Lynette Hart

Lynette Hart
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Population Health and Reproduction (VM)

PhD

About

278
Publications
148,356
Reads
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5,519
Citations
Introduction
anthrozoology, human-animal interaction, animal behavior, animal welfare, alternatives to consumptive uses of animals
Additional affiliations
June 1985 - August 1987
University of Nairobi
Position
  • Visiting Scientist
September 1983 - present
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Professor
August 1976 - August 1981
Monell Chemical Senses Center
Position
  • Research Scientist

Publications

Publications (278)
Article
Full-text available
Neutering (including spaying) of male and female dogs in the first year after birth has become routine in the U.S. and much of Europe, but recent research reveals that for some dog breeds, neutering may be associated with increased risks of debilitating joint disorders and some cancers, complicating pet owners' decisions on neutering. The joint dis...
Article
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Extensive practice and knowledge of the methods and effects of castration of male livestock and even humans has been widespread since ancient times, but only a few decades ago did neutering (including spaying) become a routine part of canine husbandry. In the US, the 6-month neuter became standard practice. Only recently, however, have some of the...
Article
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Sudden, loud noises are one of the most common triggers for fearful behaviors in dogs, and many companion dogs suffer from noise sensitivity. Existing research focuses on dramatic infrequent sounds (e.g., thunderstorms, fireworks). Anecdotally, and based on reports of undesirable behaviors in response to noises in the home, many common household no...
Article
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Long-term HIV/AIDS survivors responded online concerning their experiences during the AIDS and COVID pandemics. Recruited from web-based organizations for AIDS survivors, 147 answered questions on: frequency of experiencing stigma, isolation, aloneness, or grief/sadness; pet ownership; and sources of human support during each pandemic. Conditional...
Article
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Citation: Howell, T.J.; Nieforth, L.; Thomas-Pino, C.; Samet, L.; Agbonika, S.; Cuevas-Pavincich, F.; Fry, N.E.; Hill, K.; Jegatheesan, B.; Kakinuma, M.; et al. Defining Terms
Article
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Negative stress due to human handling has been reported for a number of domestic animals, including dogs. Many companion dogs display significant stress during routine care in the veterinary clinic, risking injury to staff and potentially compromising the quality of care that these dogs receive. On the other hand, positive interactions with humans...
Article
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Abstract: This study explored the perspectives of elephant mahouts (n = 55) and tiger caregivers (n = 18) working in 4 private or 2 government facilities in Thailand to learn their experiences and viewpoints pertaining to use of animals in tourism. Interviews were conducted in Thailand at facilities in four cities. Mahouts working in private touris...
Article
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Chronic exposure to stressful environments can negatively impact cats' health and welfare, affecting behavioral, autonomic, endocrine, and immune function, as with cats in shelters. Low-stress handling practices likely improve shelter cat welfare, but data supporting improved outcomes remain limited. Cardiac activity, particularly heart rate variab...
Article
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“Sickness behavior is broadly represented in vertebrates, usually in association with the fever response in response to acute infections. The reactions to sickness behavior in a group member or potential group member in humans is quite variable, depending upon circumstances. In animals, the reactions to sickness behavior in a group member or potent...
Article
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Plant eating by domestic cats is of interest to veterinarians and cat owners, especially with the current trend to keep cats totally indoors. Feline grass gardens are commonly provided to such cats as a reflection of cat owners believing in the need or desire of cats for eating plants. Two surveys with 1000 to 2000 returns from cat owners were laun...
Article
Increasing public concern over the use of animal dissection in education is driving development and testing of alternatives to animal use. Clay modeling has proven successful in achieving comparable or superior learning at postsecondary levels, but it has not yet been tested at secondary levels. This study tested the effectiveness and appeal of cla...
Article
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Addressing behavior problems in clinical practice requires diagnostic expertise as well as excellent client skills in communication, gained by experience. This issue was addressed by introducing clinical behavior to first-year veterinary students. The program was implemented over four successive terms (2017-2019) at St. George's University School o...
Article
Full-text available
The early neutering of male and female dogs and its relationship to an increased risk of joint disorders and some cancers has recently become a concern, raising questions about the standard practice in the U.S. and much of Europe of neutering by 6 months of age. A noteworthy recent finding from this center is that there are major breed differences...
