M Faadiel Essop

M Faadiel Essop
Stellenbosch University | SUN · Center for Cardio-metabolic Research in Africa (CARMA) - Division of Medical Physiology

PhD

About

150
Publications
30,407
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2,562
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - August 2020
Stellenbosch University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • The Centre for Cardio-metabolic Research in Africa was established in 2019 with Prof. Essop as its director. CARMA investigates underlying mechanisms driving the onset of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Such work is tackled in two target groups i.e. HIV-positive persons and then non-infected individuals. We aim to a) develop novel therapies and b) establish sophisticated diagnostic tools for the above-mentioned conditions.
July 2005 - January 2006
Baylor College of Medicine
July 2005 - January 2006

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
Although monocytes and macrophages are key mediators of the innate immune system, the focus has largely been on the role of the adaptive immune system in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Thus more attention and research work regarding the innate immune system—especially the role of monocytes and macrophages during early...
Article
Although chronic stress is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) onset, the underlying mechanisms driving such pathophysiologic complications remain relatively unknown. Here, dysregulation of innate stress response systems and the effects of downstream mediators are strongly implicated, with the vascular endothelium emerging as...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiometabolic complications such as the metabolic syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are major causes of global morbidity and mortality. As sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are implicated in this process, this study aimed to obtain greater mechanistic insights. Male Wistar rats (~200 g) were gavaged with a local SSB every day for a peri...
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Aims Although there is evidence linking sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The current study therefore evaluated the effects of SSB consumption by establishing a unique in-house in vivo experimental model. Main methods Male Wistar rats were divided into...
Article
Although there is increased uptake of active learning approaches in especially developed countries, this is still lagging within the African context. The current study therefore focused on the implementation of group learning at Stellenbosch University, with several modifications versus our earlier, pilot study. Students freely formed small groups...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Little is known about how HIV affects walking biomechanics, or about associations between HIV-related gait deviations, functional performance and self-reported outcomes. This paper reports on gait biomechanics and -variability in people with HIV (PWH), and associations with clinical tests, self-reported function and falls. Methods: A c...
Chapter
This book is a significant contribution to higher education globally in doing transformation and doing change in institutional culture. It is a powerful reference point and resource for transformation offices/social justice units in South Africa and globally as we continue to engage with the hard science of change. The book provides insight into th...
Article
Although antiretroviral treatment lowers the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related disease, it does not always result in immunological recovery. This manifests as persistent chronic inflammation, immune activation or exhaustion that can promote the onset of co-morbidities. As the exact function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in HIV rem...
Article
Physiology students grapple with large amounts of subject content and hence memorize facts to pass examinations. In parallel, students display limited critical-thinking and creative skills, integration abilities, and/or a deeper engagement with subject content. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of introducing active learning methods (coope...
Article
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of physical activity (PA) on adipokine levels in individuals with overweight and obesity. Approximately 90 investigations including randomized control, cross‐sectional and longitudinal studies that reported on the effects of a single session of PA (acute) or long‐term PA (chronic) on...
Article
Rooibos extracts, including its derived polyphenolic compounds, are increasingly explored for their ameliorative effects against diabetes-associated complications. An extract of ‘fermented’ (oxidized) rooibos (FRE) can protect cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats against oxidative stress-induced damage, however, its mechanism of action remains unknown...
Article
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Recent evidence shows that rooibos compounds, aspalathin and phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-D-glucoside (PPAG), can independently protect cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia-related reactive oxygen species (ROS). While aspalathin shows more potency by enhancing intracellular antioxidant defenses, PPAG acts more as an anti-apoptotic agent. Thus, to further...
Article
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Naringenin possesses many pharmacological effects and may modulate metformin disposition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of naringenin on hepatic expression of organic cation transporter 1 (OCT 1) protein and its associated effects on metformin‐associated hyperlactataemia in diabetes. Forty‐nine male Sprague Dawley rats randomly...
Article
Although the extensive roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy resulted in a longer life expectancy for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), such individuals display a relatively increased occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This health challenge stimulated significant research interests in the field, leading to an imp...
