Lynn G Clark

Lynn G Clark
Iowa State University | ISU · Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology

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254
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Publications (254)
Article
The Neotropical genus Chusquea, with 197 described species, is the most diverse genus of bamboo worldwide. Mexico has 24 species of Chusquea representing two of the five subgenera: Chusquea subg. Chusquea and C. subg. Swallenochloa. Nineteen species belong to subg. Chusquea and just five to subg. Swallenochloa. Chusquea enigmatica, classified in su...
Article
The Neotropical woody bamboo genus Chusquea consists of 193 currently described species ranging from central Mexico and the Caribbean to Chile and Argentina, primarily in montane habitats. The six previously described species of Chusquea subg. Chusquea sect. Serpentes are scandent in habit, with infravaginal branching, few subsidiary buds per compl...
Article
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Grasses are widespread on every continent and are found in all terrestrial biomes. The dominance and spread of grasses and grassland ecosystems have led to significant changes in Earth’s climate, geochemistry, and biodiversity. The abundance of DNA sequence data, particularly chloroplast sequences, and advances in placing grass fossils within the f...
Article
The most speciose bamboo genus worldwide is Chusquea with 195 described species, 24 of which occur in Mexico. Chusquea is classified into five subgenera, with two of them present in Mexico. Chusquea subg. Chusquea is classified into six sections, of which Chusquea sect. Serpentes has eight described species; one of them is present in Mexico. Forty-...
Article
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We present an updated worldwide phylogenetic classification of Poaceae with 11,783 species in 12 subfamilies, seven supertribes, 54 tribes, five supersubtribes, 109 subtribes, and 789 accepted genera. The subfamilies (in descending order based on the number of species) are Pooideae with 4126 species in 219 genera, 15 tribes, and 34 subtribes; Panic...
Article
With 193 described species, Chusquea is the most diverse bamboo genus in the Neotropical region. Brazil, with 48 accepted species and 44 of them endemic, is one of its major centers of diversity. Among the Brazilian species, C. anelythra was only superficially characterized in its original publication almost 200 years ago, without a clear definitio...
Article
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In this work, we sequenced and annotated the genome of Streptochaeta angustifolia , one of two genera in the grass subfamily Anomochlooideae, a lineage sister to all other grasses. The final assembly size is over 99% of the estimated genome size. We find good collinearity with the rice genome and have captured most of the gene space. Streptochaeta...
Article
Full-text available
The bamboos (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprise a major grass lineage with a complex evolutionary history involving ancient hybridization and allopolyploidy. About 1700 described species are classified into three tribes, Olyreae (herbaceous bamboos), Bambuseae (tropical woody bamboos), and Arundinarieae (temperate woody bamboos). Nuclear analyses stro...
Article
Merostachys Spreng. is a Neotropical woody bamboo genus that encompasses c. 57 described species. In this study, we provide a redescription of Merostachys speciosa Spreng., type species of the genus, and a second-step lectotypification of the name. We also include taxonomic comments, information about geographic distribution (including a map) and t...
Article
The circumscriptions of three species of Merostachys, M. medullosa, M. procerrima and M. magnispicula, are modified and a new species, M. soderstromii, is described. Reproductive structures of M. procerrima are described for the first time, and the name is epitypified. All four species are illustrated and notes on distribution, ecology, conservatio...
Article
Olyra Linnaeus (1759: 238) is the best known genus of the herbaceous bamboos, belonging to the tribe Olyreae Kunth ex Spenner (1825: 172), which is composed of the subtribes Buergersiochloinae L.G.Clark & Judz. in Judziewicz & Clark (2007: 311), Parianinae Hackel (1887: 88) and Olyrinae Krombach (1875: 496) (Oliveira et al. 2014, Clark & Oliveira 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, we sequenced and annotated the genome of Streptochaeta angustifolia , one of two genera in the grass subfamily Anomochlooideae, a lineage sister to all other grasses. The final assembly size is over 99% of the estimated genome size, capturing most of the gene space. Streptochaeta is similar to other grasses in the structure of its fru...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present an overview of the abstracts, scientific and social programs, field trips, and achievements in terms of participant number, represented countries, sponsorships, and themes treated during the Sixth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons that took place in Natal, Brazil, October 7 th-12 th 2018....