Article
Full-text available
While spontaneous yawning is common across all vertebrate classes, contagious yawning is less common and has been observed only in a few species of social animals. Interspecific contagious yawning in response to yawning by humans has been observed only by chimpanzees and dogs. After confirming additional occurrences of intraspecific contagious yawn...
Article
Full-text available
As science begins to support what we have long intuitively known, that human-animal interactions offer numerous benefits, animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately, with the rapid growth of AAIs, many clinicians who include animals lack sufficient knowledge and/or experience in animal behavior and welfare...
Article
To evaluate dog owners' opinions regarding the use of psychoactive medications and alternatives in dogs, 513 past or present dog owners completed an online, anonymous survey. Owners reported their comfort levels, concerns, and relevant decision factors regarding the use of psychoactive medications (divided into categories of fast-acting/situational...
Article
Assistance dogs’ roles have diversified to support people with various disabilities, especially in the U.S. Data presented here are from the U.S. and Canada non-profit member and candidate facilities of Assistance Dogs International (ADI) and the International Guide Dog Federation (IGDF), and from non-accredited U.S. assistance dog training facilit...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sickness behavior represents a centrally organized suite of behaviors--depression, inactivity, anorexia, sleepiness, and reduction of grooming---that evolved in animals living in nature to conserve body resources for the high energetic costs of fever in fighting infections. The domestic scene reveals that sickness behavior can be an early marker of...
Article
Full-text available
For the past several decades the mantra for the age of spay/neuter of dogs not intended for breeding was around 6 months---maintained on the basis of pet population control, as well as beliefs in prevention of mammary and some other cancers and prevention of some behavior problems in males. This project, undertaken at our center with an extensive c...
Article
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It has been widely reported that service dogs offer benefits to their human partners, however, it is unclear whether the expanding methods of training and roles of service dogs for their partners with various disabilities also provide similar benefits. This study aimed to investigate the self-reported experience of service dog partners to understan...
Article
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Despite increasing information on enhancing client communication and compliance/adherence in veterinary medicine, literature focusing on special cases remains limited: working with clients with special needs, challenges or disabilities, or when the patient is an assistance or emotional support animal. This paper summarizes current recommendations o...
Article
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Although studies involving pet dogs and cats, and human adults and children, have been reported, the specific interactions between cats and children have not. This study sought information from parents about the cat's role in families that have at least one child 3–12 years of age and at least one cat. Demographic data on cat source, breed, gender/...
Article
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Mammals live and thrive in environments presenting ongoing threats from parasites in the form of biting flies, ticks and intestinal worms and from pathogens as wound contaminants and agents of infectious disease. Several strategies have evolved that enable animals to deal with parasites and pathogens, including eliminating away from the sleeping–re...
Article
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We conducted a veterinary clinic-based retrospective cohort study aimed at identifying child-, dog-, and home-environment factors associated with dog bites to children aged 5–15 years old living in the same home as a dog in Kingston, Jamaica (236) and San Francisco, USA (61). Secondarily, we wished to compare these factors to risk factors for dog b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who otherwise may lack prosocial behavio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare wor...
Article
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Canine conspecific coprophagy, the tendency or predisposition of some dogs to eat their own faeces or those of other dogs, seems paradoxical because dogs typically show an aversion to conspecific faeces. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, we set out to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of this behaviour and to evaluate the ef...
Data
Appendix S3. Responses to survey, dog behaviour.
Data
Appendix S4. Responses to why dogs eat their stools.
Data
Appendix S1. Dog behavior: The rest of the story.
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation outlines the history of anthrozoology and its founders/fellows, including the scholarly leadership provided by the International Society for Anthrozoology and the journal Anthrozoos. It considers the expanding roles of assistance/service dogs, emphasizes the comforting role animals offer for loneliness, depression and improving surviva...
Article
South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to initiate interactions with humans by examining whethe...
Article
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in 2 Asian elephants in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with 9 capt...
Data
Taken at night at the Knysna Elephant Park in South Africa shows an elephant arousing and yawning, contagiously, after seeing the elephant in the background starting to yawn.
Data
A yawn by an Asian elephant, atypically wide, at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.
Article
Dogs’ roles to support people with disabilities are increasing. Existing U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to the use of dogs for people with disabilities are only minimally enforced. Pushback legislation against some aspects of uses of assistance dogs currently is being passed or proposed in several states. Further, the U.S. Department of the A...
Article
Dogs’ roles to support people with disabilities are increasing. Existing U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to the use of dogs for people with disabilities are only minimally enforced. Pushback legislation against some aspects of uses of assistance dogs currently is being passed or proposed in several states. Further, the U.S. Department of the A...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
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German Shepherd Dogs are important in police and military work, and are a popular family pet. The debilitating joint disorders of hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear (CCL) and elbow dysplasia can shorten a dog's useful working life and impact its role as a family member. For this study, veterinary hospital records were examined over a 14....
Chapter
Full-text available
Animals are assuming growing importance in society, either solely as companions, or for assistance or therapy by human health professionals. Expanding roles of dogs appear in research and regulatory and legislative updates. This chapter integrates the theoretical perspectives explaining physiological and psychosocial processes involved in the effec...
Research
Full-text available
This is the editorial introduction to a set of papers exploring the borderlands between studies of wild and non-wild animals, and is set for publication in December 2015 in the Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy.
Article
Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confi...
Conference Paper
Yawning occurs throughout mammalian species as well as in birds and fish. A theoretical role of yawning is to activate the brain after a period of inactivity, such as awakening from a sleep or long rest period. This function may help elephants living in nature: efficient functioning of the brain is essential in finding food and water and recognizin...
Conference Paper
Yawning is the signature behavior of hippopotamuses living in natural African habitats. Animal studies profile the theoretical role of yawning in cooling the brain to counteract overheating for better brain function. For hippos residing in a pool during the day, the top of the head is exposed to direct heating by the sun. We examined a prediction f...
Article
Full-text available
Appropriate physical activity is beneficial for physical and psychosocial wellbeing, and it is recommended for people to have 30 minutes of activity on most days of the week, to yield 150 minutes per week. Getting sufficient physical activity particularly challenges people with visual disabilities, and few health-promotion interventions have focuse...
Article
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Reading Knight's description of the challenges and sensations of doing fieldwork on elusive forest species, as experienced by Japanese primatologists, brings back memories of my own joys and frustrations as a doctoral student, following Diana monkeys in a tropical forest in Sierra Leone. I very much enjoyed reading this book and would recommend it...
Article
The recent increase in scholarly and other professional interest in environmental policy in China is quite remarkable. It is almost as remarkable as the persistent inability of that literature, despite the generally high quality, impressive disciplinary range, and diverse national origins of the contributions, to settle on any clear or widely share...
Article
Full-text available
Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age...
Article
Full-text available
Trapping and handling is stressful for wild animals and may result in injuries. Minimizing stress and injuries is important not only for the welfare of the animals, but to assure integrity of research using trapped wild animals. By recording injury rates associated with trapping and handling, it is possible to assess the welfare performance of trap...
Article
In western countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, many people with disabilities benefit from the help their assistance dogs provide. In contrast, assistance dogs have not become widespread in Japan. This study explores the perspectives of Japanese people with disabilities, including the obstacles they have experienced when con...
Chapter
Of all domestic animals, cats are the most capable of breeding, giving birth to offspring and raising their young without human care or intervention. In the classic example, a mother cat that has secretly gone through parturition in some obscure location reveals a litter of perfectly healthy kittens to the human family members after the kittens hav...