Lutz Thilo Wasserthal

Lutz Thilo Wasserthal
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg | FAU · Department of Biology

Prof. Dr.

About

59
Publications
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Introduction
Lutz Thilo Wasserthal currently works at the Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. Lutz does research in Physiology, Entomology and Ecology. Their current project is 'Circulation and respiratory gas exchange in insects'.
Additional affiliations
November 1985 - September 2005
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Position
  • former Chair of Institute of Zoology 1, Emeritus since 2005

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
After the discovery of the flight-motor driven unidirectional gas exchange with rising PO2 in the blowfly, X-ray computer tomography (CT) was used to visualize the organization of the tracheal system in the anterior body with emphasis on the arrangement of the pathways for the airflows. The fly's head is preferentially supplied by cephalic tracheae...
Article
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The operation of the thoracic spiracular valves was analysed using anatomical and physiological techniques. Dense spiracular filter trichomes impede a diffusive gas exchange. However, the hinged posterior filter flap of the metathoracic spiracle (Sp2) opens passively during upstroke of the wings and closes by the suction of the sub-atmospheric trac...
Article
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Since DARWIN the extremely long tongues of tropical hawk moths have been interpreted to be the result of a coevolutionary race with long nectar spurs of orchids. However, extremely long-proboscis hawkmoths are not restricted to the exploitation of highly specialized sphingophilous flowers. Due to their long tongues and a swing-hovering flight they...
Article
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It is widely accepted that an efficient oxygen supply and removal of CO 2 in small flying insects are sufficiently performed by diffusion with open spiracles. This paper shows that in the tethered flying blowfly, gas exchange occurs by autoventilation and unidirectional airflow. The air is inspired through the mesothoracic spiracles (Sp1) during th...
Article
Quantitative studies of soft X-ray induced radiation damage in zone-plate-based X-ray microspectroscopy have so far concentrated on investigations of homogeneous specimens. However, more complex materials can show unexpected radiation-induced behaviour. Here a quantitative radiochemical analysis of biological tissue from Xantophan morganii praedict...
Article
Full-text available
Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase via a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemo...
Data
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Article
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Article
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In this review we provide a detailed description of Darwin's prediction of the coevolution of a long‐spurred orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale, and a long‐tongued moth, his correspondence on the subject, the history of the moth and the subsequent literature. On seeing the long spur of A. sesquipedale, Darwin predicted that its pollinator would be a mo...
Article
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Charles Darwin, Angraecum sesquipedale and Xanthopan morganii praedicta. In this review we provide a detailed description of Darwin’s prediction of the coevolution of a long-spurred orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale, and a long-tongued moth, his correspondence on the subject, the history of the moth and the subsequent literature. On seeing the long sp...
Article
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In Calliphoridae and Drosophilidae, the dorsal vessel (heart and aorta with associated venous channels) is the only connection between the thorax and the abdomen. Hemolymph oscillates between the compartments by periodic heartbeat reversal, but both the mechanism and its influence on hemocoelic and tracheal pressure have remained unclear. The pumpi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since Darwin the extremely long tongues of tropical hawkmoths have been interpreted to be the result of a coevolutionary race with long nectar spurs of orchids. However, extremely long-proboscis hawkmoths are not restricted to the exploitation of highly specialized sphingophilous flowers. Due to their long tongues and a swing-hovering flight they a...
Chapter
Wie bei allen Arthropoden verschmelzen primäre und sekundäre Leibeshöhle zu einem einheitlichen Mixocöl im Laufe der Embryonalentwicklung. Blut und interstitielle Gewebsflüssigkeit bilden daher eine einheitliche Körperflüssigkeit, die Hämolymphe. Diese setzt sich zusammen aus dem Plasma und verschiedenen Typen von Hämocyten. Die Hämolymphe hat prim...
Chapter
Insekten sind primär landlebende Tiere, deren cuticulares Exoskelett vor Verdunstung und eindringendem Wasser schützt. Die mit einer Wachsschicht bedeckte Cuticula ist als Oberfläche für den Atemgasaustausch prinzipiell ungeeignet. Nur wenn sie membranös und ohne wasserabweisende Wachsschicht ist, ermöglicht sie einen Gasaustausch. Diese Bedingunge...
Article
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Heartbeat activity in tethered adult drosophilids was recorded using a linear optosensor chip and an IR-light beam. Recording from two to five sensor elements within 250 mum along the anterior heart, it was possible to analyze periodic reversals. In intact Drosophila melanogaster and D. hydei, longer anterograde pulse periods with lower pulse rates...
Article
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Lepidopterans display biological rhythms associated with egg laying, eclosion and flight activity but the photoreceptors that mediate these behavioural patterns are largely unknown. To further our progress in identifying candidate light-input channels for the lepidopteran circadian system, we have developed polyclonal antibodies against ultraviolet...
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The role of the maxillary muscles in the uncoiling and coiling movements of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) has been examined by electromyogram recordings, combined with video analysis. The maxillary muscles of adult Lepidoptera can be divided into two groups, galeal and stipital muscles. The galea contains two basal muscles and two series of oblique longit...
Article