Article
Chusquea is the richest genus of woody bamboo worldwide, with 191 described species distributed from Mexico, the Antilles, and Central America to southern South America. Mexico has 22 described species distributed along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur, Sierra Madre Oriental and Chiapas Highlands. Two of the five subgenera reco...
Article
Piresia, a Neotropical herbaceous bamboo genus (Poaceae, Olyreae) including six described species, has a disjunct geographic distribution involving the Caribbean and north/western South America and the northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Its phylogenetic relationships are poorly known, especially with respect to certain monotypic genera within...
Book
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The urge to organise the world around us is an essential part of human nature. Naming and categorising enable us to store and access information ef ciently. The need to name and categorise extends to the natural world and, in particular, to living organisms. The science underpinning this area of knowledge is called Taxonomy, and is as old as humani...
Article
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Citation: Lima JF, Leite KRB, Clark LG, Oliveira RP (2021) Notes on leaf micromorphology of the rare herbaceous bamboo Buergersiochloa bambusoides Pilg. (Olyreae, Poaceae) from New Guinea and its taxonomic implications. Abstract We present notes on the leaf micromorphology of Buergersiochloa bambusoides, a rare species from New Guinea and included...
Article
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Background: The Neotropical woody bamboos (NWB) comprise a clade native to the Western Hemisphere. Taxonomically the NWB are classified into three subtribes: Arthrostylidiinae, Chusqueinae, and Guaduinae. These woody bamboos are distributed from northern Mexico and the West Indies to south-central Chile and Argentina and from sea level to over 4,00...
Article
Severe droughts in Amazonia caused by El Niño and Atlantic dipole events are expected to become more frequent due to anthropogenic climate change. These droughts lead the tropical forests of central Amazonia to become increasingly exposed to fire. Forest-fire disturbances can create ideal scenarios for opportunistic plants, such as some bamboos. In...
Article
Merostachys is one of the more species-rich genera of Neotropical woody bamboos. It includes about 55 described species, of which 44 are found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the center of diversity and endemism of the genus. Based on fieldwork in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo states and morphological analyses in herbaria, we recognize two new...
Article
Full-text available
Bamboos are important non-timber forest plants widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, America, and Pacific islands. They comprise the Bambusoideae in the grass family (Poaceae), including approximately 1,700 described species in 127 genera. In spite of the widespread uses of bamboo for food, construction and bio...
Article
Eremitis jardimii F.M.Ferreira & R.P.Oliveira (Poaceae, Bambusoideae), a new species of herbaceous bamboo from the state of Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated, and the characters distinguishing it from E. robusta Hollowell, F.M.Ferreira & R.P.Oliveira are discussed.
Article
Eremitis Döll is a herbaceous bamboo genus (Poaceae, Bambusoideae, Olyreae) belonging to subtribe Parianinae that currently includes seven species. During fieldwork conducted throughout the geographic distribution of the genus, two new species with blue iridescent leaves, E. berbertii F. M. Ferreira & R. P. Oliveira and E. fluminensis F. M. Ferreir...
Article
With an estimated 191 species, the Neotropical woody bamboo genus Chusquea has centers of species richness in both the Andes and in Brazil. Thirty-one species of Chusquea are documented for Ecuador, and of these 11 are considered endemic. We reviewed collections of narrow-leaved species of Chusquea from southern Ecuador, and determined that several...
Article
Merostachys is a Neotropical woody bamboo genus that occurs in the understory and along forest borders. Our taxonomic studies of its species and morphological analyses have allowed us to recognize morphological groups in the genus. Previous molecular analyses, which included relatively few species, supported Merostachys as monophyletic and sister t...
Article
Eremitis limae, a new species of Parianinae (Poaceae, Bambusoideae, Olyreae) endemic to the coastal forests of Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to species of Eremitis with characteristically narrow leaves: E. linearifolia, E. parviflora, and E. riodocensis. We discuss the morphological characters distinguis...
Article
Merostachys is one of the more species-rich genera of Neotropical woody bamboos. Merostachys includes ca. 55 described species; one of them is M. bifurcata, which is recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and was described based only on vegetative characters. Morphological analyses carried out in both national and foreign herbaria allowed us t...
