Lynne M. Macdonald

Lynne M. Macdonald
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation | CSIRO · Agriculture & Food - Glen Osmond Australia

Ph.D. Plant & Soil Science

About

85
Publications
25,333
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,118
Citations
Citations since 2017
32 Research Items
3026 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
June 2012 - present
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Affiliate
Description
  • Supervision of post-graduate students; Lecture in Australian Soil Carbon Resources;
January 2009 - present
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/AF
January 2006 - January 2009
The Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdon (UK)
Position
  • Postdoctoral Scientist
Description
  • SoilFit: Integration of soil fingerprinting techniques for forensic application (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council), 2006-08
Education
October 1998 - January 2002
University of Aberdeen
Field of study
  • Rhizosphere carbon dynamics
September 1994 - June 1998
University of Aberdeen
Field of study
  • Environmental Microbiology

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Grain production is a key pillar in Australia’s economy but it operates within challenging climatic and edaphic environments, with unreliable and often low rainfall. Moreover many of the production landscapes have soils which have limited capacity to store water or have a range of physical, chemical or biological constraints. High soil strength has...
Article
Full-text available
The soil carbon (C) saturation concept suggests an upper limit to the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC). It is set by the mechanisms that protect soil organic matter from mineralization. Biochar has the capacity to protect new C, including rhizodeposits and microbial necromass. However, the decadal-scale mechanisms by which biochar influences th...
Preprint
Full-text available
The soil carbon saturation concept suggests an upper limit to store soil organic carbon (SOC), set by the mechanisms that protect soil organic matter from decomposition. Biochar has the capacity to protect new C including rhizodeposits and microbial necromass. However, the decadal scale mechanisms by which biochar influences the molecular diversity...
Article
Acidity negatively impacts upon soil capability and conditions across approximately 50% of the world's arable land. Plant growth and nutrient cycling are known to respond positively to the addition of lime to decrease soil acidity. However, the interactions between liming and soil carbon dynamics remain incompletely understood. The nexus of soils,...
Article
Coastal wetlands are carbon and nutrient sinks that capture large amounts of atmospheric CO2 and runoff of nutrients. ‘Blue carbon’ refers to carbon stored within resident vegetation (e.g. mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrasses) and soil of coastal wetlands. This study aimed to quantify the impact of vegetation type on soil carbon stocks (organic...
Article
Full-text available
Post-fire litter layers are composed of leaves and woody debris that predominantly fall during or soon after the fire event. These layers are distinctly different to pre-fire litters due to their common origin and deposition time. However, heterogeneity can arise from the variable thermal conditions in the canopy during fire. Therefore, in this stu...
Article
Sandy soils make up a substantial fraction of cropping land in low rainfall (<450 mm p.a.) south and south-eastern Australia. In this paper we review the possible soil constraints to increased production on these soils in this region. Many of these soils have a very low (<3%) clay content and suffer from severe water repellency, making crop establi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil profile amelioration practices are gaining momentum to improve productivity on sandy soils in the Southern region. Diagnosing the underlying soil constraints and understanding the yield gap are important factors in supporting cost-effective management decisions. Drawing on findings from nine multi-year trials, we present the impact of differen...
Research
Full-text available
Web version of the file can be reached from https://groundcover.grdc.com.au/story/6415174/success-from-soil-incorporation-with-rotary-spaders/
Article
As the agricultural sector seeks to feed a growing global population, climate-smart agriculture offers opportunities to concurrently mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and/or increasing carbon storage in soils. This study examined the potential for clay addition to reduce CO2 emissions from plant residues and soil organic...
Article
Soil material found on questioned items (such as footwear, tools or vehicles) during a police enquiry can provide powerful forensic intelligence (and evidence) relating to geographical origin. We evaluated the potential of organic biomarkers (i.e. plant wax compounds n -alkanes and fatty alcohols) and microbial community DNA profiles (bacterial and...
Article
As climate change proceeds, a change in the frequency and intensity of fire events is expected to affect soil organic matter (SOM) transformations within forestry systems. A likely consequence is the development of post-fire litter layers composed of thermally altered non-senescent materials that have fallen during a fire event. In this study, Pinu...
Article
Under conditions of increased fire season length and area affected by fire, stocks of carbon stored in forests are at increased risk of burning. While much research has investigated the immediate loss of above ground and below ground carbon stocks through combustion during a fire, there has been little research on subsequent organic matter cycling...
Article
Dairy pastures can be a major source of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to the combination of intensive nitrogen (N) fertiliser use and high soil water content, from either rainfall and/or irrigation. Biochar application is a promising approach to lower soil greenhouse gas emissions, particularly under high soil moisture conditions where den...
Article
In pine forest litters, decomposition rate is directly affected by the pathway the needle followed to the ground, whether that was via programmed apoptosis and abscission or via stress induced loss through branch damage or tree death. Stress induced losses may occur due to fire damage, which leads to a post-fire litter layer composed of non-senesce...
Article
It is important to understand the stability of soil organic matter (SOM) sequestered through land management changes. In this study we assessed differences in carbon (C) stability of pasture soils that had high and low C content (2.35% vs 1.73% whole soil C in the 0–10 cm layer) resulting from long-term phosphorus fertilisation. We used soil size f...
