Lynette H Ong

Lynette H Ong
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Political Science

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49
Publications
14,244
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Introduction
Lynette H Ong currently works at the Department of Political Science, University of Toronto. Lynette does research in authoritarian politics, contentious politics and political economy. Her current project is 'Repression Strategies in China.'
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
China, the world's largest energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter, appears to have contradictory climate policies. While aggressively pursuing a renewable energy policy, Beijing is weak on a commitment to emissions reduction. The "paradox" can be reconciled on the basis of China's priority for growth, which is critical in ensuring the Communist...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the rationale behind municipal and local governments’ pursuance of urbanization, and the political and socio-economic implications of the policy to move villagers from their farmland into apartment blocks in high-density resettlement areas, or “concentrated villages.” It provides evidence of an increasing reliance by municipal...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study is to shed light on the nature of social unrest in China, the grievances that are at the heart of social unrest and the counterpolicies launched by the Chinese government and to discuss the implications for EU policy. The study is based on English- and Chinese-language sources comprising official documents, newspaper...
Book
Full-text available
How do states coerce citizens into compliance while simultaneously minimizing backlash? In Outsourcing Repression, Lynette H. Ong examines how the Chinese state engages nonstate actors, from violent street gangsters to nonviolent grassroots brokers, to coerce and mobilize the masses for state pursuits, while reducing costs and minimizing resistance...
Book
Full-text available
How do discontented masses and opposition elites work together to engineer a change in electoral authoritarian regimes? Social movements and elections are often seen as operating in different terrains – outside and inside institutions, respectively. In this Element, I develop a theory to describe how a broad-based social movement that champions a g...
Article
Full-text available
Both China and India have witnessed extensive land expropriation by the state from farmers for use in industrialisation and urbanisation projects. Land conflicts have ensued from these developments. This article poses two questions: (i) Why do we see a similar escalation of land dispossession in both countries, despite their distinctively dissimila...
Article
Full-text available
A strong authoritarian state such as China has a range of institutions and instruments at its disposal to resolve social conflicts. This study proposes a new mechanism-citizen's engagement of a profit-seeking intermediary-that helps to facilitate state-society bargaining, resolve conflicts and thereby absorb social contention. This form of state-so...
Conference Paper
One of the key obstacles of democratization in “competitive authoritarian” regimes is the formation of an electoral coalition of opposition parties that could pose a credible challenge to the incumbents. This paper develops a theory to illustrate how a broad-based social movement can build support across political elites and the society. Over a rei...
Article
Full-text available
Both China and India have witnessed extensive land expropriation by the states from farmers for use in industrialization and urbanization projects. Land conflicts have ensued from these developments. This paper poses two questions: 1) Why do we see a similar escalation of land dispossession in both countries, despite their distinctively dissimilar...
Article
Full-text available
Why does the Chinese government—which is known for its strong-arm tactics—need or desire to use non-state actors to carry out coercion and social control? In this piece, I argue the government seeks to deploy non-state actors to perform coercive acts or exercise social control for a wide range of reasons, such as reducing the cost of repression and...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines “thugs-for-hire” in state repression. Local governments regularly deploy third-party violence to evict homeowners, expropriate land from farmers, manage illegal street vendors, and deal with petitioners and protestors in China. Violence is effective in implementing unpopular and illegal policies and also allows local authoriti...
Article
Full-text available
Using violence or threat of violence, “thugs-for-hire” (TFH) is a form of privatized coercion that helps states subjugate a recalcitrant population. I lay out three scope conditions under which TFH is the preferred strategy: when state actions are illegal or policies are unpopular; when evasion of state responsibility is highly desirable; and when...
Article
Full-text available
What drives people to protest in an authoritarian country? Drawing from a rich set of individual-level data from the China General Social Survey 2010, we address the question of protest participation by focusing on the factors of resources, and rewards vs. risks, that might be unique to protestors in an authoritarian state. We find strong evidence...
Article
A Discussion of Daniel A. Bell’s The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy - Volume 14 Issue 1 - Lynette H. Ong
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines “thugs-for-hire” as a form of state coercion and everyday repression. Third-party violence is commonly deployed by the state to evict homeowners and to deal with petitioners and protestors in China. This study contributes to the state repression literature by elaborating the role of thugs and gangsters as a repressive measure. V...
Article
Full-text available
Rural credit cooperatives have become increasingly commercialized over the last decade. However, this does not spell the end of cooperative finance in rural China. Various new cooperative credit organizations have sprung up in recent years with endorsement from the central and local governments. They are designed to meet the wide-ranging credit dem...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social unrest is on the rise in China. Few incidents of public demonstrations, disruptive action or riots occurred in the 1980s, but the 1989 student protests in Tiananmen Square marked a turning point. In 1993, there were already 8,700 ‘mass incidents’ recorded. By 2005, the number had grown tenfold to 87,000. Unofficial data estimated by a resear...
Article
Full-text available
China, the world's largest energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter, appears to have contradictory climate policies. While aggressively pursuing a renewable energy policy, Beijing is weak on a commitment to emissions reduction. The “paradox” can be reconciled on the basis of China's priority for growth, which is critical in ensuring the Communist...
Book
Full-text available
The official banking institutions for rural China are Rural Credit Cooperatives (RCCs). Although these co-ops are mandated to support agricultural development among farm households, since 1980 half of RCC loans have gone to small and medium-sized industrial enterprises located in, and managed by, townships and villages. These township and village e...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the changing nature of state-business relations in China based on its recent privatization experience. Drawing on an analytical framework based on statist literature, this study seeks to explain why pervasive governance problem occurred during the privatization of local government-owned firms. The two contributing factors ar...
Article
China has been held up as a modern-day exemplar of “market-preserving federalism”. This study challenges this popular belief by showing that its local governments face soft budget constraints. Fiscal indiscipline among subnational governments, which risks national indebtedness and macroeconomic instability, can pose serious dangers to federations....
Article
Full-text available
China has been held up as a modern-day exemplar of ‘market-preserving federalism.’ This article challenges this popular belief by showing that its local governments face soft budget constraints. Fiscal indiscipline among subnational governments, which risks national indebtedness and macroeconomic instability, can pose serious dangers to federations...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the changing nature of state-business relations in China based on its recent privatization experience. Drawing on an analytical framework based on statist literature, this study seeks to explain why pervasive governance problem occurred during the privatization of local government-owned firms. The two contributing factors ar...
Article
This article is about China's agricultural banking since 1978.
Article
Full-text available
This article is about China's Agricultural Policy since 1978.
Article
Full-text available
Although the Rural Credit Cooperatives are the only formal credit providers to millions of households in rural China, empirical evidence suggests that they do not serve the interests of member households very effectively. This study examines how far the recent institutional reforms have addressed the problems of insider control and collective actio...
Article
Full-text available
This paper sheds light on the ways in which township governments had mobilized resources from local financial institutions, and how failure to repay many of these loans had given rise to sizable local government debt. Mobilization of resources was done through loans to collective enterprises whose de facto owners were township authorities. Though t...
Article
Full-text available
Ample empirical evidence suggests that Rural Credit Cooperatives (RCCs), which are the core credit institutions in rural China, are not accountable to their member households. This article argues that this conundrum can be explained by an institutional analysis of the credit cooperatives using the multiple principals-agent framework: the credit coo...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (doctoral)--Rand Graduate School, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (p. 130-138).

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Understand how one affects the other
Project
Political institutions and incentives driving economic development.