M. P. D. Garratt

M. P. D. Garratt
University of Reading · School of Agriculture, Policy and Development

BSc Natural Science

About

119
Publications
74,836
Reads
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5,908
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - February 2009
Imperial College London
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Phenological advancements in flowering have been well documented in many food crop, ornamental, and native plant species. However, there is lack of information on how flowering times in crop species, especially fruit trees will react to future climate scenarios. This is important as changes in phenology could have significant implications for ecosy...
Article
There is increasing evidence that farmers in many areas are achieving below maximum yields due to insufficient pollination. Practical and effective approaches are needed to maintain wild pollinator populations within agroecosystems so they can deliver critical pollination services which underpin crop production. We established nesting and wildflowe...
Article
Full-text available
Bees provide a vital ecosystem service to agriculture by contributing to the pollination of many leading global crops. Human wellbeing depends not only on the quantity of agricultural yields, but also on the stability and resilience of crop production. Yet a broad understanding of how the diversity and composition of pollinator communities may infl...
Article
Full-text available
Drosophila suzukii (SWD) poses a threat to soft and stone fruit globally. SWD inhabits non‐crop areas adjacent to farms from where it moves into crops to cause damage. Effective IPM control strategies, considering both the crop and non‐crop area, are needed to control this economically important pest. We conducted a meta‐analysis to quantify the im...
Article
Climate, landscape composition, management practice, and wild bee pollination are all variables thought to play significant roles in commercial apple production. However, how these variables affect production efficiency under field-realistic conditions has not been investigated at large geographical scales. We combined intensive standardized field...
Article
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Human driven environmental changes increase the concentrations of polluting reactive compounds in the troposphere, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. These changes lead to biodiversity losses and alter plant physiology and plant-pollinator interactions, essential for pollination services, with potential consequences for agricultural production. Her...
Chapter
Conservation biological control is commonly considered to be a key component of IPM because it is compatible with and complementary to many other approaches available in the IPM ‘toolbox’. However, despite significant study of conservation biological approaches in horticultural systems, uptake has been limited. Furthermore, whilst there are many st...
Article
Seventy five percent of the world's food crops benefit from insect pollination. Hence, there has been increased interest in how global change drivers impact this critical ecosystem service. Because standardized data on crop pollination are rarely available, we are limited in our capacity to understand the variation in pollination benefits to crop y...
Article
Full-text available
Pollinating insects provide pollination services to many crop species, including sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), and this can be delivered by both managed and wild pollinators. Managed pollinators are often used to pollinate a range of fruit crops, but increasingly the role of wild insects is being studied. However, the importance of pollinator spe...
Article
Agri-environment schemes are programmes where landholders enter into voluntary agreements (typically with governments) to manage agricultural land for environmental protection and nature conservation objectives. Previous work at local scale has shown that these features can provide additional floral and nesting resources to support wild pollinators...
Article
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Pollinator declines have prompted efforts to assess how land-use change affects insect pollinators and pollination services in agricultural landscapes. Yet many tools to measure insect pollination services, require substantial landscape-scale data and technical expertise. In expert workshops, 3 straightforward methods (desk-based method, field surv...
Data
A two page summary of the article designed for wider audiences or very busy academics. Please feel free to distribute.
Article
Full-text available
• Wild bees provide a critical ecosystem service by pollinating globally important crops. Documented bee declines, notably in agricultural landscapes, therefore threaten future food security. Yet, evaluations of methods to inventory bees are rarely carried out in different crops or focus specifically upon crop pollinating species. • We utilise stan...
Article
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Mitigating pollinator declines in agriculturally dominated landscapes to safeguard pollination services requires the involvement of farmers and their willingness to adopt pollinator-friendly management. However, farmer knowledge, perceptions, and actions to support on-farm pollinators and their alignment with science-based knowledge and recommendat...
Article
Sown wildflower areas are increasingly recommended as an agri-environmental intervention measure, but evidence for their success is limited to particular insect groups or hampered by the challenges of establishing seed mixes and maintaining flower abundance over time. We conducted a replicated experiment to establish wildflower areas to support ins...