Article
European earthworms have colonised many parts of Australia, although their impact on soil microbial communities remains largely uncharacterised. An experiment was conducted to contrast the responses to Aporrectodea trapezoides introduction between soils from sites with established (Talmo, 64 A. trapezoides m⁻²) and rare (Glenrock, 0.6 A. trapezoide...
Article
There is increasing interest in use of ‘alternative’ soil amendments in agriculture, but the wide range of resources and products available differ greatly in their potential to overcome soil constraints and improve nutrient use efficiency. The three main types of biological amendments can be categorised as biostimulants, organic amendments and micr...
Article
The abiotic protection of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) in soils may be an important regulator of C cycling. The study of the protection of LMWOC through sorption typically employs soils shaken in solution, which may be compromised by biological activity. We used 14C-labelled glucose as a LMWOC in batch assays with four different s...
Article
Dried and incinerated sewage sludge (SS) have the potential to be used as phosphorus (P) fertilisers. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant P uptake; however, their role in P uptake from SS has yet to be fully explored. A compartmented pot system with an isotope pool dilution approach was used to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivu...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Dried sewage sludge (SS) and the by-products of four SS thermal conversion processes (pyrolysis, incineration and two types of gasification) were investigated for phosphorus (P) availability. Methods A sequential extraction was used to determine the distribution of P among different P pools. After mixing materials with soil, availability of t...
Article
Full-text available
Biochar can increase the stable C content of soil. However, studies on the longer-term role of plant–soil–biochar interactions and the consequent changes to native soil organic carbon (SOC) are lacking. Periodic 13CO2 pulse labelling of ryegrass was used to monitor belowground C allocation, SOC priming, and stabilization of root-derived C for a 15-...
Article
As phosphorus (P) fertilisers become increasingly expensive there is a need to find innovative ways to supply crops with P. Organic amendments (OA) can contain high concentrations of total P, although the P is present in various forms. We aimed to determine the forms of P and carbon (C) in a range of OA and the effect of these OA on soil microbial...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in soil are intrinsically linked. Recently, and with particular reference to increased awareness of climatic change, there has been focus on increasing sequestration of C in agricultural soils as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. However, increased C content in soils often also leads to an increa...
Article
Organic phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the soil P cycle. It is present in various chemical forms, the relative amounts of which vary among soils, due to factors including climate, land use, and soil type. Few studies have investigated co-variation between P types or stoichiometric correlation with the key elemental components of organic...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of biochar research within Australia with consideration given to the regional land-use diversity in defining both the dominant feedstock materials used and the dominant target systems. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation have been strong underlying themes of Australian biochar research, with co...
Article
There is a knowledge gap on biochar carbon (C) longevity and its priming effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) and recent root-derived C under field conditions. This knowledge would allow the potential of biochar in long-term soil C sequestration to be established. However, most studies on biochar C longevity and its priming effect have been underta...
Article
Full-text available
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is an important component of the global soil carbon (C) pool, but its fate, persistence, and loss dynamics in contrasting soils and environments under planted field conditions are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, a 13C-labelled biochar, as a surrogate material for PyC, produced from Eucalyptus saligna by slow py...
Article
Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy is widely used to identify and quantify phosphorus (P) forms in soil. This study aimed to determine whether narrowing the soil to extractant sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) ratio from 1:20 to values as low as 1:4 would improve sensitivity of solution 31P NM...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Cellulose accounts for approximately half of photosynthesis fixed carbon, however the ecology of its degradation in soil is still relatively poorly understood. The role of actinobacteria in cellulose degradation has not been extensively investigated, despite their abundance in soil and known cellulose degradation capability. Here, the dive...
Article
Better understanding the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important for the management and enhancement of soils for production and environmental outcomes. We have applied digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques to combine soil-site datasets from legacy and recent sources, environmental covariates and expert pedological know...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The existence of a large and stable pool of organic phosphorus (P) in most soils represents somewhat of a conundrum given that the largest inputs from biomass (phospholipids and nucleic acids) are known to undergo rapid microbial decomposition. The most popular rationalization of this apparent contradiction is that the majority of organic P in soil...
Article
The functional resistance and resilience of soils from across the South Island of New Zealand were assessed. Soils were collected from under varying land-uses (pasture, pine forest, native forest) at each of four different locations (Hokitika, Craigieburn, Eyrewell, Orton Bradley Park). Soil function was measured using carbon utilization profiles (...
Article
Network and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine interactions between bacterial and fungal community T-RFLPs as well as soil properties in paired woodland and pasture sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that shifts in woodland community composition correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon, while cha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify several different forms of phosphorus (P) present in soil. The relative amounts of these have been found to vary among soils, most likely due to factors including climate, land use, and soil type. However, few studies have investigated co-variation among these P types or stoichiome...