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As in all insects, in Lepidoptera respiratory gas is supplied directly to the tissues by air-filled cuticular tubes, the tracheae. Despite the Iack of respiratory pigments, respiration and circulation are interconnected more intensely than is generally assumed. Furthermore, both supplying systems show significant variation among lepidopteran taxa r...
Article
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The open circulatory system in Lepidoptera exhibits some specific traits contrasting with those of most other insect orders. During metamorphosis, the dorsal vessel differentiates into an abdominal heart tube and a thoraco-cephalic aorta. The thoracic aorta is continuous with the enlarged cephalic aorta from which antennal and eye arteries deviate....
Article
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The labral pilifers and the labial palps form ultrasound-sensitive hearing organs in species of two distantly related hawkmoth subtribes, the Choerocampina and the Acherontiina. Biomechanical examination now reveals that their ears represent different types of hearing organs. In hearing species of both subtribes, the labral pilifer picks up vibrati...
Article
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Intratracheal pressure during tethered flight was analyzed at the anterior spiracles and mesoscutellar air sacs in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using electronic pressure sensors. CO2 emission from the anterior spiracles and the posterior thoracic and abdominal spiracles was measured using a URAS gas analyzer with a split-specimen chamber. Experiments...
Article
We report the first record of the disk-winged bat Thyroptera discifera (Chiroptera: Thyropteridae) found in Costa Rica and present observations on morphology and echolocation behavior of this poorly known species. Diet analysis showed the presence of Lepidoptera scales and spider fragments in the bat's feces. Echolocation calls showed very low inte...
Article
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We report the first record of the disk-winged bat Thyroptera discifera (Chiroptera: Thyropteridae) found in Costa Rica and present observations on morphology and echolocation behaviour of this poorly known species. Diet analysis showed the presence of Lepidoptera scales and spider fragments in the bat’s feces. Echolocation calls showed very low int...
Article
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The labral pilifers are thought to contain auditory sensory cells in hawkmoths of two distantly related subtribes, the Choerocampina and the Acherontiina. We identified and analysed these cells using neurophysiological and neuroanatomical techniques. In the death's head hawkmoth Acherontia atropos, we found that the labral nerve carries the auditor...
Article
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In contrast to previous assumptions, mouthparts form hearing organs not only in choerocampine hawkmoths but also in some distantly related acherontiine hawkmoth species. Four of the six acherontiine species studied revealed responses to ultrasonic sounds when stimulated during tethered flight. The responses included changes in flight speed and non-...
Article
In non-diapausing pupae of the two birdwing butterfly species Troides rhadamantus and Ornithoptera priamus (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) heart activity and CO2 release rates were measured simultaneously within the initial half of pupal development. Heartbeat patterns in these pupae consist of three different types of activity: Continuous forward-puls...
Article
The morphology, ultrastructure, and innervation of the spiracles of the instars and adults of representatives of three lepidopteran families were examined: Ornithoptera priamus poseidon and Pachliopta aristolochiae (Papilionidae), Attacus atlas (Saturniidae), and Acherontia atropos (Sphingidae).Peritreme and atrium show stage- and family-specific s...
Article
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In the blowfly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the morphology of the dorsal vessel and of a new cephalic accessory pulsatile organ (CPO) were analysed with light-microscopic, SEM and TEM techniques. The CPO and neck aorta are reconstructed 3-dimensionally by computer-aided design. The pulse activity of the CPO and of the heart was measu...
Article
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In insects, the "blood" vessels of the open circulatory system inherited from ancestral arthropods are further reduced to the single dorsal vessel, offering a much simplified construction. This muscular tube is differentiated in most adults, and more rarely in larvae, into an abdominal heart and the thoraco-cephalic aorta. Lateral segmental vessels...
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Abstract: The pollination process of the extremely lang-spurred orchids Angraecum sesquipedale and A. sororium is described and documented here for the first time. The pollinaria and viscidia Ioad was examined in moths captured in central and south Madagascar. Visits to orchids by hawkmoths were rarely observed in the field and were therefore syste...
Article
This chapter focuses on the changes of the haemolymphand tracheal system during the development of the most successful flight-adapted holometabolous insect groups. It evaluates the knowledge of circulation and tracheal ventilation mechanics. In addition, in modern experimental work, both aspects have generally been treated separately. Therefore, th...
Article
Changes in the oxygen content in the tracheal system of moth pupae during discontinuous carbon dioxide release were recorded using small pO2 sensors. The sensors were designed as miniaturized Clark electrodes with relatively high mechanical stability and a very low oxygen consumption of only 1–2 pmol min-1. The results obtained with these electrode...
Article
Irradiation experiments in freshly killed black papilionids under natural sunlight and minimized wind convection showed that antennae, wings and thorax heat with different warming rates and reach different specific excess temperatures under moderate radiation. While the “low-mass” antennal clubs retain almost temperature of the ambient air, the wel...
Article
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Duftstoffe aus den abdominalen Haarbüscheln des männlichen Totenkopfschwarmers Acherontia atropos L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) Pherom ones 92 [1], Odorous Substances from the Abdom inal Hair Brushes of the Male Sphingid Moth Acherontia atropos L. (L epidoptera: Sphingidae) Hans Jürgen Bestm ann, Joachim Erler, Otto Vostrowsky From abdominal hair br...