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Fasting is defined as the abstinence from consuming food and/or beverages for different periods of time. Both traditional and modern healthcare systems recommend fasting as a therapeutic intervention for the management of several chronic, non-infectious diseases. Exercising during a fasting state increases lipolysis in adipose tissue while also sti...
Article
Full-text available
Background Three transketolase genes have been identified in the human genome to date: transketolase (TKT), transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) and transketolase-like 2 (TKTL2). Altered TKT functionality is strongly implicated in the development of diabetes and various cancers, thus offering possible therapeutic utility. It will be of great value to know...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with HIV-1 (PWH) exhibit a high fall incidence and increased fracture risk. As little is known about fall frequency and associated factors in PWH residing in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), we investigated fall frequency, bone quality, and factors associated with fall history in a South African cohort. Methods Fifty PWH wit...
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Background Cumulative data from several studies suggest that HIV-infected populations have a 2-fold increased cardiovascular risk. Evidence is also pointing to a link between HIV and early vascular changes, including endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis. There is a paucity of data from sub-Saharan Africa (the epicenter of the glo...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with HIV-1 (PWH) exhibit a high fall incidence and increased fracture risk. As little is known about fall frequency and associated factors in PWH residing in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), we investigated fall frequency, bone quality, and factors associated with fall history in a South African cohort. Methods Fifty PWH wit...
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Full-text available
As physiology teachers within the higher education sector, a major priority is to strongly develop students to exhibit a strong internal motivation for learning and critical thinking. Although various factors may impact this process, the role of stress (acute and chronic) is a crucial factor that may impact a student’s performance. For example, emo...
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Abstract Background:Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite itsefficacy and safety, metformin is frequently associated with highly variable glycemic responses, which is hypothesizedto be the result of genetic variations in its transport by organic cation transporters (OCTs). This systematic rev...
Article
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Background: Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite its widespread use, there are considerable interindividual variations in metformin response, with about 35% of patients failing to achieve initial glycemic control. These variabilities that reflect phenotypic differences in dr...
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The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of ”immunometabolism” within the context of HIV-related immune dys-regulation and cardiovascular disease ons...
Article
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The incidence of non-communicable diseases is on the rise and poses a major threat to global public health. This is in parallel to a steady increase in worldwide intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among all age groups. As several studies demonstrated a controversial relationship between SSB consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), this...
Article
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During 2016 an announcement was made that South Africans will be obliged to pay a 20% “sugar tax’’ that will soon be implemented in order to help curb the rising prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases. This announcement was met with mixed responses, with strong support from some quarters while others questioned whether it would indeed lead to impr...
Article
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Purpose of review: Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases,...
Article
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Acute heart failure (AHF) is the most common primary diagnosis for hospitalized heart diseases in Africa. As increased fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) during heart failure triggers detrimental effects on the myocardium, we hypothesized that trimetazidine (TMZ) (partial FAO inhibitor) offers cardioprotection under normal and obese-related diabetic cond...
Article
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of heart muscle that remains one of the leading causes of death in diabetic individuals. Shifts in substrate preference resulting in aberrant serum lipid content and enlarged left ventricular wall thickness are well-established characteristics associated with the development of DCM. As underlying mechanism...
Article
Full-text available
Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathi...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset/progression of cardiovascular diseases. For example, it can trigger formation of advanced glycation end (AGE) products with ischemia-reperfusion performed under hyperglycemic conditions. For this study, we hypothesized that albumin modified by glycation loses its unique cardioprot...
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Full-text available
Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects....
Data