Data
A plain langauge 2 page overview of the paper "Opportunities to reduce pollination deficits and address production shortfalls in an important insect-pollinated crop" designed for non-acedemic audiences (or very busy acedemics). Please feel free to pass this along.
Article
Full-text available
To protect sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) against pests in commercial orchards, pesticides are frequently used, but some have adverse environmental impacts. Natural enemies can deliver protection against pests but compared to the surrounding non-crop habitat their abundance is usually low in intensively managed agricultural systems. Wildflower inte...
Data
This is a two page infographic summary of the main paper aimed at policymakers and staff who simply don't have the time to readv the full paper. Please feel free to pass it around.
Article
The importance of wild bees for crop pollination is well established, but less is known about which species contribute to service delivery to inform agricultural management, monitoring and conservation. Using sites in Great Britain as a case study, we use a novel qualitative approach combining ecological information and field survey data to establi...
Article
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Pollinators face multiple pressures and there is evidence of populations in decline. As demand for insect‐pollinated crops increases, crop production is threatened by shortfalls in pollination services. Understanding the extent of current yield deficits due to pollination and identifying opportunities to protect or improve crop yield and quality th...
Article
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1. Pollinators experience large spatio‐temporal fluctuations in resource availability when mass‐flowering crops are rotated with resource‐poor cereal crops. Yet, few studies have considered the effect this has on pollinator population stability, nor how this might be mitigated to maintain consistent crop pollination services. 2. We assess the poten...
Data
A two page summary of the paper - this is designed for a non-acedemic audience. Pleasse feel free to disseminate. There is a QR Code for the paper itself included.
Article
Full-text available
While an increasing number of studies indicate that the range, diversity and abundance of many wild pollinators has declined, the global area of pollinator-dependent crops has significantly increased over the last few decades. Crop pollination studies to date have mainly focused on either identifying different guilds pollinating various crops, or o...
Article
While an increasing number of studies indicate that the range, diversity and abundance of many wild pollinators has declined, the global area of pollinator-dependent crops has significantly increased over the last few decades. Crop pollination studies to date have mainly focused on either identifying different guilds pollinating various crops, or o...
Chapter
Evidence of declines in wild and managed pollinators and pollination services is increasingly being documented around the world. This has driven the development of a wide range of practical management and policy responses which were reviewed in the Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) global asses...
Article
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Insect pollination increases the yield and quality of many crops and therefore, understanding the role of insect pollinators in crop production is necessary to sustainably increase yields. Avocado Persea americana benefits from insect pollination, however, a better understanding of the role of pollinators and their contribution to the production of...
Article
Full-text available
Wild bee populations are threatened by current agricultural practices in many parts of the world, which may put pollination services and crop yields at risk. Loss of pollination services can potentially be predicted by models that link bee abundances with landscape‐scale land‐use, but there is little knowledge on the degree to which these statistic...
Article
Many crops are known to be dependent on biotic pollination, but knowledge gaps remain regarding the extent of this dependence, how it varies between crop varieties, and the implications of biotic pollination for crop quality. Data is also lacking on the prevalence and extent of pollination deficits and the ability of the surrounding pollinator comm...
Chapter
Multiple anthropogenic challenges threaten nature’s contributions to human well-being. Agricultural expansion and conventional intensification are degrading biodiversity and ecosystem functions, thereby undermining the natural foundations on which agriculture is itself built. Averting the worst effects of global environmental change and assuring ec...
Data
This annex contains the information from stakeholder consultation we used to arrive at our final scheme designs in the main paper.
Data
This annex is simply a list of the experts that we surveyed for the costs saved portion of the paper. They have all been sent a copy of the published paper.
Data
This is a two page infographic version of the paper itself, designed for non-acedemic readers. Please feel free to distribute widely
Data
This annex covers the responses to the exert questionnaire (Annex 5) - note that we did not use all the information we provided in this study because not all of it was readilly quantifiable.
Data
This annex covers the methodology used in the power analysis to determine the size of the network we used in the main paper itself.
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This annex covers the overlaps between the respones that the experts (annex 4) gave to the questionnaire (annex 5 and 6) and the site networks we proposed.
Data
This annex is the survey sent to experts (annex 4) for the "costs saved" portion of the paper. Reminder that experts only saw 3 of the 8 reserach questions each to avoid overloading them. The survey was done in word or excel depending on respondent preferences but if you want to replicate it, it can be made in Bristol Online Survey, Survey Monkey o...