Article
Rationale: Fossil grass silica short cell phytoliths (GSSCP) have been used to reconstruct the biogeography of Poaceae, untangle crop domestication history, and detect past vegetation shifts. These inferences depend on accurately identifying the clade to which the fossils belong. Patterns of GSSCP shape and size variation across the family have not...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of vegetation distribution at regional to subcontinental scales can inform understanding of climate. Delineating ecoregion boundaries over geologic time is complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing between prairie types at broad spatial scales using the pollen record. Pollen ratios are sometimes employed to distinguish between vegeta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bamboos are important non-timber forest plants widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, America, and Pacific islands. They comprise the Bambusoideae in the grass family (Poaceae), including approximately 1,700 described species in 127 genera. In spite of the widespread uses of bamboo for food, construction and bio...
Preprint
Rationale: Fossil grass silica short cell phytoliths (GSSCP) have been used to reconstruct the biogeography of Poaceae, untangle crop domestication history, and detect past vegetation shifts. These inferences depend on accurately identifying the clade to which the fossils belong. Patterns of GSSCP shape and size variation across the family have not...
Article
Full-text available
Bamboos are a diverse and ecologically important group of plants that have the potential to modulate the structure, composition, and function of forests. With the aim of increasing the visibility and representation of bamboo in forest surveys, and to standardize techniques across ecosystems, we present a protocol for bamboo monitoring in permanent...
Article
Piresia, a small genus of herbaceous bamboos, has a geographical disjunction between the Caribbean and northern/ western South America and the northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Piresia leptophylla is reported from western Amazonia (WA) and the northeastern Atlantic Forest (NAF), but its occurrence in western Amazonia is questionable. Using an...
Article
Leaf blade anatomical and micromorphological data have increasingly proved to be useful in the systematics and phylogeny of Bambusoideae. The presence of well-developed, asymmetrically strongly infolded mesophyll cells (arm cells) as seen in cross-section is regarded a synapomorphy for bamboos, whereas many well-known, widely used features for diag...
Article
Herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae) are typical components of Neotropical forests, with a great diversity in Brazil. Olyreae comprise three subtribes, of which Olyrinae are the most heterogeneous, with 19 genera widely distributed in Brazilian biomes but also occurring in Mexico, Central America and northern and western South America. One of the lin...
Article
The present study aims to expand the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships in Olyrinae, a subtribe of herbaceous bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae). Our focus is on Parodiolyra and Raddiella, two historically related genera that, with their sister Diandrolyra, form one of the four main lineages in the subtribe. Previous phylogenetic analyse...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo O presente estudo trata do levantamento florístico das espécies de Bambusoideae (Poaceae) que ocorrem no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB), Minas Gerais, Brasil. O domínio fitogeográfico em que a área de estudo está inserida é a Floresta Atlântica, considerada um dos centros de endemismo de bambus. Foram realizadas expedições de...
Article
We analysed the leaf epidermal surfaces of 52 species of herbaceous bamboos belonging to all 20 genera of subtribe Olyrinae (Olyreae). We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) to describe their foliar microcharacters and test the taxonomic utility of these characters in the subtribe. Shape and distribution of silica bodi...
Article
The bamboo genus Eremitis is one of the three genera of Parianinae, a subtribe within tribe Olyreae (Poaceae, Bambusoideae). As now understood, Eremitis includes six described species. While surveying the bamboos of Rio Doce State Park, some populations of Eremitis were collected and identified as E. parviflora. However, as part of a taxonomic revi...
Article
ABSTRACT Aulonemiella (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae: Arthrostylidiinae), a new Andean genus from Colombia and Ecuador, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its delicate scandent, vining habit; filiform to narrowly triangular, reflexed culm leaf blades; short, delicate foliage leaf fimbriae; synflorescences with subtending bracts...
Article
The present study aims to expand the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships in Olyrinae, a subtribe of herbaceous bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae). Our focus is on Parodiolyra and Raddiella, two historically related genera that, with their sister Diandrolyra, form one of the four main lineages in the subtribe. Previous phylogenetic analyse...
Article
Full-text available
Piresia, a small genus of herbaceous bamboos, has a geographical disjunction between the Caribbean and northern/western South America and the north-eastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Piresia leptophylla is reported from western Amazonia (WA) and the north-eastern Atlantic Forest (NAF), but its occurrence in western Amazonia is questionable. Using a...
Article
Anomochlooideae (Poaceae) represent the earliest-diverging extant lineage of grasses. One of the two genera is the monotypic Anomochloa, which is extremely rare and restricted to the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia state in Brazil, where only two natural populations have been recorded to date. Knowledge of A. marantoidea is considered crucial to...