Article
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Odorous Substances from the Abdominal Hair Brushes of the Male Sphingid Moth Acherontia atropos. From abdominal hair brushes of male hawk moths Acherontia atropos (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) 24 volatiles have been detected and identified by GC-MS analysis, caryophyllene (17), humulene (18), linalool (6), linalyl propionate (12) and geranic acid methy...
Article
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By means of gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic methods, and combined GC-electroantennogram and electrosensillogram techniques, (E)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12E)-10,12-hexadecadienal [(E,E)-bombykal is also the main constituent of the pheromone of the silver-striped hawk-mothHippotion celerio. The biological activity of the substances was de...
Article
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The flow of stained haemolymph was photographed in the wings of resting Pieris rapae, Pieris brassicae, and Gonepteryx rhamni under UV-radiation at definite intervals after abdominal application of fluorescent tetracycline. There is no circular route in the wing. All wing veins are supplied with stained haemolymph from their own bases without prefe...
Article
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1. The interrelations between haemolymph transport and tracheal ventilation in the wings have been analyzed in resting giant silk moths,Attacus atlas L., with repect to the oscillating haemolymph supply of the body. 2. Direction and relative intensity of haemolymph flows in the wing veins are recorded simultaneously with pulse activity of the mesot...
Article
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1. In the mothAttacus atlas (Saturniidae) an oscillating haemolymph ‘circulation’ and its coordination with tracheal ventilation are described. Periodic heartbeat reversal, intermittent backward haemolymph flow through the perineural sinus and two different superimposed modes of abdominal movements are analyzed by means of contact thermography and...
Article
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1. Pulsing and streaming of haemolymph in the heart, aorta and perineural sinus of unrestrained, unnarcotizedPapilio machaon L. (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) were studied. The interrelationships between heart activity, abdominal movements and activity of thoracic pulsatile organs in haemolymph transport were examined and the indirect effects of these...
Article
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The segmental heart nerves of Caligo beltrao Illiger (Brassolidae) were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Heart and alary muscles are innervated by branching processes of single multinucleate neurons (MNNs). There is one MNN situated at each segmental fan-shaped group of alary muscles. The main nerve of the MNN consists of...
Article
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The origin and orientation of the heart nerves in Sphinx ligustri and Ephestia kuehniella were investigated by scanning electron microscopy using a special technique which involved pinning the dissected specimens on a stabilizing metal pad. The heart and alary muscles in Sphinx particularly their caudal extremity were also examined by transmission...
Article
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The origin and orientation of the heart nerves in Sphinx ligustri and Ephestia kuehniella were investigated by scanning electron microscopy using a special technique which involved pinning the dissected specimens on a stabilizing metal pad. The heart and alary muscles in Sphinx particularly their caudal extremity were also examined by transmission...
Article
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The abdominal scent apparatus of male Caligo eurilochus was examined at different ages by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The glandular epithelium is covered with specialized scales and forms a pad on each side of the 4th to 6th abdominal segments. The pads are surrounded by smooth, elastic cuticle and can protrude toward the...
Article
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Haemolymph in certain Lepidoptera at rest is periodically transported from the anterior body to the abdomen and reversed by the coordinated activity of the heart, the accessory pulsatile organs and the abdomen. This oscillatory haemolymph transport is suggested to support haemolymph exchange and air ventilation in the anterior body and wings.
Article
We know from earlier work that the shrimp Hymenocera picta is able to chemically recognize food (starfish), conspecifics, their sex and sexual readiness and even individuals. This recognition is accomplished by sensory organs situated on the antennules. In the present paper the anatomical fine structure of these organs is examined (by light, scanni...
Article
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Free and unnarcotized butterflies in a vertical basking position were exposed to radiation from a halogen lamp. Warming rate and equilibrium excess temperatures were recorded by means of microthermistors on the cuticle. Living, dead, and dried specimens were irradiated partly and totally. If the wings are shaded, the excess body temperature is redu...
Article
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Wing structure in Pterophorids with normal and lobed wings is analyzed with reference to resting and flight behaviour evoked by predator induced stimuli and related to the resting position of the wings, the modes of wing folding, wing marking and typical biotopes. The resting position and folding of the wings in Pterophorids are basically different...
Article
Colonies of hydroid polyps of the genus Eudendrium Ehrenberg release planula larvae with a high yolk content. Immediately after hatching, they begin to excrete a slime rope. In the presence of water movements, larvae hatching simultaneously tend to join a trail of slime; in stagnant water, the larvae move down the rope separately. The planula larva...
Article
The setal pattern of Pterophorid first larval stages is homologized to the hypothetical pattern of the Ditrysia ancestor; it is utilized to reconstruct the ancestral pattern of the three European subfamilies and to classify them genealogically. For infra- and interspecific analysis, the setal characters of Pterophorinae are discussed in combination...

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