Data
This annex covers the value of pollination services at a 100% loss of pollinators as opposed to the 30% loss that we use in the main paper.
Data
This annex covers a few additional assumptions that were made duirng the economic valuation of polination services. These were not practical to overcome at the time but we hope can be relaxed in the future should better data become available
Data
This annex covers the full costs of monitoring across all sites and years, buidling on the cost data from Annex 3 and the ower analysis in Annex 2 as well as the information in the main methods of the paper.
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This is a complete review of all the literature concerning pollinator dependence in UK crops. If you are looking to do any sort of study on these crops, please feel free to use this as a starting point/reference list. New work is badly needed on runner beans and linseed in particular. There is also information on the price data transformations and...
Data
This annex breaks down all the cost data we used in estimating the costs of the scheme (and the costs saved from having such a scheme). They are based on our typical suppliers in the UK so if you are based elsewhere, bear in mind that the UK is likely to be more expensive than many other countries so please either flag this up if you convert the fi...
Data
This annex covers the full mathematical proof of the consumer surplus model we used in the paper. Please note that it is different from the one used in Gallai et al., 2009.
Data
This annex covers the full cst benefit ratios of each monitoring scheme relative to the value of pollination services and the costs of reserach saved from having the scheme.
Data
This is a two page infographic version of the paper itself, designed for non-acedemic readers. Please feel free to distribute widely
Article
Full-text available
1. Resilient pollination services depend on sufficient abundance of pollinating insects over time. Currently, however, most knowledge about the status and trends of pollinators is based on changes in pollinator species richness and distribution only. 2. Systematic, long-term monitoring of pollinators is urgently needed to provide baseline informati...
Article
Modern fruit production has successfully increased yields and fruit quality to meet market demands mainly through intensification and the use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs). Due to the associated environmental impacts and consumers increasingly demanding food produced more sustainably, the tree fruit sector is seeking to reduce its reliance on...
Article
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Smallholder farmers represent the majority of food producers around the world, yet they are often the most at risk of suffering yield gaps and not achieving their production potential. Ecological Intensification (EI) is a knowledge intensive approach to sustainable agricultural intensification which utilizes biodiversity‐based ecosystem services to...
Article
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1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of polli-nator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which pr...
Article
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Legumes are important crops for food security, consumed by millions of people especially in Africa where they are an essential protein source and provide key vitamins and minerals. Most legumes depend on insect pollination and natural pest regulation for sufficient yields, however, there is emerging evidence that yield gaps caused by lack of pollin...
Data
Infographic version of the paper "Insect pollination dependence of faba bean varies with cultivar, yield parameter and experimental method."
Article
Full-text available
The benefits of insect pollination to crop yield are used to justify management decisions across agricultural landscapes but current methods for assessing these benefits may underestimate the importance of context. We quantify how the effects of simulated insect pollination vary between five faba bean cultivars, and to what extent this changes betw...
Article
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Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield–related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance...
Article
Full-text available
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield–related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance...
Article
1.The status of pollinating insects is of international concern, but knowledge of the magnitude and extent of declines is limited by a lack of systematic monitoring. Standardised protocols are urgently needed, alongside a better understanding of how different methods and recorders (data collectors) influence estimates of pollinator abundance and di...
Article
Full-text available
Insects pollinate many globally important crops and therefore rapid and effective means to measure crop pollinators and pollination are required to support national monitoring schemes and allow localised measurements of pollinator supply and demand to crops. We tested user-friendly protocols for assessing pollinators and pollination in crops to bet...
Article
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Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects...
Article
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Urban hedges provide a number of important ecosystem services (ESs) including microclimate alteration, flood and pollution mitigation, and biodiversity provision, along with some disservices (DSs, e.g. invasiveness, allergenicity). However, hedge plant species differ in their capacity to promote different services, so it is important that the decis...
Article
Full-text available
How insects promote crop pollination remains poorly understood in terms of the contribution of functional trait differences between species. We used meta-analyses to test for correlations between community abundance, species richness and functional trait metrics with oilseed rape yield, a globally important crop. While overall abundance is consiste...