Article
Background: Woody bamboos of the genus Chusquea grow along a broad range of elevations in the Venezuelan Andes. Their growth-form and density vary along the cloud forest - páramo gradient. In this article, we related ecophysiological traits and population genetic diversity information to explain the distribution of growth-form patterns of Chusquea...
Article
Bamboos of the Neotropical Chusquea subg. Swallenochloa are characteristic of high elevation grasslands from Mexico to Argentina and in Brazil, with a few species occurring in montane or other forests. The central Andean diversity of subg. Swallenochloa remains poorly studied, but recent field work revealed the existence of additional species diver...
Article
Full-text available
Chusquea fendleri is a scandent woody bamboo, described originally by August Fendler, based on a single collection of the Colonia Tovar, located in the State of Aragua, in Northern central mountains of Venezuela. Further collections carried out in the last 30 years revealed that C. fendleri has a very broad geographic and altitudinal distribution i...
Article
Eremitis, Pariana, and Parianella are herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae) included in the subtribe Parianinae, which is characterized by the presence of fimbriae at the apex of the leaf sheaths and exclusively spiciform synflorescences. We analyzed 43 samples of herbaceous and woody bamboos in order to infer relationships within the Parianinae, base...
Article
Chusquea parviligulata, a new species of Neotropical woody bamboo (Bambuseae: Chusqueinae), is herein described and illustrated, and information on its morphology, conservation status and distribution are provided. It is classified within C. subg. Chusquea based on its relatively elongated internodes, differentiated culm leaves, a triangular and ve...
Book
Full-text available
The International Conference on the Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons (Monocots) is one of the most important conferences for botanical science. Although originally focused on systematics and evolution — gathering mostly specialists from the fields of systematics and morphology — the Monocots conference has expanded its coverage and themes, whi...
Article
Colanthelia is a woody bamboo genus belonging to the Arthrostylidiinae and currently includes nine species. It can be recognized by a suite of morphological characters including hollow and thick-walled culms, branch complement with a promontory in the base and a dominant divergent branch bearing few to many secondary small branchlets from its base,...
Article
The poorly known but distinctive Chusquea perligulata, which was originally described from vegetative material and tentatively placed in Guadua, is completely described and illustrated, and its basionym is neotypified. As its name suggests, C. perligulata has well developed inner ligules (1–) 2–10 cm long on the foliage leaves. This species is ende...
Article
Full-text available
Grass leaf shape is a strong indicator of their habitat with linear leaves predominating in open areas and ovate leaves distinguishing forest‐associated grasses. This pattern among extant species suggests that ancestral shifts between forest and open habitats may have coincided with changes in leaf shape or size. We tested relationships between hab...
Article
Anomochlooideae (Poaceae) represent the earliest-diverging extant lineage of grasses. One of the two genera is the monotypic Anomochloa, which is extremely rare and restricted to the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia state in Brazil, where only two natural populations have been recorded to date. Knowledge of A. marantoidea is considered crucial to...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was established by the Conference of Parties in 2002 to decrease the loss of plant diversity, reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. To achieve this overarching goal, the GSPC has established a series of targets, one of which is to ensure that plant diversity is well understood, s...
Article
An unusual new species of Eremocaulon, a Neotropical woody bamboo genus, is here described and illustrated. Eremocaulon triramis occurs in dense ombrophilous forest and is apparently endemic to Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diameter and indument of the culms, number of branches in the branch complement, and occurrence of two different forms of...
Article
Full-text available
Arthrostylidium, a Neotropical genus of 31 mostly clambering woody bamboo species, is a member of subtribe Arthrostylidiinae, which is closely allied to subtribe Guaduinae. Arthrostylidium has long been a catchall for species within its subtribe that display unusual morphology. While attempting to clarify the circumscription of Arthrostylidium, we...
Article
The first revision of the Neotropical woody bamboo genus Colanthelia is here presented. Updated morphological descriptions of the species, comments, illustrations, and keys to the species (one based on vegetative characters only and the other based on vegetative plus reproductive characters) are provided. Colanthelia consists of nine species, all c...
Conference Paper
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OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE AVAILABLE AT https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy025
Data
VIDEO S1. An animation of the steps required for 3D modeling of spikelets using Cinema 4D software. This video is an MP4 file and is available under the Supporting Information section at the end of the article, or can be viewed from the https://youtu.be/BAqwqSD0e9E.