Article
The benefits of sequestering carbon are many, including improved crop productivity, reductions in greenhouse gases, and financial gains through the sale of carbon credits. Achieving better understanding of the sequestration process has motivated many deterministic models of soil carbon dynamics, but none of these models address uncertainty in a com...
Article
Full-text available
The use of biochar as an agricultural amendment has attracted much attention owing to its potential to improve soil condition and plant growth; however, production outcomes are often uncertain. Although soil type is a major driver of plant productivity, there are relatively few biochar studies that directly compare plant growth responses across a r...
Article
Full-text available
This review addresses the applicability of visible (Vis), near-infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared (MIR) reflectance spectroscopy for the prediction of soil properties. We address (1) the properties that can be predicted and the accuracy of the predictions, (2) the most suitable spectral regions for specific soil properties, (3) the number of predicti...
Article
Full-text available
The use of biochar in agriculture to achieve the dual benefits of improving soil quality whilst sequestering carbon (C) has received much attention. However, in low-intensity broadacre agricultural systems where yield is constrained by rainfall and costs associated with phosphorus (P) fertiliser, the application of biochar at rates commonly reporte...
Article
Full-text available
The application of biochar technology for soil amendment is largely based on evidence about soil fertility and crop productivity gains made in the Amazonian Black Earth (terra preta). However, the uncertainty of production gains at realistic application rates of biochars and lack of knowledge about other benefits and other concerns may have resulte...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organic carbon (OC) exists as a diverse mixture of organic materials with different susceptibilities to biological decomposition. Computer simulation models constructed to predict the dynamics of soil OC have dealt with this diversity using a series of conceptual pools differentiated from one another by the magnitude of their respective decomp...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the content and composition of soil carbon in the laboratory is time-consuming, requires specialised equipment and is therefore expensive. Rapid, simple and low-cost accurate methods of analysis are required to support current interests in carbon accounting. This study was completed to develop national and state-based models capable of...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial grass pastures are being increasingly adopted, but little is known about the flows of carbon (C) from photosynthesis into soil organic matter (SOM) that could be used for calculations in carbon accounting. Repeat-pulse labelling of perennial grass pastures (kikuyu and Rhodes grass) with 14C in the field in Western Australia was used to tr...
Article
Identifying drivers of variation in soil organic carbon (OC) at a regional scale is often hampered by a lack of historical management information. Focusing on red-brown-earth soils (Chromosol) under dryland agriculture in the Mid-North and Eyre Peninsula of South Australia, our aims were 2-fold: (i) to provide a baseline of soil OC stocks (0.3 m) a...
Article
Full-text available
Here we take advantage of the stable carbon isotope shift that occurs when a C4 plant is sown into a soil previously dominated by C3 vegetation, to explore the movement and fate of newly sequestered soil organic carbon (SOC) following establishment of subtropical perennial pastures in temperate regions of Australia. In kikuyu-based pastures up to 3...
Article
Full-text available
The paper-making process can produce large amounts of wastewater (WW) with high particulate and dissolved organic loads. Generally, in developed countries, stringent international regulations for environmental protection require pulp and paper mill WW to be treated to reduce the organic load prior to discharge into the receiving environment. This c...
Article
To effectively characterise and distinguish between different organic matter samples, multiple chemical characterisation techniques are often employed. Due to the structural complexity of organic matter and the unique information provided by different characterisation techniques, it is often difficult to compare and combine data obtained from diffe...
Article
MicroResp™ is a miniaturised method for measuring substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soil. We modified the MicroResp™ method to develop a rapid tool for quantifying the ecotoxicological impact of contaminants. The method is based on reduction in SIR across a gradient of contaminant, allowing for determination of dose-response curves EC-values....
Article
Full-text available
The use of subtropical perennial grasses in temperate grazing systems is increasingly being promoted for production and environmental benefits. This study employed a combination of elemental and stable isotope analyses to explore whether pastures sown to either kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) or a combination of panic (Panicum maximum) and Rhodes...
Article
Full-text available
The use of subtropical perennial grasses in temperate grazing systems is increasingly being promoted for production and environmental benefits. This study employed a combination of elemental and stable isotope analyses to explore whether pastures sown to either kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) or a combination of panic (Panicum maximum) and Rhodes...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report contains the outcomes of the CCRP/DAFF‐funded “National Biochar Initiative: From Source to Sink” project. This project commenced in September 2009 and concluded in June 2012, spanning 27 months of dedicated research on biochar and its effects on soil carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. The main tasks of the project were: Tas...
Article
Australia is currently embarking upon an unparalleled program to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by engaging farmers and landholders to reduce emissions and store carbon in the soil. Currently, the magnitude of a potential soil carbon sink in Australian agricultural soils is largely unknown. The oft repeated rubric that adoption of recommended ma...