Mitochondrial Respiration Data. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Aspalathin (ASP) can protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against high glucose (HG)-induced shifts in myocardial substrate preference, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The protective mechanism of ASP remains unknown. However, as one of possible, it is well known that phytochemical flavonoids reduce oxidative stress via nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-l...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aspalathin (ASP) can protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against high glucose (HG)-induced shifts in myocardial substrate preference, oxidative stress and apoptosis. While the protective mechanism of aspalathin remains unknown, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) has emerged as a key factor for intracellular responses against oxidative stres...
Article
Increased oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation are major contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes. Here plasma proteins e.g. albumin can undergo glycoxidation and play a key role in diabetes onset and related pathologies. However, despite recent progress linking albumin-AGE to increased oxidative stress and...
Article
Chronic hyperglycemia is closely associated with impaired substrate metabolism, dysregulated mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis in the diabetic heart. As adult cardiomyocytes display a limited capacity to regenerate following an insult, it is essential to protect the myocardium against the detrimental effects of chronic hyperglycemia....
Article
The robust link between diabetes and the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD)1 ,2 has sparked considerable efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms driving this process. Although diabetes-related CVD onset is complex and multifactorial in nature, there is an increased focus on hyperglycaemia as a significant contributor. For example, th...
Article
Although albumin can exert therapeutic effects, diabetes can trigger modifications e.g. advanced glycation end products (AGE) that are associated with cardiovascular complications (1). We therefore hypothesized that albumin glycation results in loss of its cardioprotective properties during ischemia-reperfusion under conditions simulating acute hyp...
Article
Full-text available
Although albumin can exert therapeutic effects, diabetes can trigger modifications e.g. advanced glycation end products (AGE) that are associated with cardiovascular complications (1). We therefore hypothesized that albumin glycation results in loss of its cardioprotective properties during ischemia-reperfusion under conditions simulating acute hyp...
Article
Hyperglycemia is responsible for altered myocardial substrate metabolism and subsequent apoptosis in diabetic patients. Adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to regenerate after an injury. Thus, protecting the myocardium against chronic hyperglycemia is crucial for cell survival. Phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-D-glucoside (PPAG) is one of the majo...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of cardiovascular complications associated with hyperglycemia is a growing, global health problem. This review discusses the link between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular diseases onset, focusing on the role of recently emerging downstream mediators, namely oxidative stress and glucose metabolic pathway perturbations. The role of hype...
Article
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Damaging effects of hyperglycemia on cardiovascular function: spotlight on glucose metabolic pathways. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 310: H153–H173, 2016. First published October 30, 2015; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00206.2015.—The incidence of cardiovascular complications associated with hyperglycemia is a growing global health problem. This review di...
Article
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In diabetes mellitus the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease is increased and represents an important independent mechanism by which heart disease is exacerbated. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy involves the enhanced activation of PPAR transcription factors, including PPARα, and to a lesser degree PPARβ and PPARγ1. How the...
Article
Full-text available
Acute hyperglycemia co-presenting with myocardial infarction (in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals) is often associated with a poor prognosis. Although acute hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress that can lead to dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), it is unclear whether increased/decreased UPS is detrimental with ischemia-r...
Article
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The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) involves the enhanced activation of peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) transcription factors, including the most prominent isoform in the heart, PPARα. In cancer cells and adipocytes, post-translational modification of PPARs have been identified, including ligand-dependent degradatio...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is a major health problem that is usually associated with obesity, together with hyperglycemia and increased advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation. Elevated AGEs elicit severe downstream consequences via their binding to receptors of AGEs (RAGE). This includes oxidative stress and oxidative modifications of biological compounds t...
Article
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended life expectancy and enhanced the well-being of HIV-positive individuals. Since there are concerns regarding HAART-mediated onset of cardio-metabolic diseases in the long-term, we evaluated the anthropometric profile of black HIV-infected individuals in a peri-urban setting (Western Cape, Sou...
Article
Full-text available
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) culminates in the attachment of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) onto serine/threonine residues of target proteins. The HBP is regulated by several modulators, i.e. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) catalyze the addition and removal of O-GlcNAc mo...