Lynda Boothroyd

Lynda Boothroyd
Durham University | DU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

63
Publications
48,397
Reads
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2,614
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 2005 - present
Durham University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Humans are sexually dimorphic: men and women differ in body build and composition, craniofacial structure, and voice pitch, likely mediated in part by developmental testosterone. Sexual selection hypotheses posit that, ancestrally, more 'masculine' men may have acquired more mates and/or sired more viable offspring. Thus far, however, evidence for...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relations between callous-unemotional traits and perpetration of aggression toward parents in two separate studies, while also considering motivation for aggression and parenting styles experienced among young people. Study 1 involved 60 parents of children aged between 11 and 17 years old. The online study found high callou...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Tests of theories of mate choice often rely on data gathered in White, industrialised samples and this is especially the case for studies of facial attraction. Our understanding of preferences for sexual dimorphism is currently in flux and a number of hypotheses require testing in more diverse participant samples. The current study uses o...
Article
Full-text available
Body preferences are somewhat flexible and this variability may be the result of one’s visual diet (whereby mere exposure to certain bodies shifts preferences), associative learning mechanisms (whereby cues to health and status within the population are internalised and affect body preferences), or a mixture of both visual diet and associative lear...
Article
Full-text available
Ultra-thin fashion dolls may represent a risk factor for thin-ideal internalisation and body dissatisfaction amongst young girls. We asked thirty one 5- to 9-year-old girls to engage in interactive play with commercially available dolls which were either ultra-thin (Barbie and Monster High) or represented a putative realistic childlike shape (Lotti...
Preprint
Objective: Tests of theories of mate choice often rely on data gathered in White, industrialised samples and this is especially the case for studies of facial attraction. Our understanding of preferences for sexual dimorphism is currently in flux and a number of hypotheses require testing in more diverse participant samples. The current study uses...
Preprint
The visual diet hypothesis suggests that exposure to a certain body type increases our preference for that type of body, and exposure to ideal bodies is proposed to lead to body dissatisfaction. Here we examined the effect of exposure to high/low muscularity bodies on muscularity preferences and, subsequently, on body satisfaction in men, as well a...
Preprint
Body preferences are somewhat flexible and this variability may be the result of one’s visual diet (whereby mere exposure to certain bodies shifts preferences), associative learning mechanisms (whereby cues to health and status within the population are internalised and affect body preferences), or a mixture of both visual diet and associative lear...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies are evidencing relationships between the drive for muscularity and potentially harmful behavioral strategies, such as unhealthy dieting and steroid use amongst men in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) populations. As such Western appearance standards proliferate around the world via the medi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humans are sexually dimorphic: on average men significantly differ from women in body build and composition, craniofacial structure, and voice pitch, likely mediated in part by developmental testosterone exposure. Hypotheses which attempt to explain the evolution of dimorphism in humans, such as the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis and the male...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptions of physical attractiveness vary across cultural groups, particularly for female body size and shape. It has been hypothesized that visual media propagates Western "thin ideals." However, because cross-cultural studies typically consider groups highly differentiated on a number of factors, identifying the causal factors has thus far been...
Article
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Dissonance-based body image programs have shown long-term effectiveness in preventing eating disorders and reducing risk factors for eating disorders in women. Here we report on the potential for one such intervention to impact on implicit attitudes toward thinness as well as an explicit measure of eating attitudes, across a sexually diverse group...
Preprint
There is considerable evidence that adults’ perception of body weight can be manipulated through adaptation paradigms in which participants are visually exposed to multiple bodies at one weight extreme or the other. No study has yet examined how early such effects can be clearly documented. In the current study we ran an identical experimental adap...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perceptions of body weight attractiveness can be manipulated through visual exposure to bodies at one weight extreme. This implies that body weight is coded relative to a central ‘norm’ or prototype. Cross-cultural research, however, shows differences between groups’ perceptions of body weight attractiveness in terms of preferences for specific wei...
Article
Full-text available
The different levels of media access in otherwise very similar villages in rural Nicaragua provided a natural laboratory to explore the effect of television (TV) access on men's preferences for female body size and shape. In study 1 we compared the female body ideals of men from three discrete villages who experienced different levels of TV but oth...
Chapter
Full-text available
Humans show preferential responses to ‘attractive’ individuals from the first hours of life onwards. However, these early preferences are subject to later development, both in terms of increasing agreement on general attractiveness, and the emergence of preferences for specific dimensions of attractiveness relevant to mate choice. Here we firstly o...
Article
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Incidents of child-to-parent aggression have been the most under-researched area of domestic violence. The risk factors for child-to-parent aggression are still unknown. This article reviews risk factors that might explain aggression among adolescents. First, an overview of aggression, with a primary focus on child-to-parent aggression is provided....
Article
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Television consumption influences perceptions of attractive female body size. However, cross-cultural research examining media influence on body ideals is typically confounded by differences in the availability of reliable and diverse foodstuffs. 112 participants were recruited from 3 Nicaraguan villages that differed in television consumption and...
Article
Full-text available
The thin ideal is the western concept of an ideally slim or underweight female body, and its omnipresence in the mass media has a negative impact on women's health. Media consumption is associated with a drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and disordered eating in women of western and/or industrialised societies. Furthermore,...
Article
Full-text available
Research has previously found a number of apparently contradictory patterns in the relationship between 'father absence' (having a non-resident father during childhood) and the expression of gender roles, as well as other sexually dimorphic traits such as aggression. In the current study we measured a battery of sexually differentiated traits in re...
Article
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
Full-text available
It has been hypothesised that facial traits such as masculinity and a healthy appearance may indicate heritable qualities in males (e.g. immunocompetence) and that, consequently, female preferences for such traits may function to increase offspring viability and health. However, the putative link between paternal facial features and offspring healt...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
Evolutionary approaches to sex differences in physical aggression weigh the potential benefits of aggression against the likely costs to inclusive fitness, with some authors focusing on the damage physical injury would do to female inclusive fitness, and others on the extent to which success in physical competition may particularly enhance male fit...
Article
Full-text available
Internalization of a thin ideal has been posited as a key risk factor in the development of pathological eating attitudes. Cross-culturally, studies have found a preference for heavier bodies in populations with reduced access to visual media compared to Western populations. As yet, however, there has been little attempt to control for confounding...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have been shown to display phenomena resembling sexual imprinting, whereby adults are attracted to features in potential mates which resemble their opposite sex parent. In humans this may be particularly so when the parent–child relationship is positive, but there are currently limited data elucidating the causes of these patterns. Here we i...
Article
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Facial averageness, symmetry, health, and femininity are positively associated with adults’ judgements of attractiveness, but little is known about the age at which preferences for individual facial traits develop. We investigated preferences for these facial traits and global attractiveness in 4- to 17-year-olds (N = 346). All age groups showed pr...
Article
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Previous research has suggested that an individual's sociosexual orientation (i.e., their willingness to engage in sexual behavior outside of long-term relationships) may influence the qualities they find attractive in a potential mate. Results, however, have not been consistent and, moreover, studies have tended to draw from specific social groups...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary theories of human attraction draw heavily upon nonhuman literature, and currently the Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis dominates research into female attraction to male facial masculinity. Although some studies have shown links between masculinity and some measures of health, other data have failed to support the Immunocompetence H...
Article
Full-text available
In the literature on human mate choice, masculine facial morphology is often proposed to be an intersexual signal of heritable immunocompetence, and hence an important component of men's attractiveness. This hypothesis has received considerable research attention, and is increasingly treated as plausible and well supported. In this article, we prop...
Article
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Objectives: Although a large literature has shown links between "father absence" during early childhood, and earlier puberty and sexual behavior in girls in Western populations, there are only a few studies which have looked at timing of reproduction, and only one of these fully incorporated childless respondents to investigate whether father abse...
Article
Full-text available
Photographs of 50 women were rated for attractiveness, health, and fertility recorded by four sets of participants-Rural-Chinese (n = 50), Chinese participants in Hong Kong (n = 50), Chinese participants living in the United Kingdom (n = 50), and participants self-identifying as "Caucasian" living in the United Kingdom. The results suggest that a p...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byprodu...
Article
Full-text available
The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness...
Article
Experience-dependent changes in mate choice preferences may confer an evolutionary benefit by shifting preferences towards traits that are advantageous for specific environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that prolonged exposure to one type of face biases perceptions of subsequently viewed faces and exposure to one type of body biases perc...
Article
Full-text available
Certain physical traits are associated with individuals’ tendency towards short-term sexual relationships (as assayed by the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory). Observers may be able to accurately detect sociosexuality at zero acquaintance. Here we seek to assess whether accurate zero-acquaintance judgements are based on an awareness of the general...
Article
Although researchers have suggested that adult women who experienced early puberty may demonstrate particularly strong preferences for masculine men, evidence for such an association is equivocal. Here we show that adult women’s preferences for masculinized male voices (i.e., male voices with lowered pitch) are negatively associated with the age at...
Article
Full-text available
Currently the Immunocompetence Hypothesis dominates research into female attrac- tion to male facial masculinity. Although studies have shown links between masculinity and pos- sible indicators of health such as fluctuating asymmetry, preferences for facial masculinity do not co-vary with preferences for apparent health (BOOTHROYD et al. 2005). Her...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not the father absence litera-ture can be successfully used to predict patterns of female preferences for facial masculinity in young adulthood. Predictions were made based on the effect father absence may have on the de-velopment of (a) sexual strategy, and (b) female 'condition', and were t...
Article
Full-text available
In order to test the assumption that female attractiveness relates to reproductive success, photographs of 47 rural Polish women taken in their youth were rated for attractiveness, and BMI at age 18 was recorded; these measures of attractiveness were then compared with their subsequent life histories. Facial attractiveness did not relate to number...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented variation in sexual behaviour between individuals leading to the notion of ‘restricted’ individuals (i.e., people who prefer long-term relationships) and ‘unrestricted’ individuals (i.e., people who are open to short-term relationships). This distinction is often referred to as sociosexual orientation. Observers hav...
Article
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We present novel methods for assessing variation in the perception of subjective cues based on a fusion of Q-methodology with computer graphics techniques. Participants first Q-sort face stimuli based upon a subjective quality; a randomization-based statistic is then calculated to test whether groups of participants differ in their perception. Comp...
Article
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This research investigated the partner characteristics that are attributed to male facial masculinity, and how these characteristics compare to those attributed to increased age or health in faces. We found that masculinity is perceived as reflecting heightened dominance, but reduced suitability as a long term partner. This is concordant with previ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated sexual imprinting in human females. Facial proportions of fathers were compared to the proportions of stimulus faces the participants found attractive. Women who rated their childhood relationships with their father highly showed a significantly stronger relationship between the proportions of their father's face and their c...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images o...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of women's preferences for male faces have variously reported preferences for masculine faces, preferences for feminine faces and no effect of masculinity-femininity on male facial attractiveness. It has been suggested that these apparently inconsistent findings are, at least partly, due to differences in the methods used to manipulate the...
Article
Full-text available
Although many accounts of facial attractiveness propose that femininity in women's faces indicates high levels of oestrogen, there is little empirical evidence in support of this assumption. Here, we used assays for urinary metabolites of oestrogen (oestrone-3-glucuronide, E1G) and progesterone (pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, P3G) to investigate the r...
Article
Previous studies of changes in women's behavior during the menstrual cycle have offered insight into the motivations underpinning women's preferences for social cues associated with possible direct benefits (e.g., investment, low risk of infection) and indirect benefits (e.g., offspring viability). Here we sought to extend this work by testing for...
Article
Variation in women's preferences for male facial masculinity may reflect variation in attraction to immunocompetence or to maturity. This paper reports two studies on (a) the interrelationships between women's preferences for masculinity, apparent health, and age in male faces and (b) the extent to which manipulating each of these characteristics a...
Article
The attractiveness of women's faces, voices, bodies, and odors appear to be interrelated, suggesting that they reflect a common trait such as femininity. We invoked novel approaches to test the interrelationships between female vocal and facial attractiveness and femininity. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between facial-metric femininity...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies demonstrating changes in women's face preferences have emphasized increased attraction to cues to possible indirect benefits (e.g. heritable immunity to infection) that coincides with periods of high fertility (e.g. the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle). By contrast, here we show that when choosing between composite fac...
Article
Physical condition (e.g., health, fertility) influences female mate preferences in many species, with females in good condition preferring "higher quality" (e.g., healthier) mates. In humans, condition may comprise both physical (e.g., health and fertility) and psychological factors (e.g., stress, anxiety, and depression). We found that women with...
Article
Full-text available
We have investigated whether preferences for masculine and feminine characteristics are correlated across two modalities, olfaction and vision. In study 1, subjects rated the pleasantness of putative male (4,16-androstadien-3-one; 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one) and female (1,3,5 (10),16-estratetraen-3-ol) pheromones, and chose the most attractive face...

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