wind profilers) available at Gadanki (13.5°N/79.2°E), lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The initiation of the Indian summer monsoon circulation during late May / early June arises through large-scale land-sea thermal contrast and setting up of negative pressure gradient between the Monsoon Trough over the Indo-Gangetic plains and the Mascarene High over the subtropical Indian Ocean. The meridional pressure gradient together with the E...
Preprint
Full-text available
This novel study explains a physical mechanism for the rainfall initiation over the southeast peninsular India (SEPI, referred to be a ‘rain shadow’ region) during the southwest monsoon season. Further, the contrasting rainfall patterns between the rain shadow region and central India (CI,) are also elucidated through the response of the maritime c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the accuracy of Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF‐Chem) generated 72 hr fine particulate matter (PM2.5) forecasts in Delhi during the crop residue burning season of October‐November 2017 with respect to assimilation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical dept...
Preprint
Full-text available
Elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter-time have become one of the most important environmental concerns over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region of India, and particularly for Delhi. Accurate reconstruction of PM2.5, its optical properties, and dominant chemical components over this region is essential to evaluate the pe...
Technical Report
Availbale online at https://www.tropmet.res.in/~lip/Publication/Technical-Reports/TR-6.pdf
Article
Air quality has become one of the most important environmental concerns for Delhi, India. In this perspective , we have developed a high-resolution air quality prediction system for Delhi based on chemical data assimilation in the chemical transport model-Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The data assimilation system was a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sea surface temperature (SST) and upper ocean heat content (OHC, upper 700 m) in the tropical Indian Ocean underwent rapid warming during 1950–2015, with the SSTs showing an average warming of about 1 °C. The SST and OHC trends are very likely to continue in the future, under different emission scenarios. Climate models project a rise in tropical I...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses observed and projected changes in global climate to set the context, after which it discusses the scientific issues around the complexity of regional climate over the Indian subcontinent, with a focus on the Indian Monsoon. It introduces the Earth System Model from India (IITM-ESM), and synthesises the major findings of the r...
Chapter
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Precipitation is an important component of the global water cycle, and the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on precipitation have significant implications on agricultural activities (Porter et al. 2014).
Chapter
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The overall decrease of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall during the last 6–7 decades has led to an increased propensity for droughts over India. Both the frequency and spatial extent of droughts have increased significantly during 1951–2016. In particular, areas over central India, Climate model projections indicate a high likelihood of increase in...
Article
Full-text available
Rain gauge data are routinely recorded and used around the world. However, their sparsity and inhomogeneity make them inadequate for climate model calibration and many other climate change studies. Various algorithms and interpolation techniques have been developed over the years to obtain adequately distributed datasets. Objective interpolation me...
Article
A Winter Fog EXperiment (WiFEX) was conducted to study the genesis of the fog formation between winters 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA), Delhi, India. To support the WiFEX field campaign, the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) was used to produce real-time forecasts at 2 km horizontal grid spacing. Th...
Article
Full-text available
In spite of the summer monsoon’s importance in determining the life and economy of an agriculture-dependent country like India, committed efforts toward improving its prediction and simulation have been limited. Hence, a focused mission mode program Monsoon Mission (MM) was founded in 2012 to spur progress in this direction. This article explains t...
Article
Full-text available
A global forecast system model at a horizontal resolution of T1534 (\({\sim }12.5\, \hbox {km}\)) has been evaluated for the monsoon seasons of 2016 and 2017 over the Indian region. It is for the first time that such a high-resolution global model is being run operationally for monsoon weather forecast. A detailed validation of the model therefore...
Article
Full-text available
Past studies using observational data suggested an increase in day time temperatures and frequency and duration of heat waves over India during the pre-monsoon season (April–June). In this study, the characteristics (frequency and duration) of heat waves over India in future warming scenario has been examined using nine CMIP5 models. The RCP4.5 sce...
Article
Full-text available
In the present research we explored the variability of convective available potential energy (CAPE) during wet and dry spells over southeast India. Comparison between India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations and reanalysis products (NCEP, ERA-interim, and MERRA) reconfirms that gridded data sets can be utilized to fill the void of observa...
Article
We report the first ambient measurements of thirteen VOCs for investigations of emissions and air quality during fog and non-fog wintertime conditions at a tower site (28.57° N, 77.11° E, 220 m amsl) in the megacity of Delhi. Measurements of acetonitrile (biomass burning (BB) tracer), isoprene (biogenic emission tracer in daytime), toluene (a traff...
Article
Full-text available
The present study evaluates the performance of four planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes combined with five cloud microphysics schemes in Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, specifically for an advection fog event occurred during 4–6 December 2014 at Barkachha, rural site in the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP). For this purpose,...
Article
Data on mass concentration of PM2.5 and its carbonaceous and water soluble inorganic chemical ions were compiled through sampling of PM2.5 at Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi during Dec. 16, 2015-Feb. 15, 2016 under Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX) program of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and analysing the samples. The data so genera...
Article
Full-text available
Winter-to-early spring non-monsoonal precipitation over the Western Himalayas (WH) primarily comes from eastward propagating synoptic-scale weather systems known as western disturbances (WDs). Earlier studies have noted that an increasing trend of synoptic-scale WD activity in the past few decades has contributed to enhanced propensity of daily pre...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the sensitivity of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to predict life-cycle of a dense fog occurred on the 23-24 January 2016 is evaluated using different model configurations. For the first time the Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) were made during the unique WInter Fog EXperiment (WIFEX) took place over Delhi, India...
Article
Full-text available
High-resolution soil moisture/temperature (SM/ST) are critical components of the growing demand for fine-scale products over the Indian monsoon region (IMR) which has diverse land-surface characteristics. This demand is fueled by findings that improved representation of land-state help improve rainfall/flood prediction. Here we report on the develo...
Article
Full-text available
Indian summer monsoon of 2015 was deficient with prominence of short-lived (long-lived) active (break) spells. The real-time extended range forecasts disseminated by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology using an indigenous ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on National Center for Environmental Predictions’s climate forecast system could bro...
Poster
Full-text available
The fog Experiment was carried out in Delhi to characterize the chemical and microphysical properties of dense fogs occur in the winter season over the northern part of India. This study provides results on aerosol and fog water chemistry, and micro-physical properties during dense fog (around 25 events) occurred during 2015 – 2018 winter seasons....
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the benefit of using Ocean Mean Temperature (OMT) to aid in the prediction of the sign of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) anomalies. This is a statistical examination, rather than a process study. The thermal energy needed for maintaining and intensifying hurricanes and monsoons comes from the upper ocean, not just from th...
Technical Report
Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many shores of the Indian coast. As coastal population continues to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shorelin...
Preprint
Full-text available
We studied the impact of the odd-even traffic rule (implemented in Delhi during 1-15 January 2016) on primary traffic emissions using measurements of 13 volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane at a strategic arterial road in Delhi (28.57N, 77.11E, 220 m amsl). Whole air samples (n = 27) were collected during the od...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution hybrid atmospheric water budget over the South Asian monsoon region is examined. The regional characteristics, variability, regional controlling factors and the interrelations of the atmospheric water budget components are investigated. The surface evapotranspiration was created using the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation Syste...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Indian Monsoon Region (IMR) has undergone notable land cover and land use change (LCLUC) in response to a dramatic increase in population and economic growth. While the changes in characteristics of LCLUC have been documented in various studies, the realistic representation of these changes within a dynamic hydroclimatic framework remains a cha...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the impact of the odd-even traffic rule (implemented in Delhi during 1-15 January 2016) on primary traffic emissions using measurements of 13 volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane at a strategic arterial road in Delhi (28.57N, 77.11E, 220 m amsl). Whole air samples (n = 27) were collected during the od...
Article
Full-text available
Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and...
Chapter
The Arctic Region is warming at an alarming rate due to snow/ice-temperature feedback as a result of increase in greenhouse gases and other anthropogenic activities. Due to the Arctic amplification of warming, the Arctic sea ice here is melting at a faster rate of about 0.67 million km² per decade. Past observational data suggest that the Indian Mo...
Article
Full-text available
The primary goal of present study is to investigate the impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite radiance observations in simulating the mesoscale convective system (MCS) formed over south east India. An assimilation methodology based on Weather Research and Forecasting model three dimensional variational data assimilation